nitrergic neurons


Summary: Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.

Top Publications

  1. Moroz L. Localization of putative nitrergic neurons in peripheral chemosensory areas and the central nervous system of Aplysia californica. J Comp Neurol. 2006;495:10-20 pubmed
    ..The highly selective NADPH-d labeling revealed here suggests the presence of NOS in sensory areas both in the CNS and the peripheral organs of Aplysia and implies a role for NO as a modulator of chemosensory processing. ..
  2. Racekova E, Martončíková M, Mitrusková B, Cizkova D, Orendacova J. Age-related changes of NADPH-diaphorase positivity in the rat rostral migratory stream. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2005;25:1093-105 pubmed
    ..The presence of NO producing cells in the RMS of neonatal adult and aging rats indicates, that this proliferating and migratory area is under the influence of NO throughout the entire life of the animals. ..
  3. Cayre M, Malaterre J, Scotto Lomassese S, Holstein G, Martinelli G, Forni C, et al. A role for nitric oxide in sensory-induced neurogenesis in an adult insect brain. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:2893-902 pubmed
    ..Our results also demonstrate the stimulatory effect of NO on mushroom body neuroblast proliferation. Altogether, these data strongly suggest a key role for NO in environmentally induced neurogenesis. ..
  4. Matsumoto K, Hosoya T, Tashima K, Namiki T, Murayama T, Horie S. Distribution of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel-expressing nerve fibers in mouse rectal and colonic enteric nervous system: relationship to peptidergic and nitrergic neurons. Neuroscience. 2011;172:518-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the TRPV1-expressing nerve and its neurotransmitters regulate various functions of the large intestine. ..
  5. Ott S, Elphick M. Nitric oxide synthase histochemistry in insect nervous systems: Methanol/formalin fixation reveals the neuroarchitecture of formaldehyde-sensitive NADPH diaphorase in the cockroach Periplaneta americana. J Comp Neurol. 2002;448:165-85 pubmed
    ..These divergent architectures may result in different spatiotemporal dynamics of NO diffusion and suggest species differences in the role of NO in the mushroom bodies. ..
  6. Moroz L, Dahlgren R, Boudko D, Sweedler J, Lovell P. Direct single cell determination of nitric oxide synthase related metabolites in identified nitrergic neurons. J Inorg Biochem. 2005;99:929-39 pubmed
    ..This situation creates controversies in both identification of nitrergic neurons and the selection of reliable reporters of NOS activity in heterogeneous cell populations...
  7. Jabari S, da Silveira A, de Oliveira E, Neto S, Quint K, Neuhuber W, et al. Partial, selective survival of nitrergic neurons in chagasic megacolon. Histochem Cell Biol. 2011;135:47-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we assessed the quantitative balance between cholinergic and nitrergic neurons representing the main limbs of excitatory and inhibitory colonic motor innervation, respectively...
  8. Martinelli G, Friedrich V, Holstein G. L-citrulline immunostaining identifies nitric oxide production sites within neurons. Neuroscience. 2002;114:111-22 pubmed
    ..We conclude that nitric oxide is produced and released at focal sites within neurons that are identifiable using L-citrulline as a marker. ..
  9. Miller S, Narasimhan R, Schmalz P, Soffer E, Walsh R, Krishnamurthi V, et al. Distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal and nitrergic neurons in normal and diabetic human appendix. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2008;20:349-57 pubmed
    ..The data also suggest that the human appendix, a readily available source of human tissue, may be useful model for the study of motility disorders...

More Information


  1. Taguchi T, Suita S, Masumoto K, Nada O. Universal distribution of c-kit-positive cells in different types of Hirschsprung's disease. Pediatr Surg Int. 2003;19:273-9 pubmed
  2. Overend J, Wilson W, Martin W. Biphasic neurogenic vasodilatation in the bovine intraocular long posterior ciliary artery: involvement of nitric oxide and an additional unidentified neurotransmitter. Br J Pharmacol. 2005;145:1001-8 pubmed
    ..The neurotransmitter mediating the second component remains to be determined but is unlikely to be CGRP, substance P or VIP. ..
  3. Rychlik A, Gonkowski S, Nowicki M, Calka J. Inflammatory bowel disease affects density of nitrergic nerve fibers in the mucosal layer of the canine gastrointestinal tract. Can J Vet Res. 2017;81:129-136 pubmed
    ..Immunoreactivity to neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase, which is a marker of nitrergic neurons, in samples of the mucosal layer in the duodenum, jejunum, and descending colon was studied using the single ..
