anterior horn cells


Summary: MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.

Top Publications

  1. Piao Y, Hashimoto T, Takahama S, Kakita A, Komori T, Morita T, et al. Survival motor neuron (SMN) protein in the spinal anterior horn cells of patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Brain Res. 2011;1372:152-9 pubmed publisher
  2. Yaguchi M, Hashizume Y, Yoshida M, K Gonatas N, Okamoto K. Reduction of the size of the Golgi apparatus of spinal anterior horn cells in patients with X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Amyotroph Lateral Scler Other Motor Neuron Disord. 2003;4:17-21 pubmed
    The Golgi apparatus (GA) of spinal anterior horn cells was examined immunohistochemically in five patients with X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), in five patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and in ..
  3. Kataoka K, Kanje M, Dahlin L. Induction of activating transcription factor 3 after different sciatic nerve injuries in adult rats. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 2007;41:158-66 pubmed
    ..These findings have clinical implications on when it is worthwhile to reconstruct nerve injuries. ..
  4. Jinks S, Bravo M, Hayes S. Volatile anesthetic effects on midbrain-elicited locomotion suggest that the locomotor network in the ventral spinal cord is the primary site for immobility. Anesthesiology. 2008;108:1016-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that volatile anesthetics produce immobility mainly by action on ventral spinal locomotor networks. ..
  5. Grasshoff C, Jurd R, Rudolph U, Antkowiak B. Modulation of presynaptic beta3-containing GABAA receptors limits the immobilizing actions of GABAergic anesthetics. Mol Pharmacol. 2007;72:780-7 pubmed
  6. Fujita Y, Mizuno Y, Takatama M, Okamoto K. Anterior horn cells with abnormal TDP-43 immunoreactivities show fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus in ALS. J Neurol Sci. 2008;269:30-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that neurons with abnormal TDP-43 immunoreactivities are associated with dysfunction of the secretory pathway in motor neurons. ..
  7. Oyanagi K, Yamazaki M, Takahashi H, Watabe K, Wada M, Komori T, et al. Spinal anterior horn cells in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis show ribosomal detachment from, and cisternal distention of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2008;34:650-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In relation to these features, although the possibility of ER stress has been reported in motor neurones of the brainstem and spinal cord of ALS patients, the rER itself has not been a main target of ultrastructural investigation...
  8. Kinoshita Y, Ito H, Hirano A, Fujita K, Wate R, Nakamura M, et al. Nuclear contour irregularity and abnormal transporter protein distribution in anterior horn cells in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2009;68:1184-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In control subjects, immunolabeling on the nuclear envelopes of anterior horn cells (AHCs) was invariably smooth and continuous, whereas in SALS and FALS patients, the AHCs predominantly ..
  9. Furuta N, Makioka K, Fujita Y, Ikeda M, Takatama M, Matsuoka M, et al. Reduced expression of BTBD10 in anterior horn cells with Golgi fragmentation and pTDP-43-positive inclusions in patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neuropathology. 2013;33:397-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduced BTBD10 expression in the anterior horn cells was more frequent in spinal cords from ALS patients than in cords from patients with non-ALS disorders...

