amacrine cells


Summary: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.

Top Publications

  1. Qiu F, Jiang H, Xiang M. A comprehensive negative regulatory program controlled by Brn3b to ensure ganglion cell specification from multipotential retinal precursors. J Neurosci. 2008;28:3392-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Brn3b specifies the RGC fate from multipotential precursors not only by promoting RGC differentiation but also by suppressing non-RGC differentiation programs as a safeguard mechanism. ..
  2. Ding Q, Chen H, Xie X, Libby R, Tian N, Gan L. BARHL2 differentially regulates the development of retinal amacrine and ganglion neurons. J Neurosci. 2009;29:3992-4003 pubmed publisher
    ..Barhl2, a member of the Barh gene family, is expressed in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), amacrine cells (ACs), and horizontal cells...
  3. May C, Nakamura K, Fujiyama F, Yanagawa Y. Quantification and characterization of GABA-ergic amacrine cells in the retina of GAD67-GFP knock-in mice. Acta Ophthalmol. 2008;86:395-400 pubmed
    Although the presence of gamma-aminobutyrate acid (GABA) in amacrine cells and its co-localization with other neuronal substances is well known, there exists only little information about their quantitative distribution in the mouse eye...
  4. Chavez A, Grimes W, Diamond J. Mechanisms underlying lateral GABAergic feedback onto rod bipolar cells in rat retina. J Neurosci. 2010;30:2330-9 pubmed publisher
    GABAergic feedback inhibition from amacrine cells shapes visual signaling in the inner retina...
  5. Wei W, Hamby A, Zhou K, Feller M. Development of asymmetric inhibition underlying direction selectivity in the retina. Nature. 2011;469:402-6 pubmed publisher
    ..circuit in the retina relies upon highly selective wiring of inhibitory inputs from starburst amacrine cells (SACs) onto four subtypes of ON-OFF direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs), each preferring motion in one ..
  6. Lin B, Masland R. Populations of wide-field amacrine cells in the mouse retina. J Comp Neurol. 2006;499:797-809 pubmed
    We surveyed wide-field amacrine cells in the mouse, using a large series of retinas from a transgenic strain that expresses the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in isolated retinal cells...
  7. Cherry T, Wang S, Bormuth I, Schwab M, Olson J, Cepko C. NeuroD factors regulate cell fate and neurite stratification in the developing retina. J Neurosci. 2011;31:7365-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, NeuroD2 is endogenously expressed in AII amacrine cells, among others, and loss of NeuroD2 function results in a partial loss of AII amacrine cells...
  8. Fox D, Hamilton W, Johnson J, Xiao W, Chaney S, Mukherjee S, et al. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011;256:258-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice ..
  9. Kay J, Voinescu P, Chu M, Sanes J. Neurod6 expression defines new retinal amacrine cell subtypes and regulates their fate. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:965-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In the mammalian retina, the ?30 subtypes of inhibitory interneurons called amacrine cells (ACs) are generally divided into two groups: wide/medium-field GABAergic ACs and narrow-field glycinergic ACs, ..

More Information


  1. Sakagami K, Chen B, Nusinowitz S, Wu H, Yang X. PTEN regulates retinal interneuron morphogenesis and synaptic layer formation. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2012;49:171-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In Pten mutant retinas, various subtypes of amacrine cells show severe dendritic overgrowth, causing specific expansion of the inner plexiform layer...
  2. Cuenca N, Herrero M, Angulo A, de Juan E, Martínez Navarrete G, López S, et al. Morphological impairments in retinal neurons of the scotopic visual pathway in a monkey model of Parkinson's disease. J Comp Neurol. 2005;493:261-73 pubmed
    ..However, the morphology and connectivity of their postsynaptic neurons, the amacrine cells, have not been analyzed...
  3. Avanesov A, Dahm R, Sewell W, Malicki J. Mutations that affect the survival of selected amacrine cell subpopulations define a new class of genetic defects in the vertebrate retina. Dev Biol. 2005;285:138-55 pubmed
    ..for mutant phenotypes, we performed mosaic analysis and demonstrated that the loss of parvalbumin-positive amacrine cells in chy mutants is due to extrinsic (cell-nonautonomous) causes...
