autonomic pathways


Summary: Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.

Top Publications

  1. da Silva G, Zmora O, Borjesson L, Mizhari N, Daniel N, Khandwala F, et al. The efficacy of a nerve stimulator (Cavermap) to enhance autonomic nerve identification and confirm nerve preservation during total mesorectal excision. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48:2354-61 pubmed
    ..005). There were no adverse events related to use of the device. CaverMap may be a useful tool to facilitate identification of the pelvic autonomic nerves during total mesorectal excision and to objectively confirm nerve preservation. ..
  2. Zafra M, Molina F, Puerto A. The neural/cephalic phase reflexes in the physiology of nutrition. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2006;30:1032-44 pubmed
  3. Hoover D, Isaacs E, Jacques F, Hoard J, Page P, Armour J. Localization of multiple neurotransmitters in surgically derived specimens of human atrial ganglia. Neuroscience. 2009;164:1170-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The putative role of multiple neurotransmitters in controlling intrinsic cardiac neurons and mediating efferent signaling to the heart indicates the possibility of novel therapeutic targets for arrhythmia prevention. ..
  4. Kitamura A, Sato W, Uneyama H, Torii K, Niijima A. Effects of intragastric infusion of inosine monophosphate and L: -glutamate on vagal gastric afferent activity and subsequent autonomic reflexes. J Physiol Sci. 2011;61:65-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that umami substances in the stomach send information through the VGA to the brain and play a role in the reflex regulation of visceral functions. ..
  5. Hoard J, Hoover D, Mabe A, Blakely R, Feng N, Paolocci N. Cholinergic neurons of mouse intrinsic cardiac ganglia contain noradrenergic enzymes, norepinephrine transporters, and the neurotrophin receptors tropomyosin-related kinase A and p75. Neuroscience. 2008;156:129-42 pubmed publisher
    ..They also suggest that neurotrophins and local NE synthesis might have important effects on neurons of the mouse ICG. ..
  6. Matsumoto T, Ohue M, Sekimoto M, Yamamoto H, Ikeda M, Monden M. Feasibility of autonomic nerve-preserving surgery for advanced rectal cancer based on analysis of micrometastases. Br J Surg. 2005;92:1444-8 pubmed
    ..Autonomic nerve-preserving surgery may be feasible for advanced rectal cancer, but study of more patients positive for micrometastases is required. ..
  7. Shah N, Groves A, Anderson D. Alternative neural crest cell fates are instructively promoted by TGFbeta superfamily members. Cell. 1996;85:331-43 pubmed
    ..Like neuregulin, BMP2 and TGFbeta1 act instructively rather than selectively. The neural crest and hematopoietic systems may therefore utilize growth factors in different ways to generate cellular diversity. ..
  8. Kawano H, Okada R, Yano K. Histological study on the distribution of autonomic nerves in the human heart. Heart Vessels. 2003;18:32-9 pubmed
    ..The different distribution patterns of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves could modify cardiac performance under both physiologic and pathologic conditions. ..
  9. Sandelin M, Zabihi S, Liu L, Wicher G, Kozlova E. Metastasis-associated S100A4 (Mts1) protein is expressed in subpopulations of sensory and autonomic neurons and in Schwann cells of the adult rat. J Comp Neurol. 2004;473:233-43 pubmed
    ..The presence of S100A4 in sensory neurons, including their processes in the central nervous system, suggests that S100A4 is involved in propagation of sensory impulses in specific fiber types. ..

More Information


  1. Liu T, Zhang C, Yu P, Chen J, Zeng D, Gan L, et al. Laparoscopic radical correction combined with extensive lymphadenectomy and pelvic autonomic nerve preservation for mid-to-low rectal cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2011;10:183-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The total metastasis rate of upward and lateral lymph nodes is 19.1%. The laparoscopic radical correction combined with extensive lymphadenectomy and PANP is feasible and safe. ..
  2. Clark C, Hasser E, Kunze D, Katz D, Kline D. Endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the nucleus tractus solitarius tonically regulates synaptic and autonomic function. J Neurosci. 2011;31:12318-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that BDNF signaling in mnTS plays a tonic role in regulating cardiovascular function, likely via modulation of primary afferent glutamatergic excitatory transmission and neural activity. ..
  3. Nardone R, Golaszewski S, Ladurner G, Tezzon F, Trinka E. A review of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the in vivo functional evaluation of central cholinergic circuits in dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2011;32:18-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Since SAI can be increased by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, TMS may help in identifying the patients who would be suitable for long-term treatment with cholinergic agents. ..