More Information

Publications108 found, 100 shown here

  1. Kato S, Funakoshi H, Nakamura T, Kato M, Nakano I, Hirano A, et al. Expression of hepatocyte growth factor and c-Met in the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord in the patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): immunohistochemical studies on sporadic ALS and familial ALS with superoxide dismutase 1 gene mut. Acta Neuropathol. 2003;106:112-20 pubmed
    To clarify the trophic mechanism of residual anterior horn cells affected by sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) and familial ALS (FALS) with superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations, we investigated the immunohistochemical ..
  2. Burzomato V, Beato M, Groot Kormelink P, Colquhoun D, Sivilotti L. Single-channel behavior of heteromeric alpha1beta glycine receptors: an attempt to detect a conformational change before the channel opens. J Neurosci. 2004;24:10924-40 pubmed
    ..Distinguishing between the two mechanisms will be important for our understanding of the structural dynamics of activation in the nicotinic superfamily and is important for our understanding of mutations in these receptors. ..
  3. Mizuno Y, Amari M, Takatama M, Aizawa H, Mihara B, Okamoto K. Immunoreactivities of p62, an ubiqutin-binding protein, in the spinal anterior horn cells of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 2006;249:13-8 pubmed
    ..presence of skein-like inclusions, Lewy body-like inclusions, and basophilic inclusions in the remaining anterior horn cells, in which these inclusions contain ubiquitin, while the other characteristic inclusions of Bunina type are ..
  4. Grasshoff C, Antkowiak B. Effects of isoflurane and enflurane on GABAA and glycine receptors contribute equally to depressant actions on spinal ventral horn neurones in rats. Br J Anaesth. 2006;97:687-94 pubmed
    ..The fraction of inhibition mediated by both receptor systems differs between specific volatile anaesthetics. Our data argue against the theory that a dominant molecular mechanism accounts for spinal effects of volatile anaesthetics. ..
  5. Karlsson J, Fong K, Hansson M, Elmér E, Csiszar K, Keep M. Life span extension and reduced neuronal death after weekly intraventricular cyclosporin injections in the G93A transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurosurg. 2004;101:128-37 pubmed
    ..The remarkably low intrathecal CsA dose required for neuroprotection reduces potential adverse effects of systemic immunosuppression or nephrotoxicity seen with chronic systemic delivery of the drug. ..
  6. Kato S, Kato M, Abe Y, Matsumura T, Nishino T, Aoki M, et al. Redox system expression in the motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): immunohistochemical studies on sporadic ALS, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1)-mutated familial ALS, and SOD1-mutated ALS animal models. Acta Neuropathol. 2005;110:101-12 pubmed
  7. Alvarez F, Jonas P, Sapir T, Hartley R, Berrocal M, Geiman E, et al. Postnatal phenotype and localization of spinal cord V1 derived interneurons. J Comp Neurol. 2005;493:177-92 pubmed
    ..In summary, V1 interneurons develop into ipsilaterally projecting, inhibitory interneurons that include Renshaw cells, Ia inhibitory interneurons, and other unidentified proprioceptive interneurons. ..
  8. Verhey L, Sled J. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric multiple sclerosis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2013;23:337-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Multicenter studies on the sensitivity of these techniques to natural history of disease and treatment response are required before their implementation into clinical practice. ..
  9. Chub N, O Donovan M. Post-episode depression of GABAergic transmission in spinal neurons of the chick embryo. J Neurophysiol. 2001;85:2166-76 pubmed
    ..We conclude that redistribution of intracellular [Cl(-)] during spontaneous episodes is likely to be an important postsynaptic mechanism involved in the post-episode depression of GABAergic transmission in chick embryo spinal neurons...
  10. Leis A, Van Gerpen J, Sejvar J. The aetiology of flaccid paralysis in West Nile virus infection. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:940; author reply 940-1 pubmed
  11. Tarabal O, Caldero J, Casas C, Oppenheim R, Esquerda J. Protein retention in the endoplasmic reticulum, blockade of programmed cell death and autophagy selectively occur in spinal cord motoneurons after glutamate receptor-mediated injury. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2005;29:283-98 pubmed
  12. Mizuno Y, Fujita Y, Takatama M, Okamoto K. Peripherin partially localizes in Bunina bodies in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 2011;302:14-8 pubmed publisher
    ..presence of Bunina bodies, skein-like inclusions, and Lewy body-like inclusions (LBLIs) in the remaining anterior horn cells, where the first and third structures are detected by Hematoxylin-Eosin (H & E) staining...
  13. Horvath B, Spies C, Warden C, Diano S, Horvath T. Uncoupling protein 2 in primary pain and temperature afferents of the spinal cord. Brain Res. 2002;955:260-3 pubmed
    ..The expression of UCP2 in primary sensory afferents of the spinal cord suggests that this mitochondrial uncoupler is involved in the mechanism of pain and temperature sensation. ..
  14. Weber M. [The role of genetics in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis]. Praxis (Bern 1994). 2004;93:275-9 pubmed
