postganglionic autonomic fibers


Summary: Nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of AUTONOMIC GANGLIA to SYNAPSES on target organs.

Top Publications

  1. Godlewski G, Malinowska B, Schlicker E. Presynaptic cannabinoid CB(1) receptors are involved in the inhibition of the neurogenic vasopressor response during septic shock in pithed rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;142:701-8 pubmed
    ..4. We conclude that in the initial phase of septic shock, the activation of presynaptic CB(1) receptors by endogenously formed cannabinoids contributes to the inhibition of the neurogenic vasopressor response. ..
  2. Wright L. Gender difference in a subpopulation of rat superior cervical ganglion neurons. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1988;22:31-40 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that the gender difference in survival of SCG neurons lies in neurons projecting through the internal carotid nerve. The number of neurons projecting out the external carotid nerve is equivalent in males and females. ..
  3. Pradhan S. Bilaterally symmetric form of Hirayama disease. Neurology. 2009;72:2083-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This description calls for review of the term "brachial monomelic amyotrophy" described to denote this disease. ..
  4. Meckler R, Weaver L. Persistent firing of splenic and renal nerves after acute decentralization but failure to produce ganglionic reflexes. Neurosci Lett. 1988;88:167-72 pubmed
    ..Cholinergic blockade eliminated most of this discharge. The source of the residual firing and its contribution to basal discharge of splenic and renal nerves remains to be determined. ..
  5. Ling E, Shieh J, Wen C, Chan Y, Wong W. Degenerative changes of neurons in the superior cervical ganglion following an injection of Ricinus communis agglutinin-60 into the vagus nerve in hamsters. J Neurocytol. 1990;19:1-9 pubmed
    ..The present study also confirms the presence of postganglionic sympathetic axons in the cervical vagus nerve. ..
  6. Liu J, Wang W, Feng Y, Li M, Bao H, Chen Q. The sympathetic postganglionic and sensory innervation of oviducal magnum in hen: a choleratoxin subunit B-conjugated horseradish peroxidase study. J Anat. 2007;210:439-48 pubmed
    ..Moreover, 45.7% of all the CB-HRP-labelled neurons were found in the rectal region of the intestinal nerve of Remak (INR), which suggests that the INR plays a very important role in the functional regulation of the magnum. ..
  7. Hirakawa N, Morimoto M, Totoki T. Sympathetic innervation of the young canine heart using antero- and retrograde axonal tracer methods. Brain Res Bull. 1993;31:673-80 pubmed
    ..The labeled fibers were also observed around the coronary arteries. ..
  8. Matsuda H, Tsai C, Tseng C, Noriage A, Tsai T, Dai Y, et al. Neurophysiologic changes after preganglionic and postganglionic nerve-root constriction: an experimental study in the rat. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:950-8 pubmed
    ..We investigated changes in spinal somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP) and nerve action potential (NAP), correlated behavior, and associated pathologic observation in experimental radiculopathy...
  9. Anderson C, McAllen R, Edwards S. Nitric oxide synthase and chemical coding in cat sympathetic postganglionic neurons. Neuroscience. 1995;68:255-64 pubmed
    ..Alternatively, separate vasodilator neurons to skin may share the same chemical code as sudomotor neurons. ..

More Information


  1. Furness J. The organisation of the autonomic nervous system: peripheral connections. Auton Neurosci. 2006;130:1-5 pubmed
  2. Yusof A, Coote J. Patterns of activity in sympathetic postganglionic nerves to skeletal muscle, skin and kidney during stimulation of the medullary raphe area of the rat. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1988;24:71-9 pubmed
    ..It is argued that the activation of cell bodies located in raphe obscurus is responsible for inducing a pattern of sympathetic activity similar to that occurring during paradoxical sleep in other animals. ..
  3. Salo L, Campos R, McAllen R. Differential control of cardiac functions by the brain. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2006;33:1255-8 pubmed
    ..Premotor and other central neurons can have preferential actions on heart rate, contractility or A-V conduction. 3. The functional implications of selective cardiac control are discussed. ..
