nervous system alcohol induced disorders


Summary: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.

Top Publications

  1. Roberto M, Bajo M, Crawford E, Madamba S, Siggins G. Chronic ethanol exposure and protracted abstinence alter NMDA receptors in central amygdala. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:988-96 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that CET induces reversible neuroadaptations in synaptic function, gene expression, and protein composition of NMDAR at CeA synapses. ..
  2. Margolis E, Fields H, Hjelmstad G, Mitchell J. Delta-opioid receptor expression in the ventral tegmental area protects against elevated alcohol consumption. J Neurosci. 2008;28:12672-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings demonstrate the protective nature of VTA DORs and identify an important new target for therapeutic intervention for alcoholism. ..
  3. Nixon K, Hughes P, Amsel A, Leslie S. NMDA receptor subunit expression following early postnatal exposure to ethanol. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2002;139:295-9 pubmed
    ..There was no change in NR2B, thus suggesting that ethanol exposure during the third-trimester equivalent produces distinct effects on the NMDA receptor. ..
  4. Chen C, Kuhn P, Advis J, Sarkar D. Chronic ethanol consumption impairs the circadian rhythm of pro-opiomelanocortin and period genes mRNA expression in the hypothalamus of the male rat. J Neurochem. 2004;88:1547-54 pubmed
    ..Our findings identified the vulnerability of the body's clock machinery and its opioidergic system to chronic alcohol drinking. ..
  5. Cairney S, Clough A, Jaragba M, Maruff P. Cognitive impairment in Aboriginal people with heavy episodic patterns of alcohol use. Addiction. 2007;102:909-15 pubmed
  6. Whitcher L, Klintsova A. Postnatal binge-like alcohol exposure reduces spine density without affecting dendritic morphology in rat mPFC. Synapse. 2008;62:566-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that neonatal alcohol exposure has a persistent effect on the spine density in mPFC that can explain functional deficits in this cortical area. ..
  7. Guerri C, Pascual M. Mechanisms involved in the neurotoxic, cognitive, and neurobehavioral effects of alcohol consumption during adolescence. Alcohol. 2010;44:15-26 pubmed publisher
  8. Olney J, Wozniak D, Farber N, Jevtovic Todorovic V, Bittigau P, Ikonomidou C. The enigma of fetal alcohol neurotoxicity. Ann Med. 2002;34:109-19 pubmed
  9. Vemuri M, Chetty C. Alcohol impairs astrogliogenesis by stem cells in rodent neurospheres. Neurochem Int. 2005;47:129-35 pubmed

More Information

Publications113 found, 100 shown here

  1. Wand G. The anxious amygdala: CREB signaling and predisposition to anxiety and alcoholism. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:2697-9 pubmed
    ..These provocative data suggest that a CREB-dependent neuromechanism underlies high anxiety-like and excessive alcohol-drinking behavior. ..
  2. Oinonen K, Sterniczuk R. An inverse relationship between typical alcohol consumption and facial symmetry detection ability in young women. J Psychopharmacol. 2007;21:507-18 pubmed
  3. Yoon H, Chung J, Oh J, Min H, Kim D, Cheon Y, et al. Differential activation of face memory encoding tasks in alcohol-dependent patients compared to healthy subjects: an fMRI study. Neurosci Lett. 2009;450:311-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the absence of right hemispheric lateralization in alcohol-dependent patients is consistent with the hypothesis that the right hemisphere is more vulnerable to alcohol-related damage than the left hemisphere. ..
  4. Costa L, Guizzetti M, Burry M, Oberdoerster J. Developmental neurotoxicity: do similar phenotypes indicate a common mode of action? A comparison of fetal alcohol syndrome, toluene embryopathy and maternal phenylketonuria. Toxicol Lett. 2002;127:197-205 pubmed
    ..Further in vivo and in vitro studies should validate this hypothesis and elucidate possible molecular targets...