  4. Giraldez Perez R, Gaytan S, Pasaro R. Cholinergic and nitrergic neuronal networks in the goldfish telencephalon. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2013;73:338-53 pubmed
    ..The distribution of these elements could help to elucidate the role of cholinergic and nitrergic neuronal networks in the goldfish telencephalon. ..
  5. Cipriani G, Gibbons S, Miller K, Yang D, Terhaar M, Eisenman S, et al. Change in Populations of Macrophages Promotes Development of Delayed Gastric Emptying in Mice. Gastroenterology. 2018;154:2122-2136.e12 pubmed publisher
    ..administration of CSF1 reduced numbers of gastric myenteric neurons but did not affect the proportion of nitrergic neurons or ICC...
  6. Harrington A, Hutson J, Southwell B. Immunohistochemical localisation of pre-synaptic muscarinic receptor subtype-2 (M2r) in the enteric nervous system of guinea-pig ileum. Cell Tissue Res. 2008;332:37-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of M2rs on VAChT-IR, SP-IR and nNOS-IR-containing nerve fibres suggests M2rs may regulate ACh, SP and nitric oxide release. ..
  7. Cheng L, Schwartz D, Hotta R, Graham H, Goldstein A. Bowel dysfunction following pullthrough surgery is associated with an overabundance of nitrergic neurons in Hirschsprung disease. J Pediatr Surg. 2016;51:1834-1838 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to quantify the proportion of nitrergic neurons in the ganglionic colon of HD patients and relate these findings to functional outcome...
  8. Ayajiki K, Kobuchi S, Tawa M, Okamura T. Nitrergic nerves derived from the pterygopalatine ganglion innervate arteries irrigating the cerebrum but not the cerebellum and brain stem in monkeys. Hypertens Res. 2012;35:88-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, circulation in the cerebellum and brain stem might be regulated by nitrergic nerves originating not from the pterygopalatine ganglion, but rather from an unknown ganglion (or ganglia). ..
  9. Jang M, Shin M, Lim B, Chung J, Kang H, Kang S, et al. Nicotine administration decreases nitric oxide synthase expression in the hypothalamus of food-deprived rats. Neurosci Lett. 2002;322:29-32 pubmed
    ..Nicotine administration to the food-deprived rats resulted in decreased NADPH-d positivity. The present results indicate that nicotine administration is effective in limiting the enhancement in NOS expression following food restriction. ..
  10. Freytag C, Seeger J, Siegemund T, Grosche J, Grosche A, Freeman D, et al. Immunohistochemical characterization and quantitative analysis of neurons in the myenteric plexus of the equine intestine. Brain Res. 2008;1244:53-64 pubmed publisher
    ..On the contrary, the nitrergic neurons outnumber the cholinergic neurons in the flexura pelvina of the large colon...
  11. Weiss M, Chowdhury S, Patel K, Kenney M, Huang J. Neural circuitry of the kidney: NO-containing neurons. Brain Res. 2001;919:269-82 pubmed
    ..We conclude that NO synthesizing cells may significantly affect renal autonomic pathways in the rat by interacting with the renal sensory and sympathomotor circuitry at multiple sites. ..
  12. Ferreira P, Lopes C, Alves A, Alves E, Linden D, Zanoni J, et al. Diabetic neuropathy: an evaluation of the use of quercetin in the cecum of rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:6416-26 pubmed publisher
    ..001) in DQ group when compared to C, CQ and D groups. In diabetes, quercetin exhibited a neuroprotective effect by maintaining the density of the general neuronal population but did not affect the density of the nNOS subpopulation. ..
  13. Wang X, Liu L, Diamant N, Huizinga J. Unique distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal in the feline pylorus. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;329:13-24 pubmed
    ..ICC-IM are associated with enteric nerves, which are concentrated in the inner portion of the circular muscle layer, being part of a unique innervation pattern of the sphincter. ..
  14. Broughton B, Donald J. Nitric oxide control of large veins in the toad Bufo marinus. J Comp Physiol B. 2005;175:157-66 pubmed
    ..The results show that in toad veins, nitrergic nerves rather than an endothelial NO system are involved in NO-mediated vasodilation. ..
  15. Giancola F, Fracassi F, Gallucci A, Sadeghinezhad J, Polidoro G, Zini E, et al. Quantification of nitrergic neurons in the myenteric plexus of gastric antrum and ileum of healthy and diabetic dogs. Auton Neurosci. 2016;197:25-33 pubmed publisher
    ..present study investigates the effects of spontaneous DM on the intramural innervation and in particular on nitrergic neurons of the myenteric plexus (MP) of the canine gastric antrum and ileum...
