cholinergic fibers


Summary: Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.

Top Publications

  1. Fino E, Deniau J, Venance L. Cell-specific spike-timing-dependent plasticity in GABAergic and cholinergic interneurons in corticostriatal rat brain slices. J Physiol. 2008;586:265-82 pubmed
  2. Perez S, Dar S, Ikonomovic M, DeKosky S, Mufson E. Cholinergic forebrain degeneration in the APPswe/PS1DeltaE9 transgenic mouse. Neurobiol Dis. 2007;28:3-15 pubmed
  3. Marin G, Salas C, Sentis E, Rojas X, Letelier J, Mpodozis J. A cholinergic gating mechanism controlled by competitive interactions in the optic tectum of the pigeon. J Neurosci. 2007;27:8112-21 pubmed
  4. Maczko K, Knudsen P, Knudsen E. Auditory and visual space maps in the cholinergic nucleus isthmi pars parvocellularis of the barn owl. J Neurosci. 2006;26:12799-806 pubmed
    ..These findings, combined with the precise pattern of projections from the Ipc to the OT, suggest that the role of the Ipc is to regulate the sensitivity of OT neurons in a space-specific manner...
  5. Sullivan M, Chen H, Morikawa H. Recurrent inhibitory network among striatal cholinergic interneurons. J Neurosci. 2008;28:8682-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, using rat brain slices, we find that stimulation of intrastriatal cholinergic fibers evokes polysynaptic GABA(A) IPSCs in cholinergic interneurons...
  6. Christensen D, Bayer T, Wirths O. Intracellular Aß triggers neuron loss in the cholinergic system of the APP/PS1KI mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2010;31:1153-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This study supports the hypothesis of intracellular Abeta accumulation as an early pathological alteration contributing to cell death in AD. ..
  7. Gu Z, Yakel J. Timing-dependent septal cholinergic induction of dynamic hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Neuron. 2011;71:155-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have revealed the remarkable temporal precision of cholinergic functions, providing a novel mechanism for information processing in cholinergic-dependent higher cognitive functions. ..
  8. Dotigny F, Ben Amor A, Burke M, Vaucher E. Neuromodulatory role of acetylcholine in visually-induced cortical activation: behavioral and neuroanatomical correlates. Neuroscience. 2008;154:1607-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Results obtained following lesion of the cholinergic fibers (192 IgG-saporin or quisqualic acid), muscarinic inhibition (scopolamine), or NMDA receptor inhibition (CPP) ..
  9. Sarter M, Hasselmo M, Bruno J, Givens B. Unraveling the attentional functions of cortical cholinergic inputs: interactions between signal-driven and cognitive modulation of signal detection. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2005;48:98-111 pubmed

More Information


  1. Madziar B, Lopez Coviella I, Zemelko V, Berse B. Regulation of cholinergic gene expression by nerve growth factor depends on the phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase pathway. J Neurochem. 2005;92:767-79 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the PI3K pathway, but not the MEK/MAPK pathway, is the mediator of NGF-induced cholinergic differentiation. ..
  2. Humpel C, Marksteiner J. Cerebrovascular damage as a cause for Alzheimer's disease. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2005;2:341-7 pubmed
    ..An overlap with other forms of cognitive impairment, such as mild cognitive impairment, or vascular dementia will be discussed. ..
  3. McGaughy J, Koene R, Eichenbaum H, Hasselmo M. Cholinergic deafferentation of the entorhinal cortex in rats impairs encoding of novel but not familiar stimuli in a delayed nonmatch-to-sample task. J Neurosci. 2005;25:10273-81 pubmed
    ..This indicates an important role for cholinergic innervation of the entorhinal cortex in working memory for novel stimuli. ..
  4. Sarter M, Gehring W, Kozak R. More attention must be paid: the neurobiology of attentional effort. Brain Res Rev. 2006;51:145-60 pubmed
  5. Lin H, Taylor I. Release of peptide YY by fat in the proximal but not distal gut depends on an atropine-sensitive cholinergic pathway. Regul Pept. 2004;117:73-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude that PYY release by fat in the proximal but not distal intestine depends on an atropine-sensitive, cholinergic pathway. ..
