peripheral nervous system


Summary: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.

Top Publications

  1. Scholz J, Woolf C. The neuropathic pain triad: neurons, immune cells and glia. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:1361-8 pubmed
  2. von Hilchen C, Bustos A, Giangrande A, Technau G, Altenhein B. Predetermined embryonic glial cells form the distinct glial sheaths of the Drosophila peripheral nervous system. Development. 2013;140:3657-68 pubmed publisher
    ..This characterisation of the embryonic origin and development of each glial sheath will facilitate functional studies, as they can now be addressed distinctively and genetically manipulated in the embryo. ..
  3. Kwon H, Johnson T, Joe M, Abu Asab M, Zhang J, Chan C, et al. Myocilin mediates myelination in the peripheral nervous system through ErbB2/3 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:26357-71 pubmed publisher
    The glaucoma-associated gene, myocilin, is expressed in ocular and non-ocular tissues including the peripheral nervous system, but its functions in these tissues remain poorly understood...
  4. Wakabayashi K, Mori F, Tanji K, Orimo S, Takahashi H. Involvement of the peripheral nervous system in synucleinopathies, tauopathies and other neurodegenerative proteinopathies of the brain. Acta Neuropathol. 2010;120:1-12 pubmed publisher
    Involvement of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is relatively common in some neurodegenerative proteinopathies of the brain and may be pathogenetically and diagnostically important...
  5. Kaatz M, Fast C, Ziegler U, Balkema Buschmann A, Hammerschmidt B, Keller M, et al. Spread of classic BSE prions from the gut via the peripheral nervous system to the brain. Am J Pathol. 2012;181:515-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our results decipher the centripetal spread of BSE prions along the autonomic nervous system to the central nervous system, starting already halfway in the incubation time...
  6. Ahn M, Moon C, Jeong C, Matsumoto Y, Koh C, Shin T. Upregulation of erythropoietin in rat peripheral nervous system with experimental autoimmune neuritis. Brain Res. 2010;1333:82-90 pubmed publisher
    ..However, peripheral nervous system (PNS) EPO and EPO receptor expression has not been widely studied...
  7. Burlina A, Sims K, Politei J, Bennett G, Baron R, Sommer C, et al. Early diagnosis of peripheral nervous system involvement in Fabry disease and treatment of neuropathic pain: the report of an expert panel. BMC Neurol. 2011;11:61 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with Fabry disease often remain undiagnosed until severe complications involving the kidney, heart, peripheral nerves and/or brain have arisen...
  8. Beaino W, Trifilieff E. Thiopalmitoylated peptides from the peripheral nervous system myelin p0 protein: synthesis, characterization, and neuritogenic properties. Bioconjug Chem. 2010;21:1439-47 pubmed publisher
    ..studied the effect of thiopalmitoylation on the immunogenic and neuritogenic properties of P0, the major peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin protein, which is thiopalmitoylated at cysteine 153, and described as a candidate ..
  9. Pereira J, Lebrun Julien F, Suter U. Molecular mechanisms regulating myelination in the peripheral nervous system. Trends Neurosci. 2012;35:123-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and Schwann cells (SCs) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) wrap their plasma membranes around axons to organize myelinated nerve fibers that allow rapid ..

More Information


  1. Granstedt A, Brunton B, Enquist L. Imaging the transport dynamics of single alphaherpesvirus particles in intact peripheral nervous system explants from infected mice. MBio. 2013;4:e00358-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed a protocol to image explanted, infected peripheral nervous system (PNS) ganglia and associated innervated tissue from mice infected with pseudorabies virus (PRV)...
  2. Mchedlishvili L, Mazurov V, Grassme K, Goehler K, Robl B, Tazaki A, et al. Reconstitution of the central and peripheral nervous system during salamander tail regeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E2258-66 pubmed publisher
    ..cord tissue and nonclonal neurospheres, we show that the central spinal cord represents a source of peripheral nervous system cells. Interestingly, melanophores migrate from preexisting precursors in the skin...
  3. Bare D, Becker Catania S, DeVries G. Differential localization of neuregulin-1 type III in the central and peripheral nervous system. Brain Res. 2011;1369:10-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The immunolocalization of NRG1 (III) suggests that it plays a novel role in the myelination fate of CNS axons possibly through undetermined roles in neuronal maturation, or dendritic development and activation. ..