  5. Congeddu E, Saba L, Porcella A, Sanna A, Marchese G, Lobina C, et al. Molecular characterization of new polymorphisms at the beta2, alpha1, gamma2 GABA(A) receptor subunit genes associated to a rat nonpreferring ethanol phenotype. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;110:289-97 pubmed
  6. de Gortari P, Romero F, Cisneros M, Joseph Bravo P. Acute administration of alcohol modulates pyroglutamyl amino peptidase II activity and mRNA levels in rat limbic regions. Neurochem Int. 2005;46:347-56 pubmed
    ..The response was region-specific in magnitude, tendency and kinetics. These results give further support for brain PPII regulation in conditions that modulate the activity of TRHergic neurons. ..
  7. Kozan R, Ayyildiz M, Yildirim M, Agar E. The effects of ethanol intake and withdrawal on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats. Brain Res Bull. 2006;71:111-5 pubmed
    ..alpha-Tocopherol has anti-convulsive effect on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in effective dose. ..
  8. Alvarez Leal M, Aguirre R, Careaga Olivares J, Zúñiga Charles M, Hernández Téllez A. Arylsulfatase A levels in patients with chronic alcoholism. Arch Med Res. 2000;31:585-8 pubmed
    ..We consider that these findings may be useful for evaluating the psychiatric state as a prognosis in chronic alcoholic patients, and should be a routine laboratory test in alcoholic patients. ..
  9. Vergne D, Anton R. Aripiprazole: a drug with a novel mechanism of action and possible efficacy for alcohol dependence. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2010;9:50-4 pubmed
    ..g., those with impulsive disorders), or non-responsive to available treatments. Early results with aripiprazole are promising and warrant further exploration. ..
  10. Volkow N, Wang G, Telang F, Fowler J, Logan J, Jayne M, et al. Profound decreases in dopamine release in striatum in detoxified alcoholics: possible orbitofrontal involvement. J Neurosci. 2007;27:12700-6 pubmed
  11. Lesscher H, Wallace M, Zeng L, Wang V, Deitchman J, McMahon T, et al. Amygdala protein kinase C epsilon controls alcohol consumption. Genes Brain Behav. 2009;8:493-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These mice have a >50% reduction in the abundance of PKCepsilon in the amygdala compared with wild-type mice. We conclude that amygdala PKCepsilon is important for ethanol consumption in mice. ..
  12. Murphy C, Bangash I, Varma A. Dry beriberi mimicking the Guillain-Barre syndrome. Pract Neurol. 2009;9:221-4 pubmed publisher
    ..CSF was normal. He improved with high dose vitamin replacement and physiotherapy but remains dependent on a Zimmer frame for mobility and a splint for wrist drop...
  13. Sun A, Wang Q, Simonyi A, Sun G. Resveratrol as a therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases. Mol Neurobiol. 2010;41:375-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal here is to provide a better understanding of the mode of action of resveratrol and its possible use as a potential therapeutic agent to ameliorate stroke damage as well as other age-related neurodegenerative disorders. ..
  14. Páez A, Shannon M, Maher T, Quang L. Effects of 4-methylpyrazole on ethanol neurobehavioral toxicity in CD-1 mice. Acad Emerg Med. 2004;11:820-6 pubmed
    ..05). Pretreatment with 4-MP significantly prolonged ethanol neurobehavioral toxicity in CD-1 mice, presumably by inhibiting its metabolism by ADH. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate this interaction. ..
  15. Celik T, Kayir H, Ceyhan M, Demirtas S, Cosar A, Uzbay I. CPP and amlodipine alter the decrease in basal acetylcholine and choline release by audiogenic stimulus in hippocampus of ethanol-withdrawn rats in vivo. Brain Res Bull. 2004;64:243-9 pubmed
  16. Budygin E, Phillips P, Wightman R, Jones S. Terminal effects of ethanol on dopamine dynamics in rat nucleus accumbens: an in vitro voltammetric study. Synapse. 2001;42:77-9 pubmed
    ..High concentrations of ethanol can locally depress DA release, and this may correlate with the sedative actions of the drug. ..