  6. Ohno M, Sametsky E, Younkin L, Oakley H, Younkin S, Citron M, et al. BACE1 deficiency rescues memory deficits and cholinergic dysfunction in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Neuron. 2004;41:27-33 pubmed
    ..Our gene-based approach demonstrates that lower Abeta levels are beneficial for AD-associated memory impairments, validating BACE1 as a therapeutic target for AD. ..
  7. Zhang W, Sun Q, Liu Y, Gao W, Li Y, Lu K, et al. Chronic administration of Liu Wei Dihuang protects rat's brain against D-galactose-induced impairment of cholinergic system. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2011;63:245-55 pubmed
    ..Moreover, there is some sex difference in protective effects of LWDH against D-gal-induced impairment. ..
  8. Kozak R, Martinez V, Young D, Brown H, Bruno J, Sarter M. Toward a neuro-cognitive animal model of the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia: disruption of cortical cholinergic neurotransmission following repeated amphetamine exposure in attentional task-performing, but not non-performing, rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007;32:2074-86 pubmed
    ..Repeated AMPH-induced disruption of prefrontal cholinergic activity and attentional performance represents a useful model to investigate the cholinergic mechanisms contributing to the cognitive impairments of schizophrenia. ..
  9. O Donnell A, Puri P. Hypoganglionic colorectum in the chick embryo: a model of human hypoganglionosis. Pediatr Surg Int. 2009;25:885-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the cholinergic activity in the hypoganglionic chick model resembles that of human hypoganglionosis. ..
  10. Botti M, Ragionieri L, Bo Minelli L, Gazza F, Acone F, Panu R, et al. Peripheral neurons innervating the extrinsic smooth penile musculature of the pig: experimental study by retrograde transport and immunohistochemistry. Ital J Anat Embryol. 2006;111:65-82 pubmed
  11. Yalcin S, Ertunc M, Ardıçlı B, Kabakus I, Tas T, Sara Y, et al. Ureterovesical junction obstruction causes increment in smooth muscle contractility, and cholinergic and adrenergic activity in distal ureter of rabbits. J Pediatr Surg. 2013;48:1954-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated smooth muscle contractility, and cholinergic, adrenergic and serotonergic activity of rabbit distal ureters after ureterovesical junction (UVJ) obstruction...
  12. BERMAN J, Talmage D, Role L. Cholinergic circuits and signaling in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2007;78:193-223 pubmed
    ..The established role of cholinergic circuits in attentional tuning is considered along with recent work on how the patterning of cholinergic activity may modulate corticostriatal circuits affected in schizophrenia. ..
  13. Sarter M. The substantia innominata remains incognita: pressing research themes on basal forebrain neuroanatomy. Brain Struct Funct. 2008;213:11-5 pubmed publisher
  14. Coulson E, May L, Sykes A, Hamlin A. The role of the p75 neurotrophin receptor in cholinergic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Neuroscientist. 2009;15:317-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Although elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms and the clinical significance of these findings will require further experimentation, a number of possible scenarios and future research directions are presented. ..
  15. Ren J, Qin C, Hu F, Tan J, Qiu L, Zhao S, et al. Habenula "cholinergic" neurons co-release glutamate and acetylcholine and activate postsynaptic neurons via distinct transmission modes. Neuron. 2011;69:445-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly suggest that adult brain "cholinergic" neurons can corelease glutamate and acetylcholine, but these two neurotransmitters activate postsynaptic neurons via different transmission modes. ..
  16. Lindblom R, Ström M, Heinig M, Al Nimer F, Aeinehband S, Berg A, et al. Unbiased expression mapping identifies a link between the complement and cholinergic systems in the rat central nervous system. J Immunol. 2014;192:1138-53 pubmed publisher
  17. Misawa H, Fujigaya H, Nishimura T, Moriwaki Y, Okuda T, Kawashima K, et al. Aberrant trafficking of the high-affinity choline transporter in AP-3-deficient mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:3109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The amounts of CHT detected on SLMV are greatly reduced by treating the cell with agents that halt AP-dependent membrane trafficking. These results demonstrate that APs have important functions for CHT trafficking in neuronal cells. ..