  4. Motley W, Seburn K, Nawaz M, Miers K, Cheng J, Antonellis A, et al. Charcot-Marie-Tooth-linked mutant GARS is toxic to peripheral neurons independent of wild-type GARS levels. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002399 pubmed publisher
  5. Martens K, Bottelbergs A, Baes M. Ectopic recombination in the central and peripheral nervous system by aP2/FABP4-Cre mice: implications for metabolism research. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:1054-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, Cre activity was found in ganglia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), in adrenal medulla and in neurons throughout the central nervous system (CNS)...
  6. Han C, Jan L, Jan Y. Enhancer-driven membrane markers for analysis of nonautonomous mechanisms reveal neuron-glia interactions in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9673-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The GEEM paradigm should be applicable to the studies of both cell-autonomous and nonautonomous regulations of any cell type. ..
  7. Mason M, Tannemaat M, Malessy M, Verhaagen J. Gene therapy for the peripheral nervous system: a strategy to repair the injured nerve?. Curr Gene Ther. 2011;11:75-89 pubmed
    ..lentivirus and adeno-associated virus have been developed to deliver genes to the neurons of the peripheral nervous system, i.e. primary sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia and primary motor neurons...
  8. de la Hoz C, Castro F, Santos L, Langone F. Distribution of inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the peripheral nervous system of Lewis rats during ascending paresis and spontaneous recovery from experimental autoimmune neuritis. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2010;17:56-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are pleiotropic molecules with widespread action in autoimmune diseases...
  9. Kamikouchi A, Wiek R, Effertz T, Gopfert M, Fiala A. Transcuticular optical imaging of stimulus-evoked neural activities in the Drosophila peripheral nervous system. Nat Protoc. 2010;5:1229-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Interfering with this exoskeleton is critical in the case of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), as sensory neurons are often located directly beneath the cuticle and are associated with ..
  10. Gess B, Röhr D, Fledrich R, Sereda M, Kleffner I, Humberg A, et al. Sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 deficiency causes hypomyelination and extracellular matrix defects in the peripheral nervous system. J Neurosci. 2011;31:17180-92 pubmed publisher
    ..2-heterozygous (SVCT2(+/-)) mice to elucidate the functions of SVCT2 and ascorbic acid in the murine peripheral nervous system. SVCT2 and ascorbic acid levels were reduced in SVCT2(+/-) peripheral nerves...
  11. Chiu I, von Hehn C, Woolf C. Neurogenic inflammation and the peripheral nervous system in host defense and immunopathology. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:1063-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of the same molecular recognition pathways for danger as immune cells, and, in response to danger, the peripheral nervous system directly communicates with the immune system, forming an integrated protective mechanism...
  12. Chiu I, Phatnani H, Kuligowski M, Tapia J, Carrasco M, Zhang M, et al. Activation of innate and humoral immunity in the peripheral nervous system of ALS transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20960-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of innate immunity in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) has not been well defined...
  13. Farah M, Pan B, Hoffman P, Ferraris D, Tsukamoto T, Nguyen T, et al. Reduced BACE1 activity enhances clearance of myelin debris and regeneration of axons in the injured peripheral nervous system. J Neurosci. 2011;31:5744-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations were reproduced in part by pharmacological inhibition of BACE1. These data suggest BACE1 inhibition as a therapeutic approach to accelerate regeneration and recovery after peripheral nerve damage...
  14. Joyce Tang W, Chen J, Zeller R. Transcriptional regulation of the peripheral nervous system in Ciona intestinalis. Dev Biol. 2013;378:183-93 pubmed publisher
    The formation of the sensory organs and cells that make up the peripheral nervous system (PNS) relies on the activity of transcription factors encoded by proneural genes (PNGs)...
  15. Ubogu E. Chemokine-dependent signaling pathways in the peripheral nervous system. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;1013:17-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Pathologic chemokine signaling pathways in the peripheral nervous system can be studied in peripheral nerves using human in vitro models of the blood-nerve barrier (BNB) and a ..
  16. Newbern J, Li X, Shoemaker S, Zhou J, Zhong J, Wu Y, et al. Specific functions for ERK/MAPK signaling during PNS development. Neuron. 2011;69:91-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest a tight linkage between developmental functions of ERK/MAPK signaling and biological actions of specific RTK-activating factors. ..
