manganese poisoning


Summary: Manganese poisoning is associated with chronic inhalation of manganese particles by individuals who work with manganese ore. Clinical features include CONFUSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and an extrapyramidal syndrome (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) that includes rigidity; DYSTONIA; retropulsion; and TREMOR. (Adams, Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1213)

Top Publications

  1. Josephs K, Ahlskog J, Klos K, Kumar N, Fealey R, Trenerry M, et al. Neurologic manifestations in welders with pallidal MRI T1 hyperintensity. Neurology. 2005;64:2033-9 pubmed
    ..Increased T1 MRI signal in the basal ganglia is a biologic marker of manganese accumulation. Recent studies have associated welding and parkinsonism, but generally without MRI corroboration...
  2. Aschner M. Manganese in the shower: mere speculation over an invalidated public health danger. Med Hypotheses. 2006;66:200-1 pubmed
  3. Racette B, Antenor J, McGee Minnich L, Moerlein S, Videen T, Kotagal V, et al. [18F]FDOPA PET and clinical features in parkinsonism due to manganism. Mov Disord. 2005;20:492-6 pubmed
    ..This case suggests that the clinical and pathophysiological features of manganese-associated parkinsonism may overlap with that of PD...
  4. Perl D, Olanow C. The neuropathology of manganese-induced Parkinsonism. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2007;66:675-82 pubmed
    ..These pathologic findings do not support the notion that manganese causes PD but rather argues that manganese-induced parkinsonism and PD are distinct and separate disease entities...
  5. Huang C. Parkinsonism induced by chronic manganese intoxication--an experience in Taiwan. Chang Gung Med J. 2007;30:385-95 pubmed
    ..This controversial topic requires further investigation...
  6. Roth J, Garrick M. Iron interactions and other biological reactions mediating the physiological and toxic actions of manganese. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003;66:1-13 pubmed
  7. Guilarte T, McGlothan J, Degaonkar M, Chen M, Barker P, Syversen T, et al. Evidence for cortical dysfunction and widespread manganese accumulation in the nonhuman primate brain following chronic manganese exposure: a 1H-MRS and MRI study. Toxicol Sci. 2006;94:351-8 pubmed
    ..This is supported by a significantly decreased, in the parietal cortex, NAA/Cr ratio suggestive of ongoing neuronal degeneration or dysfunction...
  8. Mena I, Marin O, Fuenzalida S, Cotzias G. Chronic manganese poisoning. Clinical picture and manganese turnover. Neurology. 1967;17:128-36 pubmed
  9. Sikk K, Taba P, Haldre S, Bergquist J, Nyholm D, Zjablov G, et al. Irreversible motor impairment in young addicts--ephedrone, manganism or both?. Acta Neurol Scand. 2007;115:385-9 pubmed
    ..Parkinsonian syndrome related to intravenous use of a "designer" psychostimulant, derived from pseudoephedrine using potassium permanganate as the oxidant, has been observed in drug addicts in Estonia...

More Information


  1. De Bie R, Gladstone R, Strafella A, Ko J, Lang A. Manganese-induced Parkinsonism associated with methcathinone (Ephedrone) abuse. Arch Neurol. 2007;64:886-9 pubmed
    Manganese intoxication may lead to a levodopa-resistant, akinetic-rigid syndrome. A new form of presumed manganese poisoning has been reported in drug-addicted persons from Russia, Ukraine, and Estonia who have intravenously injected ..
  2. Stepens A, Logina I, Liguts V, Aldins P, Eksteina I, Platkajis A, et al. A Parkinsonian syndrome in methcathinone users and the role of manganese. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:1009-17 pubmed publisher
    ..A distinctive extrapyramidal syndrome has been observed in intravenous methcathinone (ephedrone) users in Eastern Europe and Russia...
  3. Schneider J, Decamp E, Koser A, Fritz S, Gonczi H, Syversen T, et al. Effects of chronic manganese exposure on cognitive and motor functioning in non-human primates. Brain Res. 2006;1118:222-31 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that chronic exposure to levels of manganese achieved in this study may have detrimental effects on behavior, cognition and motor functioning...
  4. Kenangil G, Ertan S, Sayilir I, Ozekmekci S. Progressive motor syndrome in a welder with pallidal T1 hyperintensity on MRI: A two-year follow-up. Mov Disord. 2006;21:2197-200 pubmed
    ..Since chronic Mn toxicity may cause serious disability and irreversible neurological disturbances, we strongly believe that it is necessary to inform welders and their employers about this potential hazard...