  18. Vitale F, Mattei C, Capozzo A, Pietrantoni I, Mazzone P, Scarnati E. Cholinergic excitation from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus to the dentate nucleus in the rat. Neuroscience. 2016;317:12-22 pubmed publisher lesioned animals, the iontophoretic experiments suggest that the activation of dentate neurons is due to cholinergic fibers. These data help to explain the effects of DBS of the PPTg on axial motor disabilities in neurodegenerative ..
  19. Giordano A, Song C, Bowers R, Ehlen J, Frontini A, Cinti S, et al. White adipose tissue lacks significant vagal innervation and immunohistochemical evidence of parasympathetic innervation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;291:R1243-55 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data indicate no parasympathetic nerve markers in WAT of several species, with sparse DMV innervation and question the claim of PSNS WAT innervation as well as its functional significance. ..
  20. Mafrica F, Fodale V. Thyroid function, Alzheimer's disease and postoperative cognitive dysfunction: a tale of dangerous liaisons?. J Alzheimers Dis. 2008;14:95-105 pubmed
    ..Therefore, modifications of thyroid hormones post-surgery, might play a role in the pathogenesis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction...
  21. Salehi A, Delcroix J, Belichenko P, Zhan K, Wu C, Valletta J, et al. Increased App expression in a mouse model of Down's syndrome disrupts NGF transport and causes cholinergic neuron degeneration. Neuron. 2006;51:29-42 pubmed
    ..Our study thus provides evidence for a pathogenic mechanism for DS in which increased expression of App, in the context of trisomy, causes abnormal transport of NGF and cholinergic neurodegeneration. ..
  22. Abramova M, Palikhova T, Pivovarov A. [Heterosynaptic potentiation of cholinergic excitatory postsynaptic responses in the Helix command neurons]. Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2007;57:712-20 pubmed
    ..The results suggest the involvement of mechanism of an increase in cholinosensitvity in postsynaptic membrane zones in potentiation of excitatory postsynaptic responses to sensory stimulation. ..
  23. Camp M, Mayfield R, McCracken M, McCracken L, Alcantara A. Neuroadaptations of Cdk5 in cholinergic interneurons of the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex of inbred alcohol-preferring rats following voluntary alcohol drinking. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006;30:1322-35 pubmed
  24. Pinto T, Lanctot K, Herrmann N. Revisiting the cholinergic hypothesis of behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Ageing Res Rev. 2011;10:404-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Biochemical and neuroimaging studies of BPSD in Alzheimer's patients support these pharmacological data. This review discusses the literature describing the association between cholinergic deficiency and manifestations of BPSD. ..
  25. Nelson A, Kolasa K, McMahon L. Noradrenergic sympathetic sprouting and cholinergic reinnervation maintains non-amyloidogenic processing of A?PP. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;38:867-79 pubmed publisher
    ..we reported that coincident with noradrenergic sprouting is the partial reinnervation of hippocampus with cholinergic fibers and the maintenance of a M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1 mAChR) dependent long-term depression at ..
  26. Mignini F, Sabbatini M, Cavallotti C, Cavallotti C. Analysis of nerve supply pattern in thoracic duct in young and elderly men. Lymphat Res Biol. 2012;10:46-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings called attention to the reduction of lymphatic drainage functionality affecting fluid balance in the elderly. ..
  27. Abramova M, Moskvitin A, Pivovarov A. Effects of protein synthesis inhibitors on the sensitization of a defensive response in common snails and potentiation of the cholinosensitivity of command neurons. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2007;37:443-9 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the sensitization of the defensive response of the common snail studied here does not require the synthesis of new proteins. ..
  28. Machová E, Rudajev V, Smycková H, Koivisto H, Tanila H, Dolezal V. Functional cholinergic damage develops with amyloid accumulation in young adult APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;38:27-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that functional pre- and postsynaptic cholinergic deficits are not present in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice before 10 weeks of age, but develop along with beta-amyloid accumulation in the brain. ..