  17. Pirlich M, Kiok K, Sandig G, Lochs H, Grune T. Alpha-lipoic acid prevents ethanol-induced protein oxidation in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Neurosci Lett. 2002;328:93-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the radical scavenging properties of LC are effective to ameliorate ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. ..
  18. Pfefferbaum A. Alcoholism damages the brain, but does moderate alcohol use?. Lancet Neurol. 2004;3:143-4 pubmed
  19. Liang T, Carr L. Regulation of alpha-synuclein expression in alcohol-preferring and -non preferring rats. J Neurochem. 2006;99:470-82 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that regulation of rat Snca gene expression is complex and may contribute to alcohol preference in the iP rats. ..
  20. Yokota O, Tsuchiya K, Terada S, Oshima K, Ishizu H, Matsushita M, et al. Alcoholic cerebellar degeneration: a clinicopathological study of six Japanese autopsy cases and proposed potential progression pattern in the cerebellar lesion. Neuropathology. 2007;27:99-113 pubmed
    ..In addition, cerebellar symptoms may frequently occur if the anterior superior hemisphere and anterior inferior hemisphere, in addition to the anterior superior vermis, are involved. ..
  21. Bennett B, Carosone Link P, Beeson M, Gordon L, Phares Zook N, Johnson T. Genetic dissection of quantitative trait locus for ethanol sensitivity in long- and short-sleep mice. Genes Brain Behav. 2008;7:659-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic background effects can be important in detection of single QTL; combining this information with the generation of congenics on both backgrounds, as described here, is a powerful approach for fine mapping QTL. ..
  22. Ruigrok Y, Buskens E, Rinkel G. Attributable risk of common and rare determinants of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2001;32:1173-5 pubmed
    ..Further reduction can be achieved by reducing the prevalence of the modifiable risk factors alcohol consumption, smoking, and hypertension. ..
  23. Lukoyanov N, Paula Barbosa M. Memantine, but not dizocilpine, ameliorates cognitive deficits in adult rats withdrawn from chronic ingestion of alcohol. Neurosci Lett. 2001;309:45-8 pubmed
    ..In contrast, treatment with MK-801 was found to be ineffective in preventing cognitive alterations associated with chronic alcohol consumption and withdrawal. ..
  24. Viola A, Nicoli F, Confort Gouny S, Le Fur Y, Ranjeva J, Cozzone P. [Applications of magnetic resonance spectrometry (MRS) in the study of metabolic disturbances affecting the brain in alcoholism]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2001;49:718-25 pubmed
  25. Fernández Torre J, Agirre Z, Martínez Martínez M, Rodriguez E. Subacute encephalopathy with seizures in alcoholics (SESA syndrome): report of an unusual case. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2006;37:215-8 pubmed
    ..Our case demonstrates that in SESA syndrome, convulsive (generalized tonic-clonic) and nonconvulsive (complex partial) seizures may coexist. ..
  26. Chaudhri N, Sahuque L, Cone J, Janak P. Reinstated ethanol-seeking in rats is modulated by environmental context and requires the nucleus accumbens core. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:2288-98 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the shell may normally inhibit incorrect behavioral responses. ..
  27. Popova N, Ivanova E. 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist p-MPPI attenuates acute ethanol effects in mice and rats. Neurosci Lett. 2002;322:1-4 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that 5-HT(1A) receptors were involved in the mechanisms of the ethanol-induced hypothermia and sleep, and that 5-HT(1A) antagonist increased acute ethanol tolerance. ..
  28. Lowery E, Spanos M, Navarro M, Lyons A, Hodge C, Thiele T. CRF-1 antagonist and CRF-2 agonist decrease binge-like ethanol drinking in C57BL/6J mice independent of the HPA axis. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:1241-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, normal HPA axis signaling is not necessary to achieve binge-like drinking behavior. ..