  4. Ng K, Lin C, Murray N, Burroughs A, Bostock H. Conduction and excitability properties of peripheral nerves in end-stage liver disease. Muscle Nerve. 2007;35:730-8 pubmed
    ..Although chronic membrane depolarization may be involved, the degree of depolarization in large fibers was small, and its role in the pathophysiology of neuropathy uncertain. ..
  5. Brading A, Heaton J, Hashitani H. A survey of commonalities relevant to function and dysfunction in pelvic and sexual organs. Int J Impot Res. 2008;20:1-16 pubmed
    ..It should be expected that disturbance of the function of one system will inevitably impact adjacent systems. ..
  6. Leonhardt M, Hrupka B, Langhans W. Subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation fails to block the anorectic effect of hydroxycitrate. Physiol Behav. 2004;82:263-8 pubmed
    ..Vagal afferents, however, appear to play a role in the control of intake when a high-glucose diet is consumed after a period of restrictive feeding. ..
  7. Giordano A, Cesari P, Capparuccia L, Castellucci M, Cinti S. Sema3A and neuropilin-1 expression and distribution in rat white adipose tissue. J Neurocytol. 2003;32:345-52 pubmed
    ..Finally, the presence of neuropilin-1 in some white adipocytes raises the interesting possibility that Sema3A also exerts an autocrine-paracrine role on these cells. ..
  8. Meissner K, Muth E, Herbert B. Bradygastric activity of the stomach predicts disgust sensitivity and perceived disgust intensity. Biol Psychol. 2011;86:9-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that feelings of disgust may be specifically related to increased bradygastria, which may represent a prodromal sign of vomiting. ..
  9. Lechin F, van der Dijs B. Central nervous system circuitry and peripheral neural sympathetic activity responsible for essential hypertension. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2006;3:307-25 pubmed
    ..Our therapeutical strategy is addressed to enhance the activity of the (A6)-NA + dorsal raphe-5HT binomial circuitry. ..
  10. Zsombok A, Smith B. Plasticity of central autonomic neural circuits in diabetes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1792:423-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on key autonomic brain areas associated with management of energy homeostasis and functional changes in these areas associated with the development of diabetes. ..
  11. Takenaka A, Leung R, Fujisawa M, Tewari A. Anatomy of autonomic nerve component in the male pelvis: the new concept from a perspective for robotic nerve sparing radical prostatectomy. World J Urol. 2006;24:136-43 pubmed
    ..Surgical and oncological outcomes were not mature but feasible. These tri-zonal and ganglion cell concepts may be of benefit to new surgeons undertaking nerve-sparing robotic radical prostatectomy. ..
  12. Nagashima Y, Oda H, Igaki M, Suzuki M, Suzuki A, Yada Y, et al. Application of heat- and steam-generating sheets to the lumbar or abdominal region affects autonomic nerve activity. Auton Neurosci. 2006;126-127:68-71 pubmed
    ..Based on the present findings, application of the HSG sheet to the lumbar or abdominal region may improve peripheral hemodynamics and inhibit sympathetic nerve activity, resulting in parasympathetic nerve activity dominance. ..
  13. Hejazi R, Lavenbarg T, Pasnoor M, Dimachkie M, Foran P, Herbelin L, et al. Autonomic nerve function in adult patients with cyclic vomiting syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2011;23:439-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These new data provide more insight into the pathophysiology of CVS in adults and help explain the spectrum of clinical manifestations observed in this entity. ..
  14. Cai Y, Ma W, Li M, Guo J, Li Y, Wang L, et al. Glutamatergic vestibular neurons express Fos after vestibular stimulation and project to the NTS and the PBN in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2007;417:132-7 pubmed
  15. Cortelli P, Pierangeli G. Hypothalamus and headaches. Neurol Sci. 2007;28 Suppl 2:S198-202 pubmed
  16. Ohkubo K, Watanabe I, Okumura Y, Ashino S, Kofune M, Takagi Y, et al. Combined effect of pulmonary vein isolation and ablation of cardiac autonomic nerves for atrial fibrillation. Int Heart J. 2008;49:661-70 pubmed
    ..GP can be identified by endocardial stimulation. The AF recurrence rate is decreased when a vagal response is achieved by radiofrequency ablation. ..