  29. Radulovacki M. Adenosine and sleep homeostasis in the basal forebrain: commentary on Blanco-Centurion et al. (2006). Sleep. 2006;29:1381-2; discussion 1387-9 pubmed
  30. Gao J, Coggeshall R, Chung J, Wang J, Wu P. Functional motoneurons develop from human neural stem cell transplants in adult rats. Neuroreport. 2007;18:565-9 pubmed
    ..These findings are steps towards the long-term goal of providing stem cell transplants for motoneuron loss. ..
  31. Cabeza C, Figueroa A, Lazo O, Galleguillos C, Pissani C, Klein A, et al. Cholinergic abnormalities, endosomal alterations and up-regulation of nerve growth factor signaling in Niemann-Pick type C disease. Mol Neurodegener. 2012;7:11 pubmed publisher
  32. Parent M, Descarries L. Acetylcholine innervation of the adult rat thalamus: distribution and ultrastructural features in dorsolateral geniculate, parafascicular, and reticular thalamic nuclei. J Comp Neurol. 2008;511:678-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the entirely synaptic ACh input to PF should allow for a direct relaying of the information from brainstem, affecting basal ganglia function as well as perceptual awareness, including attention and pain perception. ..
  33. Volgin D, Rukhadze I, Kubin L. Hypoglossal premotor neurons of the intermediate medullary reticular region express cholinergic markers. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;105:1576-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus the pre- and postsynaptic cholinergic effects previously described in XII motoneurons may originate, at least in part, in medullary IRt neurons. ..
  34. von Engelhardt J, Eliava M, Meyer A, Rozov A, Monyer H. Functional characterization of intrinsic cholinergic interneurons in the cortex. J Neurosci. 2007;27:5633-42 pubmed
    ..This indirect effect is mediated by nicotinic receptors that are presumably presynaptically localized. Thus, intrinsic bipolar cholinergic neurons can modulate cortical function locally. ..
  35. Mazzanti C, Spanevello R, Ahmed M, Pereira L, Gonçalves J, Correa M, et al. Pre-treatment with ebselen and vitamin E modulate acetylcholinesterase activity: interaction with demyelinating agents. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2009;27:73-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In this context, we can suggest that ebselen and Vit E should be considered potential therapeutics and scientific tools to be investigated in brain disorders associated with demyelinating events. ..
  36. Dwyer T, Servatius R, Pang K. Noncholinergic lesions of the medial septum impair sequential learning of different spatial locations. J Neurosci. 2007;27:299-303 pubmed
  37. Nagode D, Tang A, Karson M, Klugmann M, Alger B. Optogenetic release of ACh induces rhythmic bursts of perisomatic IPSCs in hippocampus. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27691 pubmed publisher
    ..pyramidale confirmed that the LFPs were driven by perisomatic inhibition. This optogenetic approach may be a useful complementary technique in future investigations of endogenous ACh effects. ..
  38. Vago D, Kesner R. Cholinergic modulation of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats: differential effects of intrahippocampal infusion of mecamylamine and methyllycaconitine. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2007;87:441-9 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the greatest deficits in long-term retention (1 week) of contextual fear are produced by central infusion of MLA minutes to hours post-conditioning or mecamylamine within minutes of conditioning. ..
  39. Li W, Antuono P, Xie C, Chen G, Jones J, Ward B, et al. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow and functional connectivity in the cholinergic pathway associated with cognitive performance in subjects with mild Alzheimer's disease after 12-week donepezil treatment. Neuroimage. 2012;60:1083-91 pubmed publisher
    ..It also is suggested that the combined pCASL-MRI and R-fMRI methods could be used to detect regional CBF and FC changes when using drug treatments in mild AD subjects. ..
  40. Koszegi Z, Szego E, Cheong R, Tolod Kemp E, Abraham I. Postlesion estradiol treatment increases cortical cholinergic innervations via estrogen receptor-? dependent nonclassical estrogen signaling in vivo. Endocrinology. 2011;152:3471-82 pubmed publisher
    ..They also reveal the critical role of nonclassical estrogen signaling via estrogen receptor-? and protein kinase A-MAPK pathways in E2-induced restorative action in the cholinergic system in vivo. ..