  4. Jakobs T, Libby R, Ben Y, John S, Masland R. Retinal ganglion cell degeneration is topological but not cell type specific in DBA/2J mice. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:313-25 pubmed
    ..However, the architecture of the mouse eye seems to preclude a commonly postulated source of mechanical damage within the nerve head. ..
  5. Nakazawa T, Endo S, Shimura M, Kondo M, Ueno S, Tamai M. Retinal G-substrate, potential downstream component of NO/cGMP/PKG pathway, is located in subtype of retinal ganglion cells and amacrine cells with protein phosphatases. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;135:58-68 pubmed
    ..In adult rats and mice, retinal G-substrate was located in a subpopulation of amacrine cells and in C38-positive retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) but not in alpha RGCs...
  6. Auferkorte O, Baden T, Kaushalya S, Zabouri N, Rudolph U, Haverkamp S, et al. GABA(A) receptors containing the ?2 subunit are critical for direction-selective inhibition in the retina. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35109 pubmed publisher
    ..circuits include several subtypes of ganglion cells (GCs) and inhibitory interneurons, such as starburst amacrine cells (SACs)...
  7. Sosa R, Gleason E. Activation of mGluR5 modulates Ca2+ currents in retinal amacrine cells from the chick. Vis Neurosci. 2004;21:807-16 pubmed
    In the inner plexiform layer, amacrine cells receive glutamatergic input from bipolar cells...
  8. Zimov S, Yazulla S. Vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1/VR1) co-localizes with fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in retinal amacrine cells. Vis Neurosci. 2007;24:581-91 pubmed
    ..neural system in which TRPV1-IR co-localizes in subpopulations of FAAH-immunoreactive neurons, in this case amacrine cells. These cells are rare and consist of three subtypes: 1...
  9. Veruki M, Gill S, Hartveit E. Spontaneous IPSCs and glycine receptors with slow kinetics in wide-field amacrine cells in the mature rat retina. J Physiol. 2007;581:203-19 pubmed
    The functional properties of glycine receptors were analysed in different types of wide-field amacrine cells, narrowly stratifying cells considered to play a role in larger-scale integration across the retina...
  10. Raymond I, Vila A, Huynh U, Brecha N. Cyan fluorescent protein expression in ganglion and amacrine cells in a thy1-CFP transgenic mouse retina. Mol Vis. 2008;14:1559-74 pubmed
    ..GAD(67)), GABA plasma membrane transporter-1 (GAT-1), and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), which immunolabel amacrine cells. CFP was extensively expressed in the inner retina, primarily in the inner plexiform layer (IPL), ganglion ..
  11. Conte I, Marco Ferreres R, Beccari L, Cisneros E, Ruiz J, Tabanera N, et al. Proper differentiation of photoreceptors and amacrine cells depends on a regulatory loop between NeuroD and Six6. Development. 2010;137:2307-17 pubmed publisher
    ..expressed in multipotent retina progenitors and then becomes restricted to differentiated retinal ganglion and amacrine cells. How Six6 expression in the retina is controlled and what are its precise functions are still unclear...
  12. Glover G, Mueller K, Sollner C, Neuhauss S, Nicolson T. The Usher gene cadherin 23 is expressed in the zebrafish brain and a subset of retinal amacrine cells. Mol Vis. 2012;18:2309-22 pubmed
    ..In the retina, cdh23 mRNA was expressed in a small subset of amacrine cells, beginning at 70 h postfertilization and continuing through adulthood...
  13. Li G, Vigh J, von Gersdorff H. Short-term depression at the reciprocal synapses between a retinal bipolar cell terminal and amacrine cells. J Neurosci. 2007;27:7377-85 pubmed
    ..Here, we studied short-term plasticity at the reciprocal synapse between bipolar cell terminals and amacrine cells in goldfish retinal slices...
  14. Kamioka Y, Fujikawa C, Ogai K, Sugitani K, Watanabe S, Kato S, et al. Functional characterization of fish neuroglobin: zebrafish neuroglobin is highly expressed in amacrine cells after optic nerve injury and can translocate into ZF4 cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1834:1779-88 pubmed publisher
    ..the localization of Ngb mRNA and protein in zebrafish retina and found that Ngb mRNA is expressed in amacrine cells in the inner nuclear layer and is significantly increased in amacrine cells 3days after optic nerve injury...