  29. Heaton M, Mitchell J, Paiva M. Overexpression of NGF ameliorates ethanol neurotoxicity in the developing cerebellum. J Neurobiol. 2000;45:95-104 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that endogenous overexpression of neurotrophic factors, which have previously been shown to protect against ethanol neurotoxicity in culture, can serve a similar protective function in the intact animal. ..
  30. Gruss M, Henrich M, Konig P, Hempelmann G, Vogel W, Scholz A. Ethanol reduces excitability in a subgroup of primary sensory neurons by activation of BK(Ca) channels. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;14:1246-56 pubmed
  31. Blednov Y, Cravatt B, Boehm S, Walker D, Harris R. Role of endocannabinoids in alcohol consumption and intoxication: studies of mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007;32:1570-82 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that increased endocannabinoid signaling increased ethanol consumption owing to decreased acute ethanol intoxication. ..
  32. Warnault V, Houchi H, Barbier E, Pierrefiche O, Vilpoux C, Ledent C, et al. The lack of CB1 receptors prevents neuroadapatations of both NMDA and GABA(A) receptors after chronic ethanol exposure. J Neurochem. 2007;102:741-52 pubmed
    ..We conclude that lifelong deletion of CB1 receptors impairs neuroadaptations of both NMDA and GABA(A) receptors after chronic ethanol exposure and that the endocannabinoid/CB1 receptor system is involved in alcohol dependence. ..
  33. Olney J, Ishimaru M, Bittigau P, Ikonomidou C. Ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing brain. Apoptosis. 2000;5:515-21 pubmed
  34. Huang M, Liu W, Li Q, Wu C. Endogenous released ascorbic acid suppresses ethanol-induced hydroxyl radical production in rat striatum. Brain Res. 2002;944:90-6 pubmed
    ..These results provide first evidence that release of endogenous ascorbic acid in the striatum plays an important role in preventing oxidative stress by trapping hydroxyl radical in the central nervous system. ..
  35. Jordan J, Lloyd T, Pardo Villamizar C. Case 16: chasing the dragon. MedGenMed. 2007;9:14 pubmed
  36. Vinod K, Yalamanchili R, Thanos P, Vadasz C, Cooper T, Volkow N, et al. Genetic and pharmacological manipulations of the CB(1) receptor alter ethanol preference and dependence in ethanol preferring and nonpreferring mice. Synapse. 2008;62:574-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The antagonists of the CB(1) receptor may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of ethanol dependence. ..
  37. Ihara H, Berrios G, London M. Group and case study of the dysexecutive syndrome in alcoholism without amnesia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000;68:731-7 pubmed
    ..Due to its subtlety, this would be potentially left out, unless appropriate behavioural measures were administered. This condition may prevent patients with alcoholism from achieving full recovery and benefiting from rehabilitation. ..
  38. Carden W, Alexander G, Friedman D, Daunais J, Grant K, Mu J, et al. Chronic ethanol drinking reduces native T-type calcium current in the thalamus of nonhuman primates. Brain Res. 2006;1089:92-100 pubmed
  39. Liu Y, Chen G, Ma C, Bower K, Xu M, Fan Z, et al. Overexpression of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta sensitizes neuronal cells to ethanol toxicity. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:2793-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that GSK3beta may be a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity, and its expression status in a cell may determine ethanol vulnerability. ..
  40. Hewitt A, Walker K, Kobus S, Poklewska Koziell M, Reynolds J, Brien J. Differential effects of chronic ethanol exposure on cytochrome P450 2E1 and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the maternal-fetal unit of the guinea pig. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2010;32:164-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The CEE-induced increase in liver CYP2E1 activity and potential oxidative stress in the maternal-fetal unit may play a role in the pathogenesis of ethanol teratogenicity. ..
  41. Pentney R, Mullan B, Felong A, Dlugos C. The total numbers of cerebellar granule neurons in young and aged Fischer 344 and Wistar-Kyoto rats do not change as a result of lengthy ethanol treatment. Cerebellum. 2002;1:79-89 pubmed
    ..The results presented here show that consumption of ethanol over long periods of time had no effect on the total numbers of cerebellar GN or the granular layer volumes in young or aged F344 or WKY rats. ..