  41. Hoard J, Hoover D, Wondergem R. Phenotypic properties of adult mouse intrinsic cardiac neurons maintained in culture. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C1875-83 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, these cultures provide a viable model for evaluating the physiology, pharmacology, and trophic factor sensitivity of adult mouse cardiac parasympathetic neurons. ..
  42. Bohnen N, Albin R. The cholinergic system and Parkinson disease. Behav Brain Res. 2011;221:564-73 pubmed publisher
  43. Apostolova G, Dechant G. Development of neurotransmitter phenotypes in sympathetic neurons. Auton Neurosci. 2009;151:30-8 pubmed publisher
  44. Hanganu I, Staiger J, Ben Ari Y, Khazipov R. Cholinergic modulation of spindle bursts in the neonatal rat visual cortex in vivo. J Neurosci. 2007;27:5694-705 pubmed
    ..Thus, the cholinergic input facilitates the neonatal V1 spindle bursts and may prime the developing cortex to operate specifically on relevant early (retinal waves) and later (visual input) stimuli. ..
  45. Briand L, Gritton H, Howe W, Young D, Sarter M. Modulators in concert for cognition: modulator interactions in the prefrontal cortex. Prog Neurobiol. 2007;83:69-91 pubmed
  46. Scelzo E, Giannicola G, Rosa M, Ciocca M, Ardolino G, Cogiamanian F, et al. Increased short latency afferent inhibition after anodal transcranial direct current stimulation. Neurosci Lett. 2011;498:167-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The enhancement of cortical cholinergic activity assessed by SLAI could be an important mechanism explaining anodal tDCS action in several pathological conditions. ..
  47. Robinson L, Platt B, Riedel G. Involvement of the cholinergic system in conditioning and perceptual memory. Behav Brain Res. 2011;221:443-65 pubmed publisher
  48. Horie T, Nakagawa M, Sasakura Y, Kusakabe T, Tsuda M. Simple motor system of the ascidian larva: neuronal complex comprising putative cholinergic and GABAergic/glycinergic neurons. Zoolog Sci. 2010;27:181-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The simple CPG of the ascidian larva may represent the ancestral state of the vertebrate motor system. ..
  49. Alpar A, Ueberham U, Seeger G, Arendt T, Gärtner U. Effects of wild-type and mutant human amyloid precursor protein on cortical afferent network. Neuroreport. 2007;18:1247-50 pubmed
    ..9 mice but decreased in Tg2576 mice. Furthermore, perisomatic inhibition of pyramidal neurons was found to be reduced in Tg2576 mice. Findings suggest different effects of wild-type and mutant hAPP on neuronal connectivity. ..
  50. Perez S, Tierney A, Deniau J, Kemel M. Tachykinin regulation of cholinergic transmission in the limbic/prefrontal territory of the rat dorsal striatum: implication of new neurokinine 1-sensitive receptor binding site and interaction with enkephalin/mu opioid receptor transmission. J Neurochem. 2007;103:2153-63 pubmed
    ..In the afternoon, the tachykinin/NK(1)R and the enkephalin/MOR transmissions interact to control cholinergic transmission. ..
  51. Chuah L, Chee M. Cholinergic augmentation modulates visual task performance in sleep-deprived young adults. J Neurosci. 2008;28:11369-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Cholinergic augmentation can alleviate these deficits in individuals vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation, but it may have neutral or negative effects on those resistant to sleep deprivation. ..
  52. Vanneste G, Van Nassauw L, Kalfin R, Van Colen I, Elinck E, Van Crombruggen K, et al. Jejunal cholinergic, nitrergic, and soluble guanylate cyclase activity in postoperative ileus. Surgery. 2008;144:410-26 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this inflammation induces impaired nitrergic neurotransmission related to decreased NOS-1 activity in the nitrergic nerves. ..
  53. Jeong J, Lee D, Jo Y. Cholinergic neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus regulate food intake. Mol Metab. 2017;6:306-312 pubmed publisher
    ..Direct activation of cholinergic fibers in the ARC readily stimulates food intake that is also abolished by the muscarinic receptor antagonist...