  15. Percival K, Jusuf P, Martin P, Grünert U. Synaptic inputs onto small bistratified (blue-ON/yellow-OFF) ganglion cells in marmoset retina. J Comp Neurol. 2009;517:655-69 pubmed publisher
    ..This structural asymmetry of bipolar input may help to balance the weight of cone signals from the sparse S cone array against inputs from the much denser M/L cone array. ..
  16. Mojumder D, Frishman L, Otteson D, Sherry D. Voltage-gated sodium channel alpha-subunits Na(v)1.1, Na(v)1.2, and Na(v)1.6 in the distal mammalian retina. Mol Vis. 2007;13:2163-82 pubmed
    ..Antibodies specific for Na(v)1 alpha-subunits appropriately labeled retinal ganglion cells, their axons, and amacrine cells that are known to have tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive Na(v) channels. Pan-Na(v), Na(v)1.2, and Na(v)1...
  17. Downie L, Vessey K, Miller A, Ward M, Pianta M, Vingrys A, et al. Neuronal and glial cell expression of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors in the rat retina. Neuroscience. 2009;161:195-213 pubmed publisher
    ..for the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT(2)R) was observed on conventional and displaced GABAergic amacrine cells. Co-localization studies showed that AT(2)R-expressing amacrine cells constituted at least two separate sub-..
  18. Petit Jacques J, Bloomfield S. Synaptic regulation of the light-dependent oscillatory currents in starburst amacrine cells of the mouse retina. J Neurophysiol. 2008;100:993-1006 pubmed publisher
    Responses of on-center starburst amacrine cells to steady light stimuli were recorded in the dark-adapted mouse retina...
  19. Lindstrom S, Azizi N, Weller C, Wilson M. Retinal input to efferent target amacrine cells in the avian retina. Vis Neurosci. 2010;27:103-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of excitatory retinal input to TCs implies that TCs are not merely slaves to their midbrain input; instead, their output reflects local retinal activity and descending input from the midbrain. ..
  20. Müller L, Do M, Yau K, He S, Baldridge W. Tracer coupling of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells to amacrine cells in the mouse retina. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:4813-24 pubmed publisher
    ..All three subtypes were tracer coupled to putative amacrine cells situated within the ganglion cell layer (GCL) but not the inner nuclear layer (INL)...
  21. Deans M, Krol A, Abraira V, Copley C, Tucker A, Goodrich L. Control of neuronal morphology by the atypical cadherin Fat3. Neuron. 2011;71:820-32 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, retinal amacrine cells (ACs) project primary dendrites into a discrete synaptic layer called the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and only ..
  22. Yonehara K, Balint K, Noda M, Nagel G, Bamberg E, Roska B. Spatially asymmetric reorganization of inhibition establishes a motion-sensitive circuit. Nature. 2011;469:407-10 pubmed publisher
    ..directionally selective (DS) retinal ganglion cells is a spatially asymmetric inhibitory input from starburst amacrine cells. It is not known how and when this circuit asymmetry is established during development...
  23. Gastinger M, Singh R, Barber A. Loss of cholinergic and dopaminergic amacrine cells in streptozotocin-diabetic rat and Ins2Akita-diabetic mouse retinas. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:3143-50 pubmed
    To identify amacrine cells that are vulnerable to degeneration during the early stages of diabetes. Whole retinas from streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats and Ins2(Akita) mice were fixed in paraformaldehyde...
  24. Hoshi H, Tian L, Massey S, Mills S. Two distinct types of ON directionally selective ganglion cells in the rabbit retina. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:2509-21 pubmed publisher
    ..One of these is strongly tracer-coupled to amacrine cells; the other is never tracer-coupled...
  25. Han Y, Massey S. Electrical synapses in retinal ON cone bipolar cells: subtype-specific expression of connexins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:13313-8 pubmed form a complex, interconnecting network through electrical synapses that are either heterologous (with amacrine cells) or homologous (with other bipolar cells)...