  4. Sakaguchi M, Inaishi Y, Kashihara Y, Kuno M. Degeneration of motor nerve fibers enhances the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide in rat sensory neurons. Neurosci Lett. 1992;137:61-4 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the expression of CGRP in sensory neurons is up-regulated by some humoral factor induced by degeneration of motor nerve fibers. ..
  5. Jänig W. The fascination of complex regional pain syndrome. Exp Neurol. 2010;221:1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential mechanisms involved are discussed. These mechanisms include the possibility that CRPS, a disorder of the central nervous system, may be caused by a nerve inflammation. ..
  6. Prud Homme M, Houdeau E, Serghini R, Tillet Y, Schemann M, Rousseau J. Small intensely fluorescent cells of the rat paracervical ganglion synthesize adrenaline, receive afferent innervation from postganglionic cholinergic neurones, and contain muscarinic receptors. Brain Res. 1999;821:141-9 pubmed
  7. Niijima A, Kubo M, Ichiki H, Komatsu Y, Maruno M, Okada M. Effect of byakko-ka-ninjin-to on the efferent activity of the autonomic nerve fibers innervating the sublingual gland of the rat. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1997;63:46-50 pubmed
    ..v. administration of hypertonic saline was antagonized by intraduodenal infusion of BN. From these observations it is suggested that Byakko-ka-ninjin-to acts as a facilitatory agent on salivary secretion. ..
  8. Floras J, Legault L, Morali G, Hara K, Blendis L. Increased sympathetic outflow in cirrhosis and ascites: direct evidence from intraneural recordings. Ann Intern Med. 1991;114:373-80 pubmed
    ..The anti-natriuretic effects of parallel increases in renal and muscle sympathetic nerve activity could account for the inverse correlation between muscle sympathetic nerve activity and sodium excretion. ..
  9. Yambe T, Nitta S, Katahira Y, Sonobe T, Naganuma S, Akiho H, et al. Postganglionic sympathetic nerve activity with correlation to heart rhythm during left ventricular assistance. Artif Organs. 1991;15:212-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the arterial pulse wave, which was produced by the VAD assistance, contributed to postganglionic sympathetic nerve activity. ..
  10. Li Y, Chen S. [A study on the reflex arc outside the central nervous system with sympathetic ganglia as the centre]. Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 1996;21:25-30 pubmed
    ..The results mentioned above offer the partial morphological testimony for the expoundity of acupuncture mechanism. ..
  11. Yamamoto K, Iwase S, Mano T, Shionoya S. Muscle sympathetic outflow in Buerger's disease. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1993;44:67-75 pubmed
    ..198 +/- 156% total MSA, P < 0.05). We directly demonstrated higher responsiveness of MSA to the local cold stimulus in patients with TAO. This hyperresponsive MSA might contribute to the pathophysiologic feature in TAO. ..
  12. Bałkowiec A, Szulczyk P. Properties of postganglionic sympathetic neurons with axons in phrenic nerve. Respir Physiol. 1992;88:323-31 pubmed
    ..The results of our experiments suggest that axons of the sympathetic neurons located in the right phrenic nerve could possibly be diaphragmatic muscle vasoconstrictors. ..
  13. Moberg L, Appelgren B, Sjostrand N. Albumin inhibits effects of Cu2+ on autonomic postganglionic transmission of guinea-pig ileum and vas deferens. Acta Odontol Scand. 1991;49:361-6 pubmed
    ..In the presence of albumin, 45 g/l, this stimulating effect of Cu2+ appeared in higher concentrations. The results suggest that Cu2+ is more likely to influence the function of neuronal tissues when the concentration of protein is low. ..
  14. Pei W, Cai S, Zhu Y, Kong D, Huang Z, Ma R. [The relationship of late slow excitatory potential with 5-hydroxytryptamine and substance P in the guinea-pig celiac ganglion]. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 1996;48:263-8 pubmed
    ..There were 66 of these neurons (49.6%) to be sensitive to both 5-HT and SP, suggesting that there may be some functional relations between 5-HT and SP in the neurons of guinea pig CG. ..
  15. Chen Y, Huang Z. [Activation of locus coeruleus inhibits vagal inputs in nucleus tractus solitarius]. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 1997;49:39-44 pubmed
    ..These results showed that activation of LC exerts an inhibitory effect on the responses of the NTS to vagal afferent stimulation. ..