  5. Jiang Y, Mo X, Du F, Fu X, Zhu X, Gao H, et al. Effective treatment of manganese-induced occupational Parkinsonism with p-aminosalicylic acid: a case of 17-year follow-up study. J Occup Environ Med. 2006;48:644-9 pubmed
    ..The clinical intervention has largely been unsuccessful. We report a 17-year follow-up study of effective treatment of occupational Mn parkinsonism with sodium para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS)...
  6. Fabiani G, Rogacheski E, Wiederkehr J, Khouri J, Cianfarano A. Liver transplantation in a patient with rapid onset parkinsonism-dementia complex induced by manganism secondary to liver failure. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2007;65:685-8 pubmed
    ..The treatment of this form of parkinsonism is controversial and liver-transplantation should not be considered as first line treatment but as an alternative one...
  7. Klos K, Ahlskog J, Josephs K, Fealey R, Cowl C, Kumar N. Neurologic spectrum of chronic liver failure and basal ganglia T1 hyperintensity on magnetic resonance imaging: probable manganese neurotoxicity. Arch Neurol. 2005;62:1385-90 pubmed
    ..The magnetic resonance imaging signal changes are characteristic of manganese accumulation, which has been neuropathologically confirmed. Manganese neurotoxicity may result in additional neurologic findings besides parkinsonism...
  8. Yamada M, Ohno S, Okayasu I, Okeda R, Hatakeyama S, Watanabe H, et al. Chronic manganese poisoning: a neuropathological study with determination of manganese distribution in the brain. Acta Neuropathol. 1986;70:273-8 pubmed
    An autopsy case of a 52-year-old man suffering from chronic manganese poisoning (CMP) is reported with determination of the manganese distribution in the brain. The patient had been working in a manganese ore crushing plant since 1965...
  9. Wen J, Yang B, Ren D. [Effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on neurogenesis and learning & memory in manganese poisoning mice]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2010;30:295-8 pubmed
    To study the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on neurogenesis and learning & memory of manganese poisoning mice.
  10. Kessler K, Wunderlich G, Hefter H, Seitz R. Secondary progressive chronic manganism associated with markedly decreased striatal D2 receptor density. Mov Disord. 2003;18:217-8 pubmed
  11. Schaumburg H, Herskovitz S, Cassano V. Occupational manganese neurotoxicity provoked by hepatitis C. Neurology. 2006;67:322-3 pubmed
    ..Antiviral therapy was accompanied by resolution of increased blood manganese levels and neurologic improvement. Even asymptomatic hepatic dysfunction may impair manganese clearance and place highly exposed persons at risk for toxicity...
  12. Ono K, Komai K, Yamada M. Myoclonic involuntary movement associated with chronic manganese poisoning. J Neurol Sci. 2002;199:93-6 pubmed
    ..Chelation therapy resulted in improvement of the myoclonic IVM and MRI abnormalities. This is the first report of Mn poisoning characterized by myoclonic IVM without parkinsonism...
  13. Olanow C, Good P, Shinotoh H, Hewitt K, Vingerhoets F, Snow B, et al. Manganese intoxication in the rhesus monkey: a clinical, imaging, pathologic, and biochemical study. Neurology. 1996;46:492-8 pubmed
    ..The accumulation of iron and aluminum suggests that iron/aluminum-induced oxidant stress may contribute to the damage associated with Mn toxicity...
  14. Meral H, Kutukcu Y, Atmaca B, Ozer F, Hamamcioglu K. Parkinsonism caused by chronic usage of intravenous potassium permanganate. Neurologist. 2007;13:92-4 pubmed
    ..Manganese intoxication may be associated with abnormal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (abnormal signal hyperintensity in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra on T1-weighted images)...
  15. Sanotsky Y, Lesyk R, Fedoryshyn L, Komnatska I, Matviyenko Y, Fahn S. Manganic encephalopathy due to "ephedrone" abuse. Mov Disord. 2007;22:1337-43 pubmed
    We describe the clinical and neuroimaging features of 6 drug-abuse patients with self-inflicted manganese poisoning. The patients injected a home-brewed mixture called "ephedrone" (slang term) that contained manganese to ..