  42. Sivilotti M, Juurlink D, Burns M. Withholding 4-methylpyrazole pretreatment in suspected toxic alcohol ingestions. Acad Emerg Med. 2005;12:574-5 pubmed
  43. Tomás M, Marin P, Megías L, Egea G, Renau Piqueras J. Ethanol perturbs the secretory pathway in astrocytes. Neurobiol Dis. 2005;20:773-84 pubmed
    ..Most of these effects were dose-dependent. These alterations, together with those previously reported concerning biosynthesis of glycoconjugates, provide novel insights into how ethanol impairs brain development...
  44. Luo X, Kranzler H, Zuo L, Lappalainen J, Yang B, Gelernter J. ADH4 gene variation is associated with alcohol dependence and drug dependence in European Americans: results from HWD tests and case-control association studies. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:1085-95 pubmed
    ..SNP2 or SNP6 was the marker genetically closest to the functional risk loci for both alcohol dependence and drug dependence...
  45. Xiao C, Ye J. Ethanol dually modulates GABAergic synaptic transmission onto dopaminergic neurons in ventral tegmental area: role of mu-opioid receptors. Neuroscience. 2008;153:240-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This dual modulation of GABAergic transmission by ethanol may be an important mechanism underlying alcohol addiction...
  46. Houchi H, Warnault V, Barbier E, Dubois C, Pierrefiche O, Ledent C, et al. Involvement of A2A receptors in anxiolytic, locomotor and motivational properties of ethanol in mice. Genes Brain Behav. 2008;7:887-98 pubmed
  47. Leggio L, Garbutt J, Addolorato G. Effectiveness and safety of baclofen in the treatment of alcohol dependent patients. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2010;9:33-44 pubmed
    ..g., baclofen's biobehavioral mechanisms, different baclofen doses, differences in severity and in alcoholic subtypes, different formulations of baclofen, possible combination of baclofen with other medications)...
  48. Boutros N, Reid M, Petrakis I, Campbell D, Torello M, Krystal J. Similarities in the disturbances in cortical information processing in alcoholism and aging: a pilot evoked potential study. Int Psychogeriatr. 2000;12:513-25 pubmed
    ..To examine the hypothesis that chronic alcohol use causes accelerated aging of the brain...
  49. Al Rejaie S, Dar M. Antagonism of ethanol ataxia by intracerebellar nicotine: possible modulation by mouse cerebellar nitric oxide and cGMP. Brain Res Bull. 2006;69:187-96 pubmed
    ..Overall, the results of the present investigation demonstrate a functional correlation between cerebellar nitric oxide messenger system and the behavioral interaction between nicotine and ethanol...
  50. Biermann T, Bonsch D, Reulbach U, Kornhuber J, Bleich S. Dopamine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression in peripheral blood of patients undergoing alcohol withdrawal. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2007;114:1081-4 pubmed
    ..A significant difference in D1 receptor expression (T = 2.361; p = 0.035) in terms of up-regulation could be shown, though there were no significant changes concerning D2, NMDA1 or NMDA2B receptor expression...
  51. Harper C. The neurotoxicity of alcohol. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2007;26:251-7 pubmed
  52. Lawrence A. Regulation of alcohol-seeking by orexin (hypocretin) neurons. Brain Res. 2010;1314:124-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The evidence to date would suggest a role for orexins in alcohol use, and integration of orexin-containing neurons in reward-seeking circuitry. There are however still many unanswered questions, some of which are canvassed herein...
  53. Rothblat D, Rubin E, Schneider J. Effects of chronic alcohol ingestion on the mesostriatal dopamine system in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2001;300:63-6 pubmed
    ..It is possible that the observed changes in DA synthesis and re-uptake measures result in altered intracellular and extracellular DA levels, perhaps contributing to the addictive properties of alcohol...