  16. Furlan F, Marshall P, Macedo R, Carvalheira J, Michelotto J, Gontijo J. Acute intracerebroventricular insulin microinjection after nitric oxide synthase inhibition of renal sodium handling in rats. Life Sci. 2003;72:2561-9 pubmed
  17. Islam A, Kuraoka A, Kawabuchi M. Morphological basis of nitric oxide production and its correlation with the polysialylated precursor cells in the dentate gyrus of the adult guinea pig hippocampus. Anat Sci Int. 2003;78:98-103 pubmed
    ..These results not only suggest the role of NO production in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but also indicate that some PSA-N-CAM-expressing neuronal precursors produce NO. ..
  18. Choi K, Jeong S, Lee J, Hwang B, Lee S, Choi B, et al. Acetylene compound isolated from Atractylodes japonica stimulates the contractility of rat distal colon via inhibiting the nitrergic-purinergic relaxation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;134:104-10 pubmed publisher
  19. Vercelli A, Garbossa D, Repici M, Biasiol S, Jhaveri S. Role of nitric oxide in the development of retinal projections. Ital J Anat Embryol. 2001;106:489-98 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that, in the mammalian visual system, NO released from target neurons in the SC and LGB serves as a retrograde signal which feeds back on retinal afferents, influencing their growth. ..
  20. Bagyánszki M, Krecsmarik M, De Winter B, De Man J, Fekete E, Pelckmans P, et al. Chronic alcohol consumption affects gastrointestinal motility and reduces the proportion of neuronal NOS-immunoreactive myenteric neurons in the murine jejunum. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2010;293:1536-42 pubmed publisher
  21. Schäfer B, Silveira M, Palombit K, Mendes C, Watanabe I, Miglino M, et al. Morphological Characterization of the Myenteric Plexus of the Ileum and Distal colon of Dogs Affected by Muscular Dystrophy. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that nitrergic neurons exhibited a Dogiel type I morphology in the ileum and distal colon...
  22. Hoover D, Isaacs E, Jacques F, Hoard J, Page P, Armour J. Localization of multiple neurotransmitters in surgically derived specimens of human atrial ganglia. Neuroscience. 2009;164:1170-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The putative role of multiple neurotransmitters in controlling intrinsic cardiac neurons and mediating efferent signaling to the heart indicates the possibility of novel therapeutic targets for arrhythmia prevention. ..
  23. Cipriani S, Bizzoco E, Gianfriddo M, Melani A, Vannucchi M, Pedata F. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonism increases nNOS-immunoreactive neurons in the striatum of Huntington transgenic mice. Exp Neurol. 2008;213:163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the protective effect of A(2A) antagonism in HD is related to the increase in striatal nNOS-IR neurons. ..
  24. Bruley des Varannes S, Chevalier J, Pimont S, Le Neel J, Klotz M, Schafer K, et al. Serum from achalasia patients alters neurochemical coding in the myenteric plexus and nitric oxide mediated motor response in normal human fundus. Gut. 2006;55:319-26 pubmed
    ..Further identification of putative seric factors and mechanisms involved could lead to the development of novel diagnostic and/or therapeutic strategies in achalasia. ..
  25. Cellek S. Point of NO return for nitrergic nerves in diabetes: a new insight into diabetic complications. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10:3683-95 pubmed
    ..In the later stages, reduction of AGEs, replenishment of lost nitrergic neurons and restoration of function are putative therapeutic targets.
  26. Van Genechten J, Brouns I, Burnstock G, Timmermans J, Adriaensen D. Quantification of neuroepithelial bodies and their innervation in fawn-hooded and Wistar rat lungs. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004;30:20-30 pubmed
    ..The number of intrinsic pulmonary nitrergic neurons and the percentage of pulmonary NEBs revealing a nitrergic innervation were highly significantly lower in ..
  27. Ertug P, Buyukafsar K, Kumcu E, Gocmen C, Secilmis A, Singirik E, et al. Effects of some divalent cations on nitrergic relaxations in the mouse corpus cavernosum. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2001;15:343-8 pubmed
  28. Mathison Y, Israel A. Role of endothelin type B receptor in NO/cGMP signaling pathway in rat median eminence. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2002;22:783-95 pubmed
  29. Piaulino C, Carvalho F, Almeida B, Chaves M, Almeida F, Brito S. The stem bark extracts of Cenostigma macrophyllum attenuates tactile allodynia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pharm Biol. 2013;51:1243-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies showed antioxidant action and analgesic effects of the ethanol extract from the leaves of C. macrophyllum. The phytochemical evaluation of the stem bark revealed the presence of antinociceptive compounds...