  16. Varlibas F, Delipoyraz I, Yuksel G, Filiz G, Tireli H, Gecim N. Neurotoxicity following chronic intravenous use of "Russian cocktail". Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2009;47:157-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We report similar toxicity in three patients following the use of a mixture similar to methcathinone: potassium permanganate, ephedrine, and aspirin...
  17. Myślicka D, Zuk M, Dziurkowski M. [Ephedron dependence--case report]. Psychiatr Pol. 2011;45:79-85 pubmed
    ..The risk arising from the intravenous route of ephedrone administration, as well as the potential for manganese poisoning were highlighted...
  18. Finley J. Does environmental exposure to manganese pose a health risk to healthy adults?. Nutr Rev. 2004;62:148-53 pubmed
    ..However, a thorough review of the literature shows very weak cause-and-effect relationships that do not justify concern about environmental exposure to manganese for most of the North American population. ..
  19. Xu B, Wu S, Lu C, Deng Y, Liu W, Wei Y, et al. Oxidative stress involvement in manganese-induced alpha-synuclein oligomerization in organotypic brain slice cultures. Toxicology. 2013;305:71-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings revealed Mn might exert its neurotoxic effects by oxidative stress-mediated alpha-synuclein oligomerization in organotypic brain slices. ..
  20. He X, Zhang D. [Study of period and area factors of manganese exposure on the postnatal development of brain in rats]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2005;34:161-3 pubmed
    ..In the interferential factors of manganese exposure on the postnatal brain development, both the Mn-exposure period and the areas were the important ones. ..
  21. Ranasinghe J, Liu M, Sakakibara Y, Suiko M. Manganese administration induces the increased production of dopamine sulfate and depletion of dopamine in Sprague-Dawley rats. J Biochem. 2000;128:477-80 pubmed
    Sprague-Dawley rats were used as an experimental model for investigating the effects of manganese poisoning on the serum levels of unsulfated and sulfated forms of dopamine and its biosynthetic precursors, L-Dopa and L-p-tyrosine...
  22. Davis J. Inhalation health risks of manganese: an EPA perspective. Neurotoxicology. 1999;20:511-8 pubmed
    ..Among the specific issues that remain to be resolved are the form or forms of Mn emitted from the combustion of MMT in gasoline and the potentially different toxic properties of Mn in different forms. ..
  23. Jankovic J. Searching for a relationship between manganese and welding and Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 2005;64:2021-8 pubmed
    ..The controversy has stimulated this review, the primary aim of which is to critically and objectively examine the evidence or lack of evidence for a relationship among welding, manganese, parkinsonism, and PD. ..
  24. Yang Y, An J, Wang Y, Luo W, Wang W, Mei X, et al. Intrastriatal manganese chloride exposure causes acute locomotor impairment as well as partial activation of substantia nigra GABAergic neurons. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011;31:171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore we come to the conclusion that Mn exposure can induce acute or chronic neurotoxicity via different neuronal elements. ..
  25. Rugless F, Bhattacharya A, Succop P, Dietrich K, Cox C, Alden J, et al. Childhood exposure to manganese and postural instability in children living near a ferromanganese refinery in Southeastern Ohio. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2014;41:71-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, low-level blood Pb was also negatively associated with balance outcomes. We conclude that Mn exposure and low-level blood Pb are significantly associated with poor postural balance. ..
  26. Dressler J, Schulz K, Klemm M, Schüttig R, Beuthin A, Felscher D. Lethal manganese-cadmium intoxication. A case report. Arch Toxicol. 2002;76:449-51 pubmed
    ..These concentrations are higher than normal levels by a factor of about 100. A subacute or chronic manganese-cadmium absorption must be assumed. ..
  27. Greger J. Nutrition versus toxicology of manganese in humans: evaluation of potential biomarkers. Neurotoxicology. 1999;20:205-12 pubmed
    ..Serum manganese concentrations in combination with brain MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scans, and perhaps a battery of neurofunctional tests, appear to be the best ways to monitor excessive exposure to manganese. ..
  28. Mackenzie Ross S. Delayed cognitive and psychiatric symptoms following methyl iodide and manganese poisoning: Potential for misdiagnosis. Cortex. 2016;74:427-39 pubmed publisher
    ..There is no antidote to methyl iodide or manganese poisoning. Successful treatment requires early diagnosis and cessation of exposure, but neurotoxic syndromes are ..
  29. Nam J, Kim K. Abnormal motor function and the expression of striatal dopamine D2 receptors in manganese-treated mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31:1894-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, our results suggest that the disturbance of dopaminergic neurotransmission mediated by DRD2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of Mn neurotoxicity. ..