  54. Lucas L, McMillen B. Differences in brain area concentrations of dopamine and serotonin in Myers' High Ethanol Preferring (mHEP) and outbred rats. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2002;109:279-92 pubmed
    ..Differences in neurotransmitter function in these brain areas may account for some of the behavioral differences previously demonstrated between the two sexes of the mHEP rat...
  55. Stork O, Kojima N, Stork S, Kume N, Obata K. Resistance to alcohol withdrawal-induced behaviour in Fyn transgenic mice and its reversal by ifenprodil. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002;105:126-35 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that Fyn can modulate alcohol consumption and prevent behavioural changes during alcohol withdrawal, possibly via phosphorylation of NR2B...
  56. Sullivan E, Harding A, Pentney R, Dlugos C, Martin P, Parks M, et al. Disruption of frontocerebellar circuitry and function in alcoholism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003;27:301-9 pubmed
    ..Martin and Mitchell H. Parks; and Functional reorganization of the brain in alcoholism: neuroimaging evidence, by John E. Desmond, S.H. Annabel Chen, Michelle R. Pryor, Eve De Rosa, Adolf Pfefferbaum, and Edith V. Sullivan...
  57. Miki T, Harris S, Wilce P, Takeuchi Y, Bedi K. Effects of alcohol exposure during early life on neuron numbers in the rat hippocampus. I. Hilus neurons and granule cells. Hippocampus. 2003;13:388-98 pubmed
    ..The effects on hilar neuron numbers, observed as a result of such short periods of ethanol treatment, appeared to be transitory...
  58. Ikegami Y, Goodenough S, Inoue Y, Dodd P, Wilce P, Matsumoto I. Increased TUNEL positive cells in human alcoholic brains. Neurosci Lett. 2003;349:201-5 pubmed
    ..TUNEL-positive cells observed in the present study may indicate DNA damage induced by ethanol-related overproduction of reactive oxygen species...
  59. Wilhelm J, Bayerlein K, Hillemacher T, Reulbach U, Frieling H, Kromolan B, et al. Short-term cognition deficits during early alcohol withdrawal are associated with elevated plasma homocysteine levels in patients with alcoholism. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2006;113:357-63 pubmed
    ..68, 95% CI=0.57-0.79, p=0.004). The present results show first evidence of an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels in alcoholics and cognition deficits in patients undergoing alcohol withdrawal...
  60. Maccioni P, Colombo G, Carai M. Blockade of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor and alcohol dependence: preclinical evidence and preliminary clinical data. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2010;9:55-9 pubmed
  61. Ho M, Segre M. Individual and combined effects of ethanol and cocaine on the human dopamine transporter in neuronal cell lines. Neurosci Lett. 2001;299:229-33 pubmed
    ..These data support the hypothesis that the DAT may be a common neural substrate for cocaine and ethanol in dopaminergic neurons and it may be involved in the psychological effects of both addictions...
  62. Rosenberg P, Rosse R. Impulsive suicide attempts by a patient with alcoholic dementia. Psychosomatics. 2003;44:415-6 pubmed
  63. Carvan M, Loucks E, Weber D, Williams F. Ethanol effects on the developing zebrafish: neurobehavior and skeletal morphogenesis. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2004;26:757-68 pubmed
    ..This work provides the foundation for identifying genes and pathways involved in developmental alcohol toxicity in vertebrates, leading to a more complete mechanistic understanding of fetal alcohol disorders in humans...
  64. Resch G, Shridharani S, Millington W, Garris D, Simpson C. Glycyl-glutamine in nucleus accumbens reduces ethanol intake in alcohol preferring (P) rats. Brain Res. 2005;1058:73-81 pubmed
    ..These findings support the broader concept that select forebrain opioid-responsive neural sites may influence the development or expression of alcohol abuse syndromes in animal models or humans...
  65. Margret C, Chappell T, Li C, Jan T, Matta S, Elberger A, et al. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) reduces the size of the forepaw representation in forepaw barrel subfield (FBS) cortex in neonatal rats: relationship between periphery and central representation. Exp Brain Res. 2006;172:387-96 pubmed
    ..The present findings of PAE-related alterations in sensory periphery and the central cortical representation may underlie deficits in sensorimotor integration reported among children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder...