  17. Yamada J, Tomiyama H, Matsumoto C, Yoshida M, Shiina K, Yamashina A. Effects of azelnidipine on the autonomic functions and its influence on arterial stiffness and endothelial functions. J Cardiol. 2008;51:114-20 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this greater beneficial effect of azelnidipine on the autonomic functions did not produce any distinguishable differences in effects of azelnidipine and benidipine on the arterial stiffness and endothelial functions. ..
  18. Tanida M, Yamatodani A, Niijima A, Shen J, Todo T, Nagai K. Autonomic and cardiovascular responses to scent stimulation are altered in cry KO mice. Neurosci Lett. 2007;413:177-82 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the molecular clock mechanism in the SCN, which involves the cry1 and cry2 genes, is partially involved in mediating these autonomic and cardiovascular actions of SGFO and SLVO. ..
  19. Asahina M, Sakakibara R, Liu Z, Ito T, Yamanaka Y, Nakazawa K, et al. The raphe magnus/pallidus regulates sweat secretion and skin vasodilation of the cat forepaw pad: a preliminary electrical stimulation study. Neurosci Lett. 2007;415:283-7 pubmed
    ..Stimulation of the mid to caudal raphe magnus/pallidus elicited an increase in both sweat secretion and SkBF. The raphe magnus/pallidus may play a crucial role in skin vasomotor and sudomotor responses in the cat footpad. ..
  20. Tanaka K, Abe C, Sakaida Y, Aoki M, Iwata C, Morita H. Subsensory galvanic vestibular stimulation augments arterial pressure control upon head-up tilt in human subjects. Auton Neurosci. 2012;166:66-71 pubmed publisher
    ..1 mA below the somatosensory threshold further increased the AP (12±2 mmHg). GVS at the other amplitudes did not result in AP changes in either group. Thus, subsensory weak GVS enhances AP control at the onset of HUT. ..
  21. Abrahão L, Nyengaard J, Sasahara T, Gomes S, Oliveira F, Ladd F, et al. Asymmetric post-natal development of superior cervical ganglion of paca (Agouti paca). Int J Dev Neurosci. 2009;27:37-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Would differences in the size of target organs explain ganglia structural asymmetry? ..
  22. Lin B, Hsieh H, Lee J, Lai I, Chen C, Yu L. Luminal hydrochloric acid stimulates rapid transepithelial ion fluxes in rodent esophageal stratified squamous epithelium. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;59:525-42 pubmed
    ..The capsaicin-sensitive and muscarinic-dependent nerve pathways did not play roles in the mechanism. ..
  23. Lu C, Li M, Ho S, Lu C, Lin J, Lin T, et al. Glucose reduces the effect of water to promote orthostatic tolerance. Am J Hypertens. 2008;21:1177-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The contrasting effect of 10% glucose water vs. pure water on orthostatic tolerance is associated with increased heart rate and attenuation of the increase in peripheral vascular resistance in head-up tilt testing. ..
  24. Ajayi I, McGovern A, Driessen A, Kerr N, Mills P, Mazzone S. Hippocampal modulation of cardiorespiratory function. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2018;252-253:18-27 pubmed publisher
    ..control accompany the expression of complex emotions, indicative of limbic brain inputs onto bulbar autonomic pathways. Previous studies have focussed on the role of the prefrontal cortex in autonomic regulation...
  25. Takanishi T, Ebara T, Murasaki G, Kubo T, Tachi N, Itani T, et al. Interactive model of subsidiary behaviors, work performance and autonomic nerve activity during visual display terminal work. J Occup Health. 2010;52:39-47 pubmed
    ..The interactive model suggests that subsidiary behaviors are possibly precursory signs of errors and changes in autonomic nervous system balance. ..
  26. Kauff D, Kempski O, Koch K, Huppert S, Hoffmann K, Lang H, et al. Continuous intraoperative monitoring of autonomic nerves during low anterior rectal resection: an innovative approach for observation of functional nerve integrity in pelvic surgery. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2012;397:787-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study is the first to demonstrate that continuous intraoperative monitoring of pelvic autonomic nerves during low anterior rectal resection is feasible. ..
  27. Wang N, Gibbons C, Lafo J, Freeman R. ?-Synuclein in cutaneous autonomic nerves. Neurology. 2013;81:1604-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher ?-synuclein deposition is associated with greater autonomic dysfunction and more advanced PD. These data suggest that measures of ?-synuclein deposition in cutaneous autonomic nerves may be a useful biomarker in patients with PD. ..