  26. Jusuf P, Almeida A, Randlett O, Joubin K, Poggi L, Harris W. Origin and determination of inhibitory cell lineages in the vertebrate retina. J Neurosci. 2011;31:2549-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that an extrinsic negative feedback on the expression of Ptf1a provides a control mechanism by which the number of any and all types of inhibitory cells in the retina can be regulated in this lineage-dependent way. ..
  27. Pang J, Abd El Barr M, Gao F, Bramblett D, Paul D, Wu S. Relative contributions of rod and cone bipolar cell inputs to AII amacrine cell light responses in the mouse retina. J Physiol. 2007;580:397-410 pubmed
    AII amacrine cells (AIIACs) are crucial relay stations for rod-mediated signals in the mammalian retina and they receive synaptic inputs from depolarizing and hyperpolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs and HBCs) as well as from other amacrine ..
  28. Godinho L, Mumm J, Williams P, Schroeter E, Koerber A, Park S, et al. Targeting of amacrine cell neurites to appropriate synaptic laminae in the developing zebrafish retina. Development. 2005;132:5069-79 pubmed
    ..Using transgenic zebrafish in which the majority of amacrine cells express fluorescent protein, we determined that the earliest amacrine-derived neuritic plexus formed between ..
  29. Majumdar S, Weiss J, Wässle H. Glycinergic input of widefield, displaced amacrine cells of the mouse retina. J Physiol. 2009;587:3831-49 pubmed publisher
    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) of displaced amacrine cells of the mouse retina were analysed using whole cell recordings and immunocytochemical staining with subunit-specific antibodies...
  30. Heinze L, Harvey R, Haverkamp S, Wässle H. Diversity of glycine receptors in the mouse retina: localization of the alpha4 subunit. J Comp Neurol. 2007;500:693-707 pubmed
    ..Approximately half of the amacrine cells release glycine at their synapses with bipolar, other amacrine, and ganglion cells...
  31. Masland R. The tasks of amacrine cells. Vis Neurosci. 2012;29:3-9 pubmed
    Their unique patterns of size, numbers, and stratification indicate that amacrine cells have diverse functions. These are mostly unknown, as studies using imaging and electrophysiological methods have only recently begun...
  32. Keeley P, Reese B. Morphology of dopaminergic amacrine cells in the mouse retina: independence from homotypic interactions. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:1220-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results are considered in light of recent studies on the role of cell adhesion molecules expressed by developing DA cells. ..
  33. He Q, Wang P, Tian N. Light-evoked synaptic activity of retinal ganglion and amacrine cells is regulated in developing mouse retina. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;33:36-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We also examined the light-evoked synaptic inputs from ON and OFF synaptic pathways to amacrine cells in developing retinas and found that the light-evoked synaptic input of amacrine cells is also downregulated ..
  34. Kaneda M, Ito K, Morishima Y, Shigematsu Y, Shimoda Y. Characterization of voltage-gated ionic channels in cholinergic amacrine cells in the mouse retina. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97:4225-34 pubmed
    Recent studies have shown that cholinergic amacrine cells possess unique membrane properties. However, voltage-gated ionic channels in cholinergic amacrine cells have not been characterized systematically...
  35. Vaney D, Sivyer B, Taylor W. Direction selectivity in the retina: symmetry and asymmetry in structure and function. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012;13:194-208 pubmed publisher
  36. Moreira E, Adler R. Effects of follistatin overexpression on cell differentiation in the chick embryo retina. Dev Biol. 2006;298:272-84 pubmed
    ..they showed a reduction of the inner plexiform layer, accompanied by a marked decrease in the frequency of amacrine cells. The territory lacking amacrine cells showed downregulation of transcription factors necessary for amacrine ..
  37. Lin B, Jakobs T, Masland R. Different functional types of bipolar cells use different gap-junctional proteins. J Neurosci. 2005;25:6696-701 pubmed
    Rod signals are transmitted to ON retinal ganglion cells by means of gap junctions between AII amacrine cells and ON bipolars...
  38. Downie L, Hatzopoulos K, Pianta M, Vingrys A, Wilkinson Berka J, Kalloniatis M, et al. Angiotensin type-1 receptor inhibition is neuroprotective to amacrine cells in a rat model of retinopathy of prematurity. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:41-63 pubmed publisher
    ..A reduction in the density of glycine-immunoreactive amacrine cells, and particularly parvalbumin-immunoreactive AII amacrine cells, was observed following ROP...