  17. Caldwell J, Klevanski M, Saar M, Müller U. Roles of the amyloid precursor protein family in the peripheral nervous system. Mech Dev. 2013;130:433-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The results summarized here from invertebrate and vertebrate systems confirm that the NMJ with its accessibility, large size, and homogeneity provides a model synapse for identifying and analyzing molecular pathways of APP actions. ..
  18. Yuan A, Sasaki T, Kumar A, Peterhoff C, Rao M, LIEM R, et al. Peripherin is a subunit of peripheral nerve neurofilaments: implications for differential vulnerability of CNS and peripheral nervous system axons. J Neurosci. 2012;32:8501-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a basis for its close relationship with neurofilaments in PNS diseases associated with neurofilament accumulation. ..
  19. Buchser W, Smith R, Pardinas J, Haddox C, Hutson T, Moon L, et al. Peripheral nervous system genes expressed in central neurons induce growth on inhibitory substrates. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38101 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons exhibit increased regenerative ability compared to central nervous system neurons, even in ..
  20. Heller B, Ghidinelli M, Voelkl J, Einheber S, Smith R, Grund E, et al. Functionally distinct PI 3-kinase pathways regulate myelination in the peripheral nervous system. J Cell Biol. 2014;204:1219-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify functionally and spatially distinct PI 3-K pathways: an early, pro-myelinating pathway driven by axonal Neuregulin1 and a later-acting, laminin-integrin-dependent pathway that negatively regulates myelination. ..
  21. Grimal S, Puech S, Wagener R, Venteo S, Carroll P, Fichard Carroll A. Collagen XXVIII is a distinctive component of the peripheral nervous system nodes of ranvier and surrounds nonmyelinating glial cells. Glia. 2010;58:1977-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Collagen XXVIII is a recently discovered collagen almost exclusively expressed in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In this study, we show that this collagen is associated with nonmyelinated regions of the PNS...
  22. Cabo R, Zichichi R, Vi a E, Guerrera M, V zquez G, Garc a Su rez O, et al. Calcium-activated potassium channel SK1 is widely expressed in the peripheral nervous system and sensory organs of adult zebrafish. Neurosci Lett. 2013;555:62-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was undertaken to analyze the pattern of expression of SK1 in the zebrafish peripheral nervous system and sensory organs using RT-PRC, Westernblot and immunohistochemistry...
  23. Smith R, Lerch Haner J, Pardinas J, Buchser W, Bixby J, Lemmon V. Transcriptional profiling of intrinsic PNS factors in the postnatal mouse. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2011;46:32-44 pubmed publisher
    Neurons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) display a higher capacity to regenerate after injury than those in the central nervous system, suggesting cell specific transcriptional modules underlying axon growth and inhibition...
  24. Zujovic V, Thibaud J, Bachelin C, Vidal M, Deboux C, Coulpier F, et al. Boundary cap cells are peripheral nervous system stem cells that can be redirected into central nervous system lineages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:10714-9 pubmed publisher
    ..factor Krox20, participate in the formation of the boundary between the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. To study BC stemness, we developed a method to purify and amplify BC in vitro from Krox20(Cre/+), R26R(..
  25. Majava V, Polverini E, Mazzini A, Nanekar R, Knoll W, Peters J, et al. Structural and functional characterization of human peripheral nervous system myelin protein P2. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10300 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide an enhanced view into the structure and function of the P2 protein from human myelin, which is able to bind both monomeric lipids inside its cavity and membrane surfaces. ..
  26. Englander E. DNA damage response in peripheral nervous system: coping with cancer therapy-induced DNA lesions. DNA Repair (Amst). 2013;12:685-90 pubmed publisher
    In the absence of blood brain barrier (BBB) the DNA of peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons is exposed to a broader spectrum of endogenous and exogenous threats compared to that of the central nervous system (CNS)...
  27. Zimmermann K, Lennerz J, Hein A, Link A, Kaczmarek J, Delling M, et al. Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 5 (TRPC5) is a cold-transducer in the peripheral nervous system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:18114-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Cold sensing in the innocuous range of cold (>10-15 °C) in the mammalian peripheral nervous system is thought to rely primarily on transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels, most notably the ..