  30. Duguay A, Plaa G. Ketone potentiation of intrahepatic cholestasis: effect of two aliphatic isomers. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1997;50:41-52 pubmed
    ..Quantitative differences, however, exist between both ketones with respect to their ability to potentiate both models. Comparison between the two isomers was established, and MnBK was found to be more potent than MiBK. ..
  31. Deng Y, Xu Z, Xu B, Tian Y, Xin X, Deng X, et al. The protective effect of riluzole on manganese caused disruption of glutamate-glutamine cycle in rats. Brain Res. 2009;1289:106-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that Glu-Gln cycle was disrupted by Mn exposure dose dependently; riluzole might antagonize Mn neurotoxicity. ..
  32. Van Gossum A, Neve J. Trace element deficiency and toxicity. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 1998;1:499-507 pubmed
    ..Recent data about trace elements deficiency and toxicity are indicated in this review. ..
  33. Kim E, Kim Y, Cheong H, Cho S, Shin Y, Sakong J, et al. Pallidal index on MRI as a target organ dose of manganese: structural equation model analysis. Neurotoxicology. 2005;26:351-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, PI on MRI reflects target organ dose of occupational manganese exposure. ..
  34. McDougall S, Reichel C, Farley C, Flesher M, Der Ghazarian T, Cortez A, et al. Postnatal manganese exposure alters dopamine transporter function in adult rats: Potential impact on nonassociative and associative processes. Neuroscience. 2008;154:848-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Mn-induced alterations in striatal functioning may have long-term impact on associative and nonassociative behavior. ..
  35. Hernroth B, Baden S, Holm K, André T, Söderhäll I. Manganese induced immune suppression of the lobster, Nephrops norvegicus. Aquat Toxicol. 2004;70:223-31 pubmed
    ..This identifies a potential harm that also exists for other organisms and should be considered when increasing the distribution of bioavailable Mn, as has been done through recently introduced applications of the metal. ..
  36. Misiewicz A, Radwan K, Januszewska B. [Urinary excretion of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid, 17-hydroxycorticosteroids and 17-ketosteroids in workers producing iron-manganese alloys]. Med Pr. 1991;42:169-72 pubmed
    ..It can be assumed that this increase results from organism's physiological adaptation to negative environmental and working conditions. ..
  37. Bowler R, Gocheva V, Harris M, Ngo L, Abdelouahab N, Wilkinson J, et al. Prospective study on neurotoxic effects in manganese-exposed bridge construction welders. Neurotoxicology. 2011;32:596-605 pubmed publisher
    ..As the Mn exposure of the Bay Bridge welders frequently exceeded the Cal-OSHA TLV of 0.2 mg Mn/m(3) at baseline, a more stringent preventive measure is recommended for confined space welding. ..
  38. Slikker W, Andersen M, Bogdanffy M, Bus J, Cohen S, Conolly R, et al. Dose-dependent transitions in mechanisms of toxicity: case studies. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2004;201:226-94 pubmed
    ..The case studies formed the basis for technical discourse at two scientific workshops in 2003. ..
  39. Ellingsen D, Chashchin V, Haug E, Chashchin M, Tkachenko V, Lubnina N, et al. An epidemiological study of reproductive function biomarkers in male welders. Biomarkers. 2007;12:497-509 pubmed
    ..Lower inhibin B concentrations in the patients could point to a functional impairment of the testicular Sertoli cells, that may be caused by a welding fume component or other factors in their work environment. ..
  40. Vezina M, Plaa G. Methyl isobutyl ketone metabolites and potentiation of the cholestasis induced in rats by a manganese-bilirubin combination or manganese alone. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1988;92:419-27 pubmed
    ..These results show that MIBK metabolites can potentiate the cholestatic form of hepatotoxicity. ..
  41. Tuschl K, Clayton P, Gospe S, Gulab S, Ibrahim S, Singhi P, et al. Syndrome of hepatic cirrhosis, dystonia, polycythemia, and hypermanganesemia caused by mutations in SLC30A10, a manganese transporter in man. Am J Hum Genet. 2012;90:457-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This is an important step toward understanding Mn transport and its role in neurodegenerative processes...