  39. Zhang J, Yang Z, Wu S. Development of cholinergic amacrine cells is visual activity-dependent in the postnatal mouse retina. J Comp Neurol. 2005;484:331-43 pubmed
    ..present study, we used immunocytochemistry to study the temporal and spatial arrangement of mouse cholinergic amacrine cells during postnatal retinal development under normal light/dark cycles and during visual deprivation...
  40. Dumitrescu O, Pucci F, Wong K, Berson D. Ectopic retinal ON bipolar cell synapses in the OFF inner plexiform layer: contacts with dopaminergic amacrine cells and melanopsin ganglion cells. J Comp Neurol. 2009;517:226-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Imaging studies in dissociated bipolar cells show that these ectopic ribbon synapses are capable of vesicular release. There is thus an accessory ON sublayer in the outer IPL. ..
  41. Tsukamoto Y, Omi N. Functional allocation of synaptic contacts in microcircuits from rods via rod bipolar to AII amacrine cells in the mouse retina. J Comp Neurol. 2013;521:3541-55 pubmed publisher
    ..are required to relay a single-photon rod signal reliably to ganglion cells via rod bipolar (RB) cells and AII amacrine cells. To assess the noise reduction of intercellular signal transmission in this rod-specific pathway, we ..
  42. Mojumder D, Wensel T, Frishman L. Subcellular compartmentalization of two calcium binding proteins, calretinin and calbindin-28 kDa, in ganglion and amacrine cells of the rat retina. Mol Vis. 2008;14:1600-13 pubmed
    ..labeled a larger number of cells compared to calbindin-28 kDa, many, but not all, of which were displaced amacrine cells. The calbindin-28 kDa immunopositive neurons were distinct in that their somata were peripherally encircled by ..
  43. Singer J, Diamond J. Vesicle depletion and synaptic depression at a mammalian ribbon synapse. J Neurophysiol. 2006;95:3191-8 pubmed making paired voltage-clamp recordings from presynaptic rod bipolar cells (RBCs) and postsynaptic AII amacrine cells in an in vitro retinal slice preparation...
  44. Fried S, Münch T, Werblin F. Directional selectivity is formed at multiple levels by laterally offset inhibition in the rabbit retina. Neuron. 2005;46:117-27 pubmed
    ..Cholinergic pathways from outside the dendritic field reach both ON and OFF dendrites, but both of these pathways are normally inactivated by GABAergic synapses. ..
  45. Yamada Y, Koizumi A, Iwasaki E, Watanabe S, Kaneko A. Propagation of action potentials from the soma to individual dendrite of cultured rat amacrine cells is regulated by local GABA input. J Neurophysiol. 2002;87:2858-66 pubmed
    Retinal amacrine cells are interneurons that make lateral and vertical connections in the inner plexiform layer of the retina. Amacrine cells do not possess a long axon, and this morphological feature is the origin of their naming...
  46. O Brien B, Caldwell J, Ehring G, Bumsted O Brien K, Luo S, Levinson S. Tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channels Na(v)1.8 and Na(v)1.9 are expressed in the retina. J Comp Neurol. 2008;508:940-51 pubmed publisher
  47. Schäffer D, Gabriel R. Two major tachykinins, substance P and substance K, are localized to distinct subsets of amacrine cells in the anuran retina. Neurosci Lett. 2005;386:194-8 pubmed
    ..Our results show that both substance P and substance K are localized to wide-field amacrine cells in the retina of a terrestrial frog (Pelobates fuscus)...
  48. Inoue M, Iida A, Satoh S, Kodama T, Watanabe S. COUP-TFI and -TFII nuclear receptors are expressed in amacrine cells and play roles in regulating the differentiation of retinal progenitor cells. Exp Eye Res. 2010;90:49-56 pubmed publisher
    ..antibodies against COUP-TFs and markers for retinal subtypes revealed that COUP-TFI and -TFII are expressed in amacrine cells, especially in a glycinergic subtype in mature mouse retina...