  28. Comley L, Fuller H, Wishart T, Mutsaers C, Thomson D, Wright A, et al. ApoE isoform-specific regulation of regeneration in the peripheral nervous system. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:2406-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The extent to which different apoE isoforms influence degenerative and regenerative events in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is still to be established, and the mechanisms through which apoE exerts its isoform-specific ..
  29. Makhijani K, Alexander B, Tanaka T, Rulifson E, Brückner K. The peripheral nervous system supports blood cell homing and survival in the Drosophila larva. Development. 2011;138:5379-91 pubmed publisher
    ..larval hematopoiesis as the first Drosophila model for hematopoietic colonization and the role of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) as a microenvironment in hematopoiesis...
  30. Yoshimura K, Takeda S. Hedgehog signaling regulates myelination in the peripheral nervous system through primary cilia. Differentiation. 2012;83:S78-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), Schwann cells (SCs) engage in myelination...
  31. Hinder L, Vivekanandan Giri A, McLean L, Pennathur S, Feldman E. Decreased glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates coincide with peripheral nervous system oxidative stress in a murine model of type 2 diabetes. J Endocrinol. 2013;216:1-11 pubmed publisher
  32. Fu H, Bartz J, Stephens R, McCarty D. Peripheral nervous system neuropathology and progressive sensory impairments in a mouse model of Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45992 pubmed publisher
    ..nervous system (CNS), especially in the brain, and little is known about the disease pathology in the peripheral nervous system (PNS)...
  33. Millet G, Muthalib M, Jubeau M, Laursen P, Nosaka K. Severe hypoxia affects exercise performance independently of afferent feedback and peripheral fatigue. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012;112:1335-44 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that submaximal performance in SevHyp is partly reduced by a mechanism related directly to brain oxygenation. ..
  34. Keng V, Rahrmann E, Watson A, Tschida B, Moertel C, Jessen W, et al. PTEN and NF1 inactivation in Schwann cells produces a severe phenotype in the peripheral nervous system that promotes the development and malignant progression of peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Cancer Res. 2012;72:3405-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings establish a novel mouse model that can rapidly recapitulate the onset of human neurofibroma tumorigenesis and the progression to MPNSTs...
  35. Shields S, Ahn H, Yang Y, Han C, Seal R, Wood J, et al. Nav1.8 expression is not restricted to nociceptors in mouse peripheral nervous system. Pain. 2012;153:2017-30 pubmed publisher
    ..8 in the peripheral nervous system. We demonstrate that 75% of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons express Na(v)1...
  36. Santos S, Fernandes R, Saraiva M. The heat shock response modulates transthyretin deposition in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems. Neurobiol Aging. 2010;31:280-9 pubmed publisher
    Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is a neurodegenerative disease that selectively affects the peripheral nervous system. The putative cause of this life threatening pathology is tissue deposition of mutant transthyretin (TTR), ..
  37. Thippeswamy T, Howard M, Cosgrave A, Arora D, McKay J, Quinn J. Nitric oxide-NGF mediated PPTA/SP, ADNP, and VIP expression in the peripheral nervous system. J Mol Neurosci. 2007;33:268-77 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest a complex interaction of NO-NGF with PPTA/SP and ADNP-VIP in neuron-glial communication when neurons are stressed. ..
  38. Levanti M, Montalbano G, Laura R, Ciriaco E, Cobo T, Garcia Suarez O, et al. Calretinin in the peripheral nervous system of the adult zebrafish. J Anat. 2008;212:67-71 pubmed publisher the central nervous system and chemosensory cells of the teleosts, but its presence in the peripheral nervous system of fishes is unknown...
  39. Pfeiffer Guglielmi B, Francke M, Reichenbach A, Hamprecht B. Glycogen phosphorylase isozymes and energy metabolism in the rat peripheral nervous system--an immunocytochemical study. Brain Res. 2007;1136:20-7 pubmed
    ..role of brain glycogen has drawn increasing attention, little is known about glycogen metabolism in the peripheral nervous system. In the present work, we have demonstrated immunocytochemically the ubiquitous presence of glycogen ..
  40. Anand U, Otto W, Facer P, Zebda N, Selmer I, Gunthorpe M, et al. TRPA1 receptor localisation in the human peripheral nervous system and functional studies in cultured human and rat sensory neurons. Neurosci Lett. 2008;438:221-7 pubmed publisher
    ..While TRPA1 localisation is more widespread than TRPV1, it represents a promising novel drug target for the treatment of chronic pain and hypersensitivity. ..