  30. Triguero D, González Herreros M, Costa G, Garcia Pascual A. Localization and thiol dependancy of endogenous nitro compounds-mediating urethral photo-relaxation. Pflugers Arch. 2008;455:745-56 pubmed
    ..The possible role of this mechanism in NO inactivation and as a protective mechanism in NO-generating structures is further discussed. ..
  31. Rahman A, Robinson A, Jovanovska V, Eri R, Nurgali K. Alterations in the distal colon innervation in Winnie mouse model of spontaneous chronic colitis. Cell Tissue Res. 2015;362:497-512 pubmed publisher
    ..and Win/Wt mice, while the total number of myenteric neurons as well as subpopulations of cholinergic and nitrergic neurons remained unchanged...
  32. Chen J, Wang H, Chang W, Jao C, Wu B, Shyu W, et al. Altered nitroxidergic and NMDA receptor-mediated modulation of baroreflex-mediated heart rate in obese Zucker rats. Hypertens Res. 2010;33:932-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that BRS is blunted in obese rats and that blunted baroreflex is, at least in part, attributed to altered nitroxidergic or NMDA receptor-mediated modulation. ..
  33. Kohlmeier K, Ishibashi M, Wess J, Bickford M, Leonard C. Knockouts reveal overlapping functions of M(2) and M(4) muscarinic receptors and evidence for a local glutamatergic circuit within the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. J Neurophysiol. 2012;108:2751-66 pubmed publisher
  34. Lay J, Carbone S, DiCello J, Bunnett N, Canals M, Poole D. Distribution and trafficking of the ?-opioid receptor in enteric neurons of the guinea pig. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;311:G252-66 pubmed publisher
    ..MOR expression was restricted to subsets of enteric neurons. In the stomach MOR was mainly localized to nitrergic neurons (?88%), with some overlap with neuropeptide Y (NPY) and no expression by cholinergic neurons...
  35. Radomirov R, Ivancheva C, Itzev D, Petkova Kirova P. Locality-dependent descending reflex motor activity in the anal canal--cholinergic and nitrergic contributions in the rat model. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009;30:1276-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This activation response involves long excitatory cholinergic and non-cholinergic pathways along the rectum and short inhibitory nitrergic pathways located predominantly in the anal canal region. ..
  36. Balemba O, Mortensen K, Semuguruka W, Hay Schmidt A, Johansen M, Dantzer V. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity is increased during granulomatous inflammation in the colon and caecum of pigs infected with Schistosoma japonicum. Auton Neurosci. 2002;99:1-12 pubmed
    ..These alterations might contribute to impaired intestinal motility and absorption, and other pathophysiological conditions seen during S. japonicum infections. ..
  37. Varathan V, Shigenaga Y, Takemura M. Nitric oxide synthase/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase in the brainstem trigeminal nuclei after transection of the masseteric nerve in rats. J Neurosci Res. 2001;66:428-38 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, after unilateral nerve transection, the peak NADPH-d activity occurs 1 week prior to nNOS activity. ..
  38. Giraldez Perez R, Gaytan S, Ruano D, Torres B, Pasaro R. Distribution of NADPH-diaphorase and nitric oxide synthase reactivity in the central nervous system of the goldfish (Carassius auratus). J Chem Neuroanat. 2008;35:12-32 pubmed
    ..Cognizing that a direct comparison of the present results with those reported in other vertebrates is not clear-cut because of homologies; we conclude that the nitrergic system is roughly similar from fish to mammals. ..
  39. Benko R, Undi S, Wolf M, Vereczkei A, Illenyi L, Kassai M, et al. P2 purinoceptor antagonists inhibit the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic relaxation of the human colon in vitro. Neuroscience. 2007;147:146-52 pubmed
    ..NO probably acts through the guanylate cyclase, though a small fraction of its effect might be mediated by other mechanisms. Activators of the guanylate cyclase other than NO do not seem to participate in the NANC relaxation. ..