  49. Siegert S, Scherf B, Del Punta K, Didkovsky N, Heintz N, Roska B. Genetic address book for retinal cell types. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest the potential use of a stratification-based screening approach for characterizing neuronal circuitry in other layered brain structures, such as the neocortex. ..
  50. Chen Y, Chiao C. Symmetric synaptic patterns between starburst amacrine cells and direction selective ganglion cells in the rabbit retina. J Comp Neurol. 2008;508:175-83 pubmed publisher
    Inputs from starburst amacrine cells (SACs) to ON-OFF direction selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) in the rabbit retina are themselves directional...
  51. Hoffpauir B, McMains E, Gleason E. Nitric oxide transiently converts synaptic inhibition to excitation in retinal amacrine cells. J Neurophysiol. 2006;95:2866-77 pubmed
    Nitric oxide (NO) is generated by multiple cell types in the vertebrate retina, including amacrine cells. We investigate the role of NO in the modulation of synaptic function using a culture system containing identified retinal amacrine ..
  52. Ma L, Cantrup R, Varrault A, Colak D, Klenin N, Gotz M, et al. Zac1 functions through TGFbetaII to negatively regulate cell number in the developing retina. Neural Dev. 2007;2:11 pubmed
    ..Consequently, supernumerary rod photoreceptors and amacrine cells are generated, the latter of which form an ectopic cellular layer, while other retinal cells are present in ..
  53. Zhang C, McCall M. Receptor targets of amacrine cells. Vis Neurosci. 2012;29:11-29 pubmed publisher
    b>Amacrine cells are a morphologically and functionally diverse group of inhibitory interneurons. Morphologically, they have been divided into approximately 30 types...
  54. Dijk F, Bergen A, Kamphuis W. GAP-43 expression is upregulated in retinal ganglion cells after ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage. Exp Eye Res. 2007;84:858-67 pubmed
    ..Double-labeling showed that in controls and after ischemia GAP-43 was expressed by some amacrine cells of the glycinergic (glycine transporter 1), calretinin-positive, and dopaminergic (tyrosine hydroxylase) ..
  55. Jusuf P, Albadri S, Paolini A, Currie P, Argenton F, Higashijima S, et al. Biasing amacrine subtypes in the Atoh7 lineage through expression of Barhl2. J Neurosci. 2012;32:13929-44 pubmed publisher
    Within the developing vertebrate retina, particular subtypes of amacrine cells (ACs) tend to arise from progenitors expressing the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, Atoh7, which is necessary for the early generation of ..
  56. Elshatory Y, Everhart D, Deng M, Xie X, Barlow R, Gan L. Islet-1 controls the differentiation of retinal bipolar and cholinergic amacrine cells. J Neurosci. 2007;27:12707-20 pubmed
  57. Ford K, Arroyo D, Kay J, Lloyd E, Bryan R, Sanes J, et al. A role for TREK1 in generating the slow afterhyperpolarization in developing starburst amacrine cells. J Neurophysiol. 2013;109:2250-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present several lines of evidence suggesting that the sAHPs in developing starburst amacrine cells (SACs) are mediated by two-pore potassium channels...
  58. Luo H, Jin K, Xie Z, Qiu F, Li S, Zou M, et al. Forkhead box N4 (Foxn4) activates Dll4-Notch signaling to suppress photoreceptor cell fates of early retinal progenitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E553-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data together define a Foxn4-mediated molecular and signaling pathway that underlies the suppression of alternative cell fates of early retinal progenitors. ..
  59. Münch T, Werblin F. Symmetric interactions within a homogeneous starburst cell network can lead to robust asymmetries in dendrites of starburst amacrine cells. J Neurophysiol. 2006;96:471-7 pubmed
    Starburst amacrine cells in the mammalian retina respond asymmetrically to movement along their dendrites; centrifugal movement elicits stronger responses in each dendrite than centripetal movement...
  60. Lee E, Mann L, Rickman D, Lim E, Chun M, Grzywacz N. AII amacrine cells in the distal inner nuclear layer of the mouse retina. J Comp Neurol. 2006;494:651-62 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that distal Dab1-immunoreactive cells are misplaced AII amacrine cells, resulting from genetically modulated anomalies owing to migration errors.