  42. Roels H, Ortega Eslava M, Ceulemans E, Robert A, Lison D. Prospective study on the reversibility of neurobehavioral effects in workers exposed to manganese dioxide. Neurotoxicology. 1999;20:255-71 pubmed
  43. Finkelstein Y, Milatovic D, Aschner M. Modulation of cholinergic systems by manganese. Neurotoxicology. 2007;28:1003-14 pubmed
    ..These observations highlight the importance of studying the role of the CNS cholinergic systems in manganese-mediated neurotoxicity. ..
  44. Rivera Mancía S, Rios C, Montes S. Manganese accumulation in the CNS and associated pathologies. Biometals. 2011;24:811-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In the case of patients with chronic liver failure it would be worthwhile to test a low-Mn diet in order to ameliorate symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy possibly related to Mn accumulation. ..
  45. Patel A, Pandya A. Effects of chronic manganese toxicity on tissue levels and urinary excretion of nicotinamide nucleotides in rats. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1994;13:307-9 pubmed
    ..There was a progressive increase in the excretion of TNN during the experimental period. TNN levels in blood and urine might serve as useful biological indicators of Mn toxicity. ..
  46. Menezes Filho J, Novaes C, Moreira J, Sarcinelli P, Mergler D. Elevated manganese and cognitive performance in school-aged children and their mothers. Environ Res. 2011;111:156-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary caregiver's IQ is likewise associated to Mn exposure, suggesting that, in this situation, children's cognition may be affected directly and indirectly by Mn exposure. ..
  47. Rybakowska I, Kaletha K, Sein Anand J. [Manganism--neurodegenerative brain disease caused by poisoning with manganese]. Przegl Lek. 2012;69:555-6 pubmed
    ..Manganism is a neurodegenerative disease of brain caused by intoxication by manganese and its excessive accumulation in this tissue. Some of the clinical symptoms observed in this disease resemble these observed in Parkinson disease...
  48. Milatovic D, Gupta R, Yu Y, Zaja Milatovic S, Aschner M. Protective effects of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents against manganese-induced oxidative damage and neuronal injury. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011;256:219-26 pubmed publisher
  49. Elsner R, Spangler J. Neurotoxicity of inhaled manganese: public health danger in the shower?. Med Hypotheses. 2005;65:607-16 pubmed
  50. He X, Zhang D, Chen W, Huang S. [Toxicity of manganese exposure on the postnatal development of dopaminergic neurons of nigra substance in rat brain]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2004;33:666-7 pubmed
    ..To study the poisonous effect of manganese on the postnatal development of dopaminergic neurons of nigra substance in rat brain...
  51. Sahni V, Léger Y, Panaro L, Allen M, Giffin S, Fury D, et al. Case report: a metabolic disorder presenting as pediatric manganism. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:1776-9 pubmed
    ..In this article we describe the investigation of a pediatric case of manganism using both clinical and environmental assessment methods...
  52. Beuter A, Edwards R, deGeoffroy A, Mergler D, Hundnell K. Quantification of neuromotor function for detection of the effects of manganese. Neurotoxicology. 1999;20:355-66 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the effects are age-related for levels of MnB 7.5, micrograms/L...
  53. Brenneman K, Cattley R, Ali S, Dorman D. Manganese-induced developmental neurotoxicity in the CD rat: is oxidative damage a mechanism of action?. Neurotoxicology. 1999;20:477-87 pubmed
    ..These findings do not support the hypothesis that oxidative damage, as assessed by ROS and 8-OHdG levels, is a mechanism of action in Mn-induced developmental neurotoxicity in the CD rat...
  54. Markich S, Brown P, Jeffree R, Lim R. Valve movement responses of Velesunio angasi (Bivalvia: Hyriidae) to manganese and uranium: an exception to the free ion activity model. Aquat Toxicol. 2000;51:155-75 pubmed
    ..g. Al or Zn), raises questions regarding the veracity of the FIAM. A detailed examination of the conceptual development of the FIAM is required to probe its apparent failure to describe several metal-organism interactions...
  55. Djamshidian A, Sanotsky Y, Matviyenko Y, O Sullivan S, Sharman S, Selikhova M, et al. Increased reflection impulsivity in patients with ephedrone-induced Parkinsonism. Addiction. 2013;108:771-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This may reflect specific damage to anterior cingulate- basal ganglia loops. ..
  56. Zheng W. Neurotoxicology of the brain barrier system: new implications. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2001;39:711-9 pubmed
    ..Contemporary research questions arising from this growing understanding show enormous promises for brain researchers, toxicologists, and clinicians...