  66. McIntosh C, Chick J. Managing neurological problems in heavy drinkers. Practitioner. 2006;250:22, 25, 27-9 passim pubmed
  67. Biggio F, Gorini G, Caria S, Murru L, Sanna E, Follesa P. Flumazenil selectively prevents the increase in alpha(4)-subunit gene expression and an associated change in GABA(A) receptor function induced by ethanol withdrawal. J Neurochem. 2007;102:657-66 pubmed
    ..These observations are the first molecular and functional evidence that show a selective inhibition by flumazenil of the up-regulation of alpha(4)-subunit expression elicited by ethanol withdrawal...
  68. Miki T, Harris S, Wilce P, Takeuchi Y, Bedi K. Effects of age and alcohol exposure during early life on pyramidal cell numbers in the CA1-CA3 region of the rat hippocampus. Hippocampus. 2004;14:124-34 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that pyramidal cells in the hippocampus may be vulnerable to a relatively high dose of ethanol exposure during this short period of early postnatal life...
  69. Okamoto H, Miki T, Lee K, Yokoyama T, Kuma H, Wang Z, et al. Oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) in rat hippocampus is depleted by chronic ethanol consumption. Neurosci Lett. 2006;406:76-80 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that this deficit may be related to the demyelination that is commonly observed in human alcoholics and that this may contribute to the functional and cognitive deficits...
  70. Johansson S, Fuchs A, Okvist A, Karimi M, Harper C, Garrick T, et al. Validation of endogenous controls for quantitative gene expression analysis: application on brain cortices of human chronic alcoholics. Brain Res. 2007;1132:20-8 pubmed
    ..Prescribed and non-prescribed drugs, pathological or environmental conditions along with alcohol abuse may differentially influence expression of reference genes...
  71. Surges R, Beck S, Niesen W, Weiller C, Rijntjes M. Sudden bilateral blindness in Wernicke's encephalopathy: case report and review of the literature. J Neurol Sci. 2007;260:261-4 pubmed
    ..Although we critically discuss other potential etiologies, we conclude that the complex clinical picture with initial sudden blindness is an unusual presentation of WE...
  72. Saito M, Chakraborty G, Mao R, Wang R, Cooper T, Vadasz C, et al. Ethanol alters lipid profiles and phosphorylation status of AMP-activated protein kinase in the neonatal mouse brain. J Neurochem. 2007;103:1208-18 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that the ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration observed in mice during restricted developmental periods is accompanied by alterations in both the lipid content and the activity of AMPK in the brain...
  73. Goodlett C, Horn K. Mechanisms of alcohol-induced damage to the developing nervous system. Alcohol Res Health. 2001;25:175-84 pubmed
  74. Stephens D, Brown G, Duka T, Ripley T. Impaired fear conditioning but enhanced seizure sensitivity in rats given repeated experience of withdrawal from alcohol. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;14:2023-31 pubmed
    ..Withdrawal kindling of sensitivity to anxiogenic events does not seem to occur under circumstances which give rise to kindling of seizure sensitivity...
  75. Ma W, Li B, Maric D, Zhao W, Lin H, Zhang L, et al. Ethanol blocks both basic fibroblast growth factor- and carbachol-mediated neuroepithelial cell expansion with differential effects on carbachol-activated signaling pathways. Neuroscience. 2003;118:37-47 pubmed
    ..These effects in vitro may help to explain the devastating effects of prenatal ethanol exposure in vivo, which contribute to the fetal alcohol syndrome...
  76. Bleich S, Kornhuber J. Relationship between plasma homocysteine levels and brain atrophy in healthy elderly individuals. Neurology. 2003;60:1220; author reply 1220 pubmed
  77. Isayama R, Leite P, Lima J, Uziel D, Yamasaki E. Impact of ethanol on the developing GABAergic system. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2009;292:1922-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes and brings new data on neurodevelopmental aspects of the GABAergic system with FASD in experimental telencephalic models...