  61. Vitorino M, Jusuf P, Maurus D, Kimura Y, Higashijima S, Harris W. Vsx2 in the zebrafish retina: restricted lineages through derepression. Neural Dev. 2009;4:14 pubmed publisher
    ..factor Ath5, which restricts the fate of progenitors to retinal ganglion cells, horizontal cells, amacrine cells and photoreceptors fates...
  62. Field G, Greschner M, Gauthier J, Rangel C, Shlens J, Sher A, et al. High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue-yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1159-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Second, signals from AII amacrine cells may diverge to most or all of the approximately 20 retinal ganglion cell types in the peripheral primate ..
  63. Wang J, Harris W. The role of combinational coding by homeodomain and bHLH transcription factors in retinal cell fate specification. Dev Biol. 2005;285:101-15 pubmed
    ..Our results confirmed that normal activities of certain combinations were sufficient, and that individually these activities were important for this fate. ..
  64. Schubert T, Degen J, Willecke K, Hormuzdi S, Monyer H, Weiler R. Connexin36 mediates gap junctional coupling of alpha-ganglion cells in mouse retina. J Comp Neurol. 2005;485:191-201 pubmed
    ..Here we show that ON-alpha-ganglion cells in the mouse retina are coupled to amacrine cells, whereas OFF-alpha-ganglion cells are coupled to other OFF-alpha-ganglion cells and to amacrine cells...
  65. Feng L, Xie X, Joshi P, Yang Z, Shibasaki K, Chow R, et al. Requirement for Bhlhb5 in the specification of amacrine and cone bipolar subtypes in mouse retina. Development. 2006;133:4815-25 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal that a bHLH transcription factor cascade is involved in regulating retinal cell differentiation and imply that Bhlhb5 functions downstream of retinogenic factors to specify bipolar and amacrine subtypes. ..
  66. Dumitrescu O, Protti D, Majumdar S, Zeilhofer H, Wässle H. Ionotropic glutamate receptors of amacrine cells of the mouse retina. Vis Neurosci. 2006;23:79-90 pubmed
    The mammalian retina contains approximately 30 different morphological types of amacrine cells, receiving glutamatergic input from bipolar cells...
  67. Chavez A, Singer J, Diamond J. Fast neurotransmitter release triggered by Ca influx through AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Nature. 2006;443:705-8 pubmed
    Feedback inhibition at reciprocal synapses between A17 amacrine cells and rod bipolar cells (RBCs) shapes light-evoked responses in the retina...
  68. Fujitani Y, Fujitani S, Luo H, Qiu F, Burlison J, Long Q, et al. Ptf1a determines horizontal and amacrine cell fates during mouse retinal development. Development. 2006;133:4439-50 pubmed
    ..This mis-specification of neurons results in a complete loss of horizontal cells, a profound decrease of amacrine cells and an increase in ganglion cells...
  69. Anderson J, Mohammed S, Grimm B, Jones B, Koshevoy P, Tasdizen T, et al. The Viking viewer for connectomics: scalable multi-user annotation and summarization of large volume data sets. J Microsc. 2011;241:13-28 pubmed publisher
    ..4) It is capable of applying transformations in real-time. (5) It has an easily extensible user interface, allowing addition of specialized modules without rewriting the viewer. ..
  70. Cederlund M, Morrissey M, Baden T, Scholz D, Vendrell V, Lagnado L, et al. Zebrafish Tg(7.2mab21l2:EGFP)ucd2 transgenics reveal a unique population of retinal amacrine cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:1613-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Amacrine cells constitute a diverse, yet poorly characterized, cell population in the inner retina...
  71. Fuerst P, Koizumi A, Masland R, Burgess R. Neurite arborization and mosaic spacing in the mouse retina require DSCAM. Nature. 2008;451:470-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that some types of retinal amacrine cells from mice with a spontaneous mutation in Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam), a gene encoding an ..
  72. Hausselt S, Euler T, Detwiler P, Denk W. A dendrite-autonomous mechanism for direction selectivity in retinal starburst amacrine cells. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e185 pubmed
    Detection of image motion direction begins in the retina, with starburst amacrine cells (SACs) playing a major role...