  16. Ouseph A, Levine J. Alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated sympathetically dependent mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol. 1995;273:107-12 pubmed
  17. ten Tusscher M, Klooster J, Baljet B, Van der Werf F, Vrensen G. Pre- and post-ganglionic nerve fibres of the pterygopalatine ganglion and their allocation to the eyeball of rats. Brain Res. 1990;517:315-23 pubmed
    ..Isotope injections of the PPG anterogradely labelled fibres passing through the ciliary ganglion that innervated the conjunctiva, the limbus and parts of the choroid. ..
  18. Fedorov V, Hucker W, Dobrzynski H, Rosenshtraukh L, Efimov I. Postganglionic nerve stimulation induces temporal inhibition of excitability in rabbit sinoatrial node. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;291:H612-23 pubmed
    ..Optically mapping revealed that PNS resulted in transient loss of pacemaker cell excitability and unidirectional entrance conduction block in the periphery of SAN. ..
  19. Shiokawa Y, Delgado Zygmunt T, Arbab M, Svendgaard N. Effect of unilateral pre- and postganglionic lesioning of the trigeminal nerve on the development of cerebral vasospasm in the squirrel monkey: angiographic findings. Br J Neurosurg. 1992;6:445-55 pubmed
    ..The peripheral, or axon reflex mechanism, exerts a tonic effect on the cerebral vessels. Following a SAH the axon reflex seems to attenuate cerebral vasospasm. ..
  20. Donadio V, Cortelli P, Elam M, Di Stasi V, Montagna P, Holmberg B, et al. Autonomic innervation in multiple system atrophy and pure autonomic failure. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010;81:1327-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Autonomic innervation study of skin annexes is a reliable method which may help differentiate MSA from PAF. ..
  21. Liu Z, Liu C, Hu X, Du M, Xiao C. [An electrophysiological study on the artificial somato-autonomic pathway for inducing voiding]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2005;85:1315-8 pubmed
    ..3 m/s +/- 6.9m/s, significantly higher than that of the control group (11.6 m/s +/- 1.6 m/s). Somatic motor axons can regenerate to the MPG and reinnervate the bladder and the impulses from the somatic motor neurons can initiate voiding. ..
  22. Lin S. [Acute pandysautonomia]. Zhonghua Shen Jing Jing Shen Ke Za Zhi. 1991;24:373-5, 386 pubmed
  23. Nowe T, Hüttemann K, Engelhorn T, Schellinger P, Kohrmann M. Paralytic ileus as a presenting symptom of Guillain-Barré syndrome. J Neurol. 2008;255:756-7 pubmed publisher
  24. Reiter R. Static and extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure: reported effects on the circadian production of melatonin. J Cell Biochem. 1993;51:394-403 pubmed
    ..The disturbances in pineal melatonin production induced by either light exposure or non-visible electromagnetic field exposure at night appear to be the same but whether the underlying mechanisms are similar remains unknown. ..
  25. Cannon J, True C, Long J, Bhatnagar R, Leonard P, Flynn J. Introduction of a putative dopaminergic prodrug moiety into a 6,7-substitution pattern characteristic of certain 2-aminotetralin dopaminergic agonists. J Med Chem. 1989;32:2210-4 pubmed
    ..The effects of 9 (but not of 8) were antagonized by pretreatment with haloperidol. Thus, the 5-hydroxy-6-methyl substitution pattern in the 2-aminotetralins remains unique as a dopaminergic agonist prodrug structure. ..
  26. Khurana R, Schuster M. Autonomic dysfunction in chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Clin Auton Res. 1998;8:335-40 pubmed
    ..The patients with neuropathic CIP demonstrated widespread, mostly postganglionic autonomic dysfunction. Neuropathic CIP can occur with or without cardiovagal involvement. ..
  27. Klein C, Burden H. Anatomical localization of afferent and postganglionic sympathetic neurons innervating the rat ovary. Neurosci Lett. 1988;85:217-22 pubmed
    ..The significance of the dual origin of postganglionic sympathetic neurons innervating the rat ovary is not known. ..