  28. Schneider U, Fiedler A, Schröder B, Jaekel S, Stacke A, Hoyer D, et al. The effect of antenatal steroid treatment on fetal autonomic heart rate regulation revealed by fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG). Early Hum Dev. 2010;86:319-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The complexity of the heart rate patterns increased. Our results suggest an acute shift in the sympatho-vagal balance of fetuses exposed to betamethasone in utero toward sympathetic suppression. ..
  29. Busnardo C, Tavares R, Resstel L, Elias L, Correa F. Paraventricular nucleus modulates autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to acute restraint stress in rats. Auton Neurosci. 2010;158:51-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results show that a local PVN neurotransmission is involved in the neural pathway that controls autonomic and neuroendocrine responses, which are associated with the exposure to acute restraint stress. ..
  30. Llewellyn Smith I, Arnolda L, Pilowsky P, Chalmers J, Minson J. GABA- and glutamate-immunoreactive synapses on sympathetic preganglionic neurons projecting to the superior cervical ganglion. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1998;71:96-110 pubmed
    ..These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that all fast synaptic transmission in central autonomic pathways may be mediated by either excitatory or inhibitory amino acids...
  31. Tanaka M, Mizuno K, Tajima S, Sasabe T, Watanabe Y. Central nervous system fatigue alters autonomic nerve activity. Life Sci. 2009;84:235-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreased vagal nerve activity and increased sympathetic nerve activity are associated with central nervous system fatigue. ..
  32. Liu L, Zhang C, Yu P, Li Y, Liu T, Xu J. [Male sexual function after D(3) lymphadenectomy combined with pelvic autonomic nerve preservation by laparoscopic and open surgery for rectal cancer]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2009;12:236-8 pubmed
    ..Laparoscopic D(3) lymphadenectomy combined with PANP is not associated with higher sexual dysfunction rate, and the sexual function after laparoscopic surgery is satisfactory. ..
  33. Melo S, Nyengaard J, da Roza Oliveira F, Ladd F, Abrahão L, Machado M, et al. The developing left superior cervical ganglion of Pacas (Agouti paca). Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2009;292:966-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, apart from neuron number, different adaptive mechanisms may coexist in the autonomic nervous system to guarantee a functional homeostasis during ageing, which is not always associated with neuron losses. ..
  34. Rasmussen M, Clemmensen D, Rawashdeh Y, Tankisi H, Christensen P, Krogh K. [Surgical reinnervation with nerve anastomosis technique for neurogenic bladder and bowel dysfunction]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2011;173:2412-5 pubmed
    ..We present a historical review of crossover surgery as treatment for such deficiencies and, further, describe the principles as well as the documentation for modern surgical intervention in the form of a somato-autonomic reflex arch. ..
  35. Manganelli F, Iodice V, Provitera V, Pisciotta C, Nolano M, Perretti A, et al. Small-fiber involvement in spinobulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy's disease). Muscle Nerve. 2007;36:816-20 pubmed
  36. McMullan S, Pilowsky P. Sympathetic premotor neurones project to and are influenced by neurones in the contralateral rostral ventrolateral medulla of the rat in vivo. Brain Res. 2012;1439:34-43 pubmed publisher
  37. Ming X, Julu P, Wark J, Apartopoulos F, Hansen S. Discordant mental and physical efforts in an autistic patient. Brain Dev. 2004;26:519-24 pubmed
    ..It would be worthwhile to investigate the prevalence of discordant mental and physical efforts in autism. ..
  38. Tiran D, Chummun H. The physiological basis of reflexology and its use as a potential diagnostic tool. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2005;11:58-64 pubmed
    ..This paper explores the physiological basis of reflexology, some of the theories for the mechanism of action and its potential as a diagnostic tool. ..
  39. Takahashi Y, Otsuka K. [Cardiovascular autonomic testing for diagnosis of diabetic autonomic neuropathies]. Nihon Rinsho. 2005;63 Suppl 6:593-8 pubmed
  40. Bellinger L, Williams F, Lucente J, Pavelka J, Dixon K, Gietzen D. Autonomic efferents affect intake of imbalanced amino acid diets by rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005;81:24-31 pubmed
    ..Scopolamine attenuated the tropisetron effect between 9-12 h. While neither experiment showed effects during the recognition phase, the autonomic and serotonergic systems interact in the learned and adaptive responses to IMB diets. ..