  40. Vaney D. Type 1 nitrergic (ND1) cells of the rabbit retina: comparison with other axon-bearing amacrine cells. J Comp Neurol. 2004;474:149-71 pubmed
  41. Johnson J, Kellogg D. Local thermal control of the human cutaneous circulation. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010;109:1229-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism for that transient vasodilation is not known, but it is inhibited by intact sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve function and by intact sensory nerve function. ..
  42. Gourcerol G, Wang L, Adelson D, Larauche M, Tache Y, Million M. Cholinergic giant migrating contractions in conscious mouse colon assessed by using a novel noninvasive solid-state manometry method: modulation by stressors. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;296:G992-G1002 pubmed publisher
    ..Noninvasive colonic manometry opens new venues to investigate colonic motor function in genetically modified mice relevant to diseases that involve colonic motility alterations. ..
  43. Chaudhury A, Rao Y, Goyal R. PIN/LC8 is associated with cytosolic but not membrane-bound nNOS in the nitrergic varicosities of mice gut: implications for nitrergic neurotransmission. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;295:G442-51 pubmed publisher
  44. Purves Tyson T, Arshi M, Handelsman D, Cheng Y, Keast J. Androgen and estrogen receptor-mediated mechanisms of testosterone action in male rat pelvic autonomic ganglia. Neuroscience. 2007;148:92-104 pubmed
    ..The effects of androgens on axonal growth are likely to be at least partly mediated by estrogenic mechanisms, which may be important for understanding disease-, aging- and injury-induced plasticity in this part of the nervous system. ..
  45. Cobine C, Hennig G, Bayguinov Y, Hatton W, Ward S, Keef K. Interstitial cells of Cajal in the cynomolgus monkey rectoanal region and their relationship to sympathetic and nitrergic nerves. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;298:G643-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the presence of numerous minibundles, each containing both ICC-IAS and nerves, suggests that this muscle functions as a multiunit type muscle. ..
  46. Chen M, Huang Y, Long C, Yang H, Lee H, Chen P, et al. Bimodal effects of fluoxetine on cerebral nitrergic neurogenic vasodilation in porcine large cerebral arteries. Neuropharmacology. 2012;62:1651-8 pubmed publisher
  47. Li Y, Xu J, Jiang F, Jiang Z, Liu C, Li L, et al. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor is involved in modulating colonic motor function via nitric oxide release in C57BL/6 female mice. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016;28:432-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These results raise a possibility that GPER may be involved in mediating the inhibitory effect of estrogen on colonic motor functions, via a non-genomic, neurogenic mechanism. ..
  48. Teixeira C, Priviero F, Okuyama C, De Nucci G, Antunes E. Pharmacological characterization of the presynaptic activity of Tityus serrulatus venom in the rat anococcygeus muscle. Toxicon. 2003;42:451-60 pubmed
  49. Gultekin H, Erdem S, Emre Aydıngöz S, Tuncer M. The role of nitric oxide in the electrical field stimulation-induced contractions of sphincter of oddi and gallbladder strips in Guinea pigs. J Pharmacol Sci. 2006;101:240-4 pubmed
    ..The "off response" in he SO preparations might be a rebound increase that was modulated by the nonadrenergic, noncholinergic inhibitory mediator NO. ..
  50. Toda N, Okamura T. Cigarette smoking impairs nitric oxide-mediated cerebral blood flow increase: Implications for Alzheimer's disease. J Pharmacol Sci. 2016;131:223-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Quitting smoking is undoubtedly one of the important ways to prevent and delay the genesis or slow the progress of impaired cognitive function and AD. ..
  51. Schafe G, Bauer E, Rosis S, Farb C, Rodrigues S, LeDoux J. Memory consolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning requires nitric oxide signaling in the lateral amygdala. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:201-11 pubmed
    ..Collectively, the findings suggest that NO signaling is an important component of memory formation of auditory fear conditioning, possibly as a retrograde signal that participates in presynaptic aspects of plasticity in the LA. ..
  52. Zarate N, Wang X, Tougas G, Anvari M, Birch D, Mearin F, et al. Intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal associated with mast cells survive nitrergic nerves in achalasia. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2006;18:556-68 pubmed
    ..MC are prominent and form close functional contact with ICC-IM which may be responsible for their relatively long survival. ..
  53. Borsani E, Albertini R, Labanca M, Lonati C, Rezzani R, Rodella L. Peripheral purinergic receptor modulation influences the trigeminal ganglia nitroxidergic system in an experimental murine model of inflammatory orofacial pain. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:2715-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a role for peripheral P2 purinergic receptors in orofacial pain transmission through modulation of the nitroxidergic system. . ..