  78. Sinha S, Prashantha D, Thennarasu K, Umamaheshwara Rao G, Satishchandra P. Refractory status epilepticus: a developing country perspective. J Neurol Sci. 2010;290:60-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To analyse the underlying causes, therapeutic response and outcomes of convulsive refractory status epilepticus (RSE)...
  79. Rothmeier J, Friese M, Willemsen F, Froescher W. Subacute encephalopathy with seizures in chronic alcoholism (SESA syndrome). Clin Electroencephalogr. 2001;32:186-90 pubmed
    ..The MRI showed enhanced occipital signals in the T2-weighted sequence, which resolved together with the clinical findings...
  80. Richardson D, Byrnes M, Brien J, Reynolds J, Dringenberg H. Impaired acquisition in the water maze and hippocampal long-term potentiation after chronic prenatal ethanol exposure in the guinea-pig. Eur J Neurosci. 2002;16:1593-8 pubmed
    ..Hippocampal dysfunction could contribute importantly to the cognitive and behavioural deficits resulting from chronic prenatal ethanol exposure...
  81. McHam S, Hull A. A 47-year-old alcoholic man with progressive abnormal gait. Cleve Clin J Med. 2002;69:904-8 pubmed
    ..Supportive care is important to prevent complications, but no treatment has been found to be effective in treating the illness. Patient outcomes vary considerably and are difficult to predict...
  82. Dunty W, Zucker R, Sulik K. Hindbrain and cranial nerve dysmorphogenesis result from acute maternal ethanol administration. Dev Neurosci. 2002;24:328-42 pubmed
    ..These hindbrain and cranial nerve abnormalities are discussed in the context of the genesis of human alcohol-related birth defects and neurodevelopmental disorder...
  83. Kim H, Ha M, Park C, Park S, Youn S, Kang S, et al. StAR and steroidogenic enzyme transcriptional regulation in the rat brain: effects of acute alcohol administration. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;115:39-49 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that StAR may take part in brain steroidogenesis along with steroidogenic enzymes and that various neurosteroids are synthesized differentially to meet local demands...
  84. Chen C, Kuhn P, Advis J, Sarkar D. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters the expression of period genes governing the circadian function of beta-endorphin neurons in the hypothalamus. J Neurochem. 2006;97:1026-33 pubmed
    ..These data suggest for the first time that fetal exposure to ethanol significantly alters the clock mechanisms governing the circadian function of beta-endorphin neurons...
  85. Saeed Dar M. Co-modulation of acute ethanol-induced motor impairment by mouse cerebellar adenosinergic A1 and GABA(A) receptor systems. Brain Res Bull. 2006;71:287-95 pubmed
    ..e., GABA(A) at the granule cells and adenosine A(1) on axons and axonal terminals of the granule cells) and act as co-modulators of ethanol ataxia...
  86. McMillen B, Joyner P, Parmar C, Tyer W, Williams H. Effects of NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist drugs on the volitional consumption of ethanol by a genetic drinking rat. Brain Res Bull. 2004;64:279-84 pubmed
    ..This interaction should be explored further for its therapeutic potential and to better understand the control by central neuronal systems of the consumption of ethanol...
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    ..In WLP rats, repeated acamprosate treatment prevents the ethanol-induced increase in plasma beta-endorphin level. It may be concluded that acamprosate modulates the endogenous opioid system...
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    ..These studies demonstrate developmental differences in neonatal nociceptive responses after withdrawal from acute EtOH and implicate a role for specific PKC isozymes in EtOH withdrawal-associated allodynia and hyperalgesia...
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    ..To examine the association between alcohol use and cognitive decline in a longitudinal study of a representative elderly community sample free of dementia at baseline...
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    ..We also observed an increased expression of the 5-HT(1A) receptor in ipsapirone-treated control neurons...
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    ..Additional studies are needed to establish the effectiveness of these antioxidants to prevent the loss of neurons which accompanies in utero exposure to ethanol...