  41. Straub R, Rauch L, Rauh L, Pongratz G. Sympathetic inhibition of IL-6, IFN-?, and KC/CXCL1 and sympathetic stimulation of TGF-? in spleen of early arthritic mice. Brain Behav Immun. 2011;25:1708-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This creates an anti-inflammatory milieu that might be responsible for the observed dual influence of the SNS on arthritis. ..
  42. Lee C, Ellis D, Daprile D. Cardiac autonomic modulation following high-intensity static muscle contractions. Am J Med Sci. 2006;332:6-12 pubmed
    ..05). These data suggest that complex alterations cardiac autonomic modulation exist for at least 10 minutes following a series of high-intensity static contractions performed at either 70% or 85% of MVC. ..
  43. Kurosawa M, Toda H, Watanabe O, Budgell B. Contribution of supraspinal and spinal structures to the responses of dorsal spinal cord blood flow to innocuous cutaneous brushing in rats. Auton Neurosci. 2007;136:96-9 pubmed
  44. Singer W, Spies J, McArthur J, Low J, Griffin J, Nickander K, et al. Prospective evaluation of somatic and autonomic small fibers in selected autonomic neuropathies. Neurology. 2004;62:612-8 pubmed
    ..Although a general agreement exists between the loss of somatic C fibers and autonomic deficits, selective involvement occurs for specific autonomic neuropathies. ..
  45. Aris E, Dotchin C, Gray W, Walker R. Autonomic function in a prevalent Tanzanian population with Parkinson's disease and its relationship to disease duration and 5-year mortality. BMC Res Notes. 2013;6:535 pubmed publisher
    ..In people with PD who are taking medication, it may be that when autonomic dysfunction presents in late stage disease it is often due to side effects of medication rather than the disease itself. ..
  46. Antunes V, Braga V, Machado B. Autonomic and respiratory responses to microinjection of ATP into the intermediate or caudal nucleus tractus solitarius in the working heart-brainstem preparation of the rat. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2005;32:467-72 pubmed
  47. Batchinsky A, Cooke W, Kuusela T, Jordan B, Wang J, Cancio L. Sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate variability during severe hemorrhagic shock in sheep. Auton Neurosci. 2007;136:43-51 pubmed
    ..RRI complexity may in part reflect vagal modulation of the heart rate. Changes in directly measured tonic sympathetic traffic do not correlate with non-invasive measures of autonomic modulation of the heart. ..
  48. Tanida M, Shen J, Niijima A, Yamatodani A, Oishi K, Ishida N, et al. Effects of olfactory stimulations with scents of grapefruit and lavender oils on renal sympathetic nerve and blood pressure in Clock mutant mice. Auton Neurosci. 2008;139:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the Clock gene might be implicated in elevating responses of autonomic and cardiovascular functions to olfactory stimulation with scent of grapefruit oil. ..
  49. Puledda F, Goadsby P. Current Approaches to Neuromodulation in Primary Headaches: Focus on Vagal Nerve and Sphenopalatine Ganglion Stimulation. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2016;20:47 pubmed publisher
    ..especially focus on vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) since they have targeted autonomic pathways that are cranial and can modulate relevant pathophysiological mechanisms...
  50. Mori A, Maruyama T, Ohashi N, Shibuya T, Sakai K, Tatebe H, et al. Impaired autonomic function in type 2 diabetic patients during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. J Gastroenterol. 2008;43:603-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study demonstrating an imbalance of autonomic function in diabetics during EGD, which may be linked to a slightly higher risk of arrhythmia. ..
  51. Breukink S, Pierie J, Hoff C, Wiggers T, Meijerink W. Technique for laparoscopic autonomic nerve preserving total mesorectal excision. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2006;21:308-13 pubmed
    ..A three- or four-port technique is used. Vascular ligation, sharp mesorectal dissection and identification and preservation of the autonomic pelvic nerves are described. ..
  52. Kosinska Kaczynska K, Bartkowiak R, Kaczynski B, Szymusik I, Wielgos M. Autonomous adrenocorticotropin reaction to stress stimuli in human fetus. Early Hum Dev. 2012;88:197-201 pubmed publisher
    ..There was also no correlation between fetal and maternal ACTH concentrations in any group. Presented data suggest that the human fetus shows autonomous ACTH reaction to stress stimulation. ..
  53. Margatho L, Godino A, Oliveira F, Vivas L, Antunes Rodrigues J. Lateral parabrachial afferent areas and serotonin mechanisms activated by volume expansion. J Neurosci Res. 2008;86:3613-21 pubmed publisher