  57. Dukhande V, Malthankar Phatak G, Hugus J, Daniels C, Lai J. Manganese-induced neurotoxicity is differentially enhanced by glutathione depletion in astrocytoma and neuroblastoma cells. Neurochem Res. 2006;31:1349-57 pubmed
    ..Because BSO treatment accentuated Mn toxicity in both cell lines, GSH may act to combat Mn toxicity. Thus, further investigation in oxidative stress mediated by glutathione depletion will unravel new Mn toxicity mechanism(s)...
  58. Reaney S, Kwik Uribe C, Smith D. Manganese oxidation state and its implications for toxicity. Chem Res Toxicol. 2002;15:1119-26 pubmed
  59. Normandin L, Hazell A. Manganese neurotoxicity: an update of pathophysiologic mechanisms. Metab Brain Dis. 2002;17:375-87 pubmed
    ..These consequences may result in impaired astrocytic-neuronal interactions and play a major role in the pathophysiology of manganese neurotoxicity...
  60. Shukakidze A, Lazriev I, Mitagvariya N. Behavioral impairments in acute and chronic manganese poisoning in white rats. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2003;33:263-7 pubmed
    ..Chronic manganese poisoning (daily p.o...
  61. Olanow C. Manganese-induced parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1012:209-23 pubmed
    ..This is of particular relevance in differentiating patients with parkinsonism due to manganese intoxication from patients with idiopathic PD who have incidental manganese exposure...
  62. Aboud A, Tidball A, Kumar K, Neely M, Ess K, Erikson K, et al. Genetic risk for Parkinson's disease correlates with alterations in neuronal manganese sensitivity between two human subjects. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33:1443-9 pubmed publisher
  63. Marreilha dos Santos A, Lopes Santos M, Batoréu M, Aschner M. Prolactin is a peripheral marker of manganese neurotoxicity. Brain Res. 2011;1382:282-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Male Wistar rats (180-200g) were injected intraperitoneally with 4 or 8 doses of Mn (10mg/kg). Mn exposure was evaluated by analysis of Mn levels in brain and blood along with biochemical end-points (see below)...
  64. Zhou Y, Chen J, Shi X, Zou Y, Shen X, Zheng W, et al. [Early biological markers of manganese exposure]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2010;28:645-7 pubmed
    ..To explore the biomarker of manganese exposure by analyzing the relationship between manganese exposure and concentration in some biomaterials...
  65. Brenner S. Searching for a relationship between manganese and welding and Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 2006;66:458-9 pubmed
  66. Meyer Baron M, Knapp G, Schäper M, van Thriel C. Performance alterations associated with occupational exposure to manganese--a meta-analysis. Neurotoxicology. 2009;30:487-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The rigorous quantitative approach was especially appropriate for revealing exposure-effect relationships, but information about individual cumulative exposure would enhance the potential for risk assessment of manganese...
  67. Khan K, Andress J, Smith P. Toxicity of subacute intravenous manganese chloride administration in beagle dogs. Toxicol Pathol. 1997;25:344-50 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that acute treatment of beagle dogs with MnCl2 causes severe hepatotoxicity and hypotension with reflex tachycardia and suggest that dogs are very sensitive to toxic effects of Mn...
  68. Yin Z, Jiang H, Lee E, Ni M, Erikson K, Milatovic D, et al. Ferroportin is a manganese-responsive protein that decreases manganese cytotoxicity and accumulation. J Neurochem. 2010;112:1190-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that (i) Mn exposure promotes Fpn protein expression, (ii) Fpn expression reduces net Mn accumulation, and (iii) reduces cytotoxicity associated with exposure to this metal...
  69. Malecki E. Manganese toxicity is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and DNA fragmentation in rat primary striatal neurons. Brain Res Bull. 2001;55:225-8 pubmed
    ..Rescue of neurons by apoptosis inhibitors may be helpful in treating manganese toxicity and similar neurodegenerative processes...
  70. da Silva Santos V, Bisen Hersh E, Yu Y, Cabral I, Nardini V, Culbreth M, et al. Anthocyanin-rich açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) extract attenuates manganese-induced oxidative stress in rat primary astrocyte cultures. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2014;77:390-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies may be profitably directed at potential protective effects of açaí anthocyanins in nutraceutical formulations...