  28. Tanaka Y, Yoshida Y, Hirano M, Hisano S, Daikoku S. [Autonomic innervation of feline laryngeal glands: an immuno-electronmicroscopic study]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho. 1993;96:1311-9 pubmed
    ..Because this value was equal between serous and mucous glandular cell, these two tissues may receive the same pattern of autonomic innervation. ..
  29. Huland H, Dieckmann K, Sauerwein D. [Nerve sparing retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy with intraoperative electrostimulation in patients with nonseminomatous testicular tumors]. Urologe A. 1992;31:1-7 pubmed
    ..Nerve-sparing RLA seems to be superior to modified (unilateral) RLA with regard to preservation of ejaculation. ..
  30. Biaggioni I. The Pharmacology of Autonomic Failure: From Hypotension to Hypertension. Pharmacol Rev. 2017;69:53-62 pubmed publisher
    ..impairment of central autonomic pathways (multiple system atrophy) or neurodegeneration of peripheral postganglionic autonomic fibers (pure autonomic failure, Parkinson's disease)...
  31. Berggren T, Gabella G, Malmgren A, Uvelius B. Effects of unilateral pelvic ganglionectomy on urinary bladder function in the male rat. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 1993;27:181-8 pubmed
  32. Habermeier Muth A, Altes U, Forsyth K, Muscholl E. A presynaptic excitatory M1 muscarine receptor at postganglionic cardiac noradrenergic nerve fibres that is activated by endogenous acetylcholine. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1990;342:483-9 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that acetylcholine released onto noradrenergic nerve fibres causes a small facilitation of noradrenaline overflow at a vago-sympathetic impulse interval of 100 ms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  33. Su W, Wang H, Wang J. Distribution of noradrenergic nerve fibers in canine nasal mucosa following selective neurectomies. Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1988;244:374-80 pubmed
    ..The vidian nerve chiefly innervates the venous sinusoids of the lower two-thirds of the nasal mucosa. ..
  34. Fedin A. [Mediators of the local reflex arc in airways of the rat and guinea pig]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1998;84:330-6 pubmed
    ..Transmission of inhibitory influences from the tracheo-bronchial receptors to the smooth muscle is carried out via nicotinic cholinoreceptors. Adrenergic mechanisms can modulate neural transmission at the level of intramural ganglia. ..
  35. Tatarchenko L, Ivanov AYa -, Skok V. Organization of the tonically active pathways through the superior cervical ganglion of the rabbit. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1990;30 Suppl:S163-8 pubmed
    ..From this comparison it has been concluded that about 100 ganglion cells, on the average, discharge synchronously within the 20-ms range during their tonic activity. ..
  36. Kihara M, Takahashi A, Sugenoya J, Kihara Y, Watanabe H. Sudomotor dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Funct Neurol. 1994;9:193-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that patients with ALS have mild thermoregulatory sweat dysfunction due to postganglionic lesions in the lower extremities. ..
  37. Bucher B, Corriu C, Stoclet J. Prejunctional opioid mu-receptors and adenosine A1-receptors on the sympathetic nerve endings of the rat tail artery interact with the alpha 2-adrenoceptors. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1992;345:37-43 pubmed
    ..The level at which these interactions take place (receptors themselves or transduction mechanisms) as well as the physiological significance of the phenomenon remain to be determined. ..
  38. Ochoa E, Li L, McNamee M. Desensitization of central cholinergic mechanisms and neuroadaptation to nicotine. Mol Neurobiol. 1990;4:251-87 pubmed
    ..A brief comment on the necessity of fully understanding the effects of nicotine on the developing nervous system closes this work. ..
  39. Wang H, Su W, Wang J. Retrograde axonal transport of true blue dye by the peripheral autonomic nerves in canine nasal mucosa. Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1987;244:295-9 pubmed
    ..These results show that the postganglionic parasympathetic fibers originating in the SPG travel along the ethmoidal and caudal nasal nerves. ..
  40. Strimbu Gozariu M, Guirimand F, Willer J, Le Bars D. A sensitive test for studying the effects of opioids on a C-fibre reflex elicited by a wide range of stimulus intensities in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol. 1993;237:197-205 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that this method is reliable for the pharmacological study of the spinal transmission of nociceptive signals. ..