  41. McLenachan S, Goldshmit Y, Fowler K, Voullaire L, Holloway T, Turnley A, et al. Transgenic mice expressing the Peripherin-EGFP genomic reporter display intrinsic peripheral nervous system fluorescence. Transgenic Res. 2008;17:1103-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The hPRPH1-G reporter was used to create transgenic mice with an intrinsically fluorescent peripheral nervous system (PNS)...
  42. Micera S, Navarro X. Bidirectional interfaces with the peripheral nervous system. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2009;86:23-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Biological and technical issues are reviewed relative to the problems of electrode design and tissue injury. The last sections review different strategies for the use of peripheral neural interfaces in biomedical applications. ..
  43. Stoll G, Bendszus M, Perez J, Pham M. Magnetic resonance imaging of the peripheral nervous system. J Neurol. 2009;256:1043-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This clinical review provides practical guidelines on the performance of nerve imaging by MRI and will focus on focal lesions exemplified by case presentations. ..
  44. Yu W, Yu H, Chen Z, Strickland S. Disruption of laminin in the peripheral nervous system impedes nonmyelinating Schwann cell development and impairs nociceptive sensory function. Glia. 2009;57:850-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that laminin participates in nonmyelinating SC development and Remak bundle formation and suggest a possible role for laminin deficiency in peripheral sensory neuropathies. ..
  45. Andreu D, Guiraud D, Souquet G. A distributed architecture for activating the peripheral nervous system. J Neural Eng. 2009;6:026001 pubmed publisher
    ..It provides a powerful research device to determine the optimal, least aggressive and the most efficient way to activate the peripheral nervous system using an implanted FES system that is less invasive than other existing devices.
  46. Vosshall L, Stocker R. Molecular architecture of smell and taste in Drosophila. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2007;30:505-33 pubmed
    ..Here we provide a critical review of the recent literature in this field and comment on likely future directions. ..
  47. Benninger Y, Thurnherr T, Pereira J, Krause S, Wu X, Chrostek Grashoff A, et al. Essential and distinct roles for cdc42 and rac1 in the regulation of Schwann cell biology during peripheral nervous system development. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:1051-61 pubmed
    During peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelination, Schwann cells must interpret extracellular cues to sense their environment and regulate their intrinsic developmental program accordingly...
  48. Zhao Y, Xiao J, Ueda M, Wang Y, Hines M, Nowak T, et al. Glial elements contribute to stress-induced torsinA expression in the CNS and peripheral nervous system. Neuroscience. 2008;155:439-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, central and peripheral nervous system perturbations (transient forebrain ischemia and sciatic nerve transection, respectively) were used to ..
  49. Susuki K, Rasband M. Molecular mechanisms of node of Ranvier formation. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2008;20:616-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In the peripheral nervous system, a secreted glial protein at the nodal extracellular matrix interacts with axonal cell adhesion ..
  50. Spiegel I, Adamsky K, Eshed Y, Milo R, Sabanay H, Sarig Nadir O, et al. A central role for Necl4 (SynCAM4) in Schwann cell-axon interaction and myelination. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:861-9 pubmed
    Myelination in the peripheral nervous system requires close contact between Schwann cells and the axon, but the underlying molecular basis remains largely unknown...
  51. Beckervordersandforth R, Rickert C, Altenhein B, Technau G. Subtypes of glial cells in the Drosophila embryonic ventral nerve cord as related to lineage and gene expression. Mech Dev. 2008;125:542-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate this by the analysis of a castor loss of function mutation, which affects the number and migration of specific glial cells. ..
  52. Shekarabi M, Girard N, Rivi re J, Dion P, Houle M, Toulouse A, et al. Mutations in the nervous system--specific HSN2 exon of WNK1 cause hereditary sensory neuropathy type II. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2496-505 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunodetections indicated that this Wnk1/Hsn2 isoform was expressed in sensory components of the peripheral nervous system and CNS associated with relaying sensory and nociceptive signals, including satellite cells, Schwann ..
  53. Douglas D, Popko B. Mouse forward genetics in the study of the peripheral nervous system and human peripheral neuropathy. Neurochem Res. 2009;34:124-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The study of the peripheral nervous system is no exception; from historical strains such as the trembler mouse, which led to the identification of ..