  71. Zwingmann C, Leibfritz D, Hazell A. Brain energy metabolism in a sub-acute rat model of manganese neurotoxicity: an ex vivo nuclear magnetic resonance study using [1-13C]glucose. Neurotoxicology. 2004;25:573-87 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, stimulated astrocytic glucose oxidation and glutamine synthesis may be associated with astrocytic pathology and altered astrocytic-neuronal metabolic trafficking in manganese neurotoxicity...
  72. Cordova F, Aguiar A, Peres T, Lopes M, Gonçalves F, Pedro D, et al. Manganese-exposed developing rats display motor deficits and striatal oxidative stress that are reversed by Trolox. Arch Toxicol. 2013;87:1231-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we establish Trolox™ as a potential neuroprotective agent given its efficacy in reversing the Mn-induced neurodevelopmental effects...
  73. Vezina M, Plaa G. Potentiation by methyl isobutyl ketone of the cholestasis induced in rats by a manganese-bilirubin combination or manganese alone. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987;91:477-83 pubmed
    ..These results show that MIBK can potentiate cholestatic as well as necrogenic forms of hepatotoxicity...
  74. Calne D, Chu N, Huang C, Lu C, Olanow W. Manganism and idiopathic parkinsonism: similarities and differences. Neurology. 1994;44:1583-6 pubmed
    ..Further studies are likely to yield more discriminants between PD and manganism. For example, PET with raclopride may be useful in early cases of manganism, and MRI may be helpful in patients with advanced manganism...
  75. Agarwal G, Sharma R, Bhatnagar V. Assessment of latent manganese toxicity as a prognostic factor following surgery for biliary atresia. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2008;18:22-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate latent manganese toxicity in patients with biliary atresia and to use this tool to predict the prognosis of biliary atresia patients after Kasai's portoenterostomy...
  76. Hirata Y, Suzuno H, Tsuruta T, Oh hashi K, Kiuchi K. The role of dopamine transporter in selective toxicity of manganese and rotenone. Toxicology. 2008;244:249-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that the dopamine transporter dose not confer cytotoxicity to manganese and rotenone...
  77. Hernández Bonilla D, Schilmann A, Montes S, Rodriguez Agudelo Y, Rodríguez Dozal S, Solís Vivanco R, et al. Environmental exposure to manganese and motor function of children in Mexico. Neurotoxicology. 2011;32:615-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between exposure to Mn and motor function of school aged children...
  78. Milatovic D, Yin Z, Gupta R, Sidoryk M, Albrecht J, Aschner J, et al. Manganese induces oxidative impairment in cultured rat astrocytes. Toxicol Sci. 2007;98:198-205 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that induction of oxidative stress, associated mitochondrial dysfunction, and alterations in GLN/glutamate cycling in astrocytes represent key mechanisms by which Mn exerts its neurotoxicity...
  79. Davis J. Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl: health risk uncertainties and research directions. Environ Health Perspect. 1998;106 Suppl 1:191-201 pubmed
    ..To support an improved health risk characterization, further investigation is needed in the areas of health effects, emission characterization, and exposure analysis...
  80. Grant D, Blazak W, Brown G. The reproductive toxicology of intravenously administered MnDPDP in the rat and rabbit. Acta Radiol. 1997;38:759-69 pubmed
    ..The reproductive toxicology of mangafodipir trisodium (MnDPDP, Teslascan), a new hepatobiliary MR contrast agent, was evaluated in rats and rabbits...
  81. Lee E, Yin Z, Milatovic D, Jiang H, Aschner M. Estrogen and tamoxifen protect against Mn-induced toxicity in rat cortical primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes. Toxicol Sci. 2009;110:156-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results suggest that both E2 and TX offer effective therapeutic means for neuroprotection against Mn-induced toxicity...
  82. Settivari R, Levora J, Nass R. The divalent metal transporter homologues SMF-1/2 mediate dopamine neuron sensitivity in caenorhabditis elegans models of manganism and parkinson disease. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:35758-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies describe a C. elegans model for manganism and show that DMT-1 homologues contribute to Mn(2+)- and PD-associated DA neuron vulnerability...
  83. Kim Y, Kim B, Hong Y, Shin M, Yoo H, Kim J, et al. Co-exposure to environmental lead and manganese affects the intelligence of school-aged children. Neurotoxicology. 2009;30:564-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The aims of the study were to investigate the association of community level of Pb and Mn with the intelligence of school-aged children, and to explore the implications of joint exposure to these two heavy metals...