  41. Batbayar B, Fehér E, Nagy G, Zelles T. [Changes of the nerve fibers innervating the minor salivary glands in Sjögren syndrome]. Orv Hetil. 2002;143:1585-8 pubmed
    ..The close association to immunocells and decreasing the nerve fibres in Sjögren's syndrome imply that they may have also a role in the neuroimmunologic processes. ..
  42. Peng H, Chen Q. Localization of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) at a neuronal nicotinic synapse. Neurosci Lett. 1988;95:75-80 pubmed
    ..This suggests that CGRP is involved in the functions of the neuronal nicotinic synapses. ..
  43. Ng A, Callister R, Johnson D, Seals D. Endurance exercise training is associated with elevated basal sympathetic nerve activity in healthy older humans. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1994;77:1366-74 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that vigorous regular aerobic exercise is associated with an elevated level of MSNA at rest and a tendency for an enhanced response to acute stress in healthy normotensive older humans. ..
  44. Murphy S, McAllen R, Campbell G, Howe P, Anderson C. Re-establishment of neurochemical coding of preganglionic neurons innervating transplanted targets. Neuroscience. 2003;117:347-60 pubmed
  45. Marson L, Platt K, McKenna K. Central nervous system innervation of the penis as revealed by the transneuronal transport of pseudorabies virus. Neuroscience. 1993;55:263-80 pubmed
    ..These results provide further evidence that the pseudorabies virus transneuronal tracing technique is a valuable method for identifying neural circuits mediating specific functions. ..
  46. Dorovini Zis K, Zis A. Innervation of the zona fasciculata of the adult human adrenal cortex: a light and electron microscopic study. J Neural Transm Gen Sect. 1991;84:75-84 pubmed
  47. Lot T, Udoh F. Changes in smooth muscle sensitivity to agonist drugs during development. Physiol Behav. 1991;49:251-5 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that sympathetic nerves influence the responsiveness of the expansor secundariorum muscle to drugs, especially the development decrease in response to acetylcholine and histamine. ..
  48. Vizzard M, Erdman S, de Groat W. Localization of NADPH diaphorase in bladder afferent and postganglionic efferent neurons of the rat. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1993;44:85-90 pubmed
  49. Widenfalk B, Elfvin L, Wiberg M. Origin of sympathetic and sensory innervation of the elbow joint in the rat: a retrograde axonal tracing study with wheat germ agglutinin conjugated horseradish peroxidase. J Comp Neurol. 1988;271:313-8 pubmed
    ..Most labeled sympathetic cells, 90% or more, were located in the stellate ganglion. The sensory innervation to the joint originated mainly from the dorsal root ganglia at the levels of C7-T1. ..
  50. Donadio V, Nolano M, Elam M, Montagna P, Provitera V, Bugiardini E, et al. Anhidrosis in multiple system atrophy: a preganglionic sudomotor dysfunction?. Mov Disord. 2008;23:885-8 pubmed publisher
  51. Shiokawa Y, Delgado Zygmunt T, Arbab M, Svendgaard N. Effect of pre- and postganglionic lesioning of the trigeminal nerve on cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism following a subarachnoid haemorrhage in the squirrel monkey. Br J Neurosurg. 1992;6:211-25 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that the trigeminal system is involved in the regulation of cerebral metabolism via a brainstem centre. ..
  52. Vitadello M, Triban C, Fabris M, Dona M, Gorio A, Schiaffino S. A developmentally regulated isoform of 150,000 molecular weight neurofilament protein specifically expressed in autonomic and small sensory neurons. Neuroscience. 1987;23:931-41 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that CH1 identifies a fetal 150,000 molecular weight neurofilament polypeptide isoform whose expression is prevented by the growth of somatic neurons and is selectively maintained in autonomic and small sensory neurons. ..
  53. Sakakibara R, Uchiyama T, Asahina M, Suzuki A, Yamanishi T, Hattori T. Micturition disturbance in acute idiopathic autonomic neuropathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:287-91 pubmed
    ..The underlying mechanisms seem to be pre- and postganglionic cholinergic dysfunction with preservation of somatic sphincter function. The bladder problems tend to improve earlier than orthostatic hypotension. ..