  73. Marc R, Jones B, Anderson J, Kinard K, Marshak D, Wilson J, et al. Neural reprogramming in retinal degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:3364-71 pubmed
    ..An instance of human RP provides evidence that rod bipolar cell dendrite switching likely triggers new gene expression patterns and may impair cone pathway function. ..
  74. Veruki M, Oltedal L, Hartveit E. Electrical synapses between AII amacrine cells: dynamic range and functional consequences of variation in junctional conductance. J Neurophysiol. 2008;100:3305-22 pubmed publisher
    AII amacrine cells form a network of electrically coupled interneurons in the mammalian retina and tracer coupling studies suggest that the junctional conductance (G(j)) can be modulated...
  75. Ke J, Zhong Y. Expression of somatostatin receptor subtype 5 in rat retinal amacrine cells. Neuroscience. 2007;144:1025-32 pubmed
    ..In this work, the localization of sst(5) was studied immunocytochemically in rat retinal amacrine cells (ACs)...
  76. Casini G, Rickman D, Brecha N. Expression of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plasma membrane transporter-1 in monkey and human retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:1682-90 pubmed
    ..GAT-1 immunoreactivity was in all VIP-containing cells, but it was absent in TH-immunoreactive amacrine cells and in Mab115A10 immunoreactive bipolar cells...
  77. Tamalu F, Watanabe S. Glutamatergic input is coded by spike frequency at the soma and proximal dendrite of AII amacrine cells in the mouse retina. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:3243-52 pubmed
    In the mammalian retina, AII amacrine cells play a crucial role in scotopic vision...
  78. Taylor W, Smith R. The role of starburst amacrine cells in visual signal processing. Vis Neurosci. 2012;29:73-81 pubmed publisher
    Starburst amacrine cells (SBACs) within the adult mammalian retina provide the critical inhibition that underlies the receptive field properties of direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs)...
  79. Warrier A, Borges S, Dalcino D, Walters C, Wilson M. Calcium from internal stores triggers GABA release from retinal amacrine cells. J Neurophysiol. 2005;94:4196-208 pubmed
    ..Application of an agonist for metabotropic glutamate receptor, known to liberate Ca(2+) from internal stores, enhanced both spontaneous and evoked transmitter release. ..
  80. Keeley P, Whitney I, Raven M, Reese B. Dendritic spread and functional coverage of starburst amacrine cells. J Comp Neurol. 2007;505:539-46 pubmed
    The network of starburst amacrine cells plays a fundamental role in the neural circuitry underlying directional selectivity within the retina...
  81. Publio R, Oliveira R, Roque A. A computational study on the role of gap junctions and rod Ih conductance in the enhancement of the dynamic range of the retina. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6970 pubmed publisher
    ..retina to study the effects of electrical synaptic coupling via gap junctions among rods and among AII amacrine cells on the dynamic range of the retina...
  82. Petrides A, Trexler E. Differential output of the high-sensitivity rod photoreceptor: AII amacrine pathway. J Comp Neurol. 2008;507:1653-62 pubmed publisher
    ..more numerous rods; and 2) ON cone bipolar cells receive highly convergent input via gap junctions with AII amacrine cells, which each receive input from hundreds of rods...
  83. Fried S, Masland R. Image processing: how the retina detects the direction of image motion. Curr Biol. 2007;17:R63-6 pubmed
    In the retina, the beautifully symmetrical 'starburst' amacrine cells interact with each other in a way that creates asymmetrical responses to moving images at their dendritic tips...
  84. Lang B, Zhao L, Cai L, McKie L, Forrester J, McCaig C, et al. GABAergic amacrine cells and visual function are reduced in PAC1 transgenic mice. Neuropharmacology. 2010;58:215-25 pubmed publisher
    ..PACAP signaling plays an important role in the development of retina, particularly in the genesis of GABAergic amacrine cells. Overexpression of the PAC1 receptor leads to an early exit from retinal proliferation, reduced production of ..
  85. Zheng J, Lee S, Zhou Z. A transient network of intrinsically bursting starburst cells underlies the generation of retinal waves. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:363-71 pubmed
    Pharmacologically isolated starburst amacrine cells (SACs) in perinatal rabbit retinas spontaneously generated semiperiodic calcium spikes and long-lasting after-hyperpolarizations (AHPs), mediated by calcium-activated, cyclic AMP-..