  15. Tokunaga H, Osoegawa M, Murai H, Ochi H, Minohara M, Taniwaki T, et al. Anterior horn cell involvement in myelitis with atopic diathesis (atopic myelitis). Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi. 2004;95:36-43 pubmed
    To clarify the involvement of anterior horn cells in myelitis with atopic diathesis (atopic myelitis), 20 patients with atopic myelitis were subjected to neurological evaluation, concentric needle electromyography (EMG), spinal cord ..
  16. Kato Y, Kataoka H, Ichihara K, Imajo Y, Kojima T, Kawano S, et al. Biomechanical study of cervical flexion myelopathy using a three-dimensional finite element method. J Neurosurg Spine. 2008;8:436-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This type of CFM corresponds to the more recently reported clinical cases with combined long tract signs and sensory disturbance. ..
  17. Henderson R, McCombe P. Assessment of Motor Units in Neuromuscular Disease. Neurotherapeutics. 2017;14:69-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is the most important disease of anterior horn cells. The need for an effective biomarker for assessing disease progression and for use in clinical trials in ..
  18. Alexianu M, Kozovska M, Appel S. Immune reactivity in a mouse model of familial ALS correlates with disease progression. Neurology. 2001;57:1282-9 pubmed
  19. Gilerovich E, Moshonkina T, Fedorova E, Shishko T, Pavlova N, Gerasimenko Y, et al. Morphofunctional characteristics of the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord in rats. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2008;38:855-60 pubmed publisher
    ..A non-myelinated component of the corticospinal tract, including axonal varicosities and synaptic contacts, was observed in the dorsal part of the white matter of the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord. ..
  20. Pavel J, Tang H, Brimijoin S, Moughamian A, Nishioku T, Benicky J, et al. Expression and transport of Angiotensin II AT1 receptors in spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerve of the rat. Brain Res. 2008;1246:111-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We found inconsistent levels of AT(2) receptor binding and mRNA. Our results suggest multiple roles of Angiotensin II AT(1) receptors in the regulation of sensory and motor functions. ..
  21. Ahdab R, Creange A, Benaderette S, Lefaucheur J. Cervical spondylotic amyotrophy presenting as dropped head syndrome. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2009;111:874-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our case enlarges the clinical spectrum of focal cervical anterior horn disease, which classically results in more distal monomelic atrophy affecting one or both upper limbs. ..
  22. Mc Donough S, Clowry G, Miller S, Eyre J. Reciprocal and Renshaw (recurrent) inhibition are functional in man at birth. Brain Res. 2001;899:66-81 pubmed
    ..In four neonates reciprocal inhibitory responses in Bi disappeared when the tap to Tri evoked its own homonymous phasic stretch reflex, providing neurophysiological evidence for Renshaw inhibition of Group Ia inhibitory interneurones. ..
  23. De Paola M, Diana V, Bigini P, Mennini T. Morphological features and responses to AMPA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity of mouse motor neurons: comparison in purified, mixed anterior horn or motor neuron/glia cocultures. J Neurosci Methods. 2008;170:85-95 pubmed publisher
  24. Castro A, Aguilar J, González Ramírez R, Loeza Alcocer E, Canto Bustos M, Felix R, et al. Tonic inhibition in spinal ventral horn interneurons mediated by ?5 subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;412:26-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that GABA(A) receptors containing the ?(5) subunit mediate the tonic inhibitory currents observed in VHIs. ..
  25. Zhu L, Huang G, Sheng J, Fu Q, Chen A. High-mobility group box 1 induces neuron autophagy in a rat spinal root avulsion model. Neuroscience. 2016;315:286-95 pubmed publisher
  26. Moran Rivard L, Kagawa T, Saueressig H, Gross M, Burrill J, Goulding M. Evx1 is a postmitotic determinant of v0 interneuron identity in the spinal cord. Neuron. 2001;29:385-99 pubmed
    ..Our findings demonstrate that Evx1 is a postmitotic determinant of V0 interneuron identity and reveal a critical postmitotic phase for neuronal determination in the developing spinal cord. ..
  27. Kishino A, Nakayama C. Enhancement of BDNF and activated-ERK immunoreactivity in spinal motor neurons after peripheral administration of BDNF. Brain Res. 2003;964:56-66 pubmed
    ..These findings represent the first direct evidence that subcutaneously injected BDNF is transported to motor neurons and that it activates a signaling pathway in the spinal cord and exhibits neurotrophic effects in vivo. ..
  28. Ren L, Wienecke J, Chen M, Møller M, Hultborn H, Zhang M. The time course of serotonin 2C receptor expression after spinal transection of rats: an immunohistochemical study. Neuroscience. 2013;236:31-46 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that 5-HT2CR is probably an important factor underlying this pathophysiological development by increasing the excitability of both motoneurons and interneurons. ..
  29. Rodriguez Ithurralde D, Olivera S, La Paz A, Vincent O, Rondeau A. Glycine effects on glutamate-receptor elicited acetylcholinesterase release from slices and synaptosomes of the spinal ventral horn. J Neurol Sci. 1996;139 Suppl:76-82 pubmed
    ..It is possible that the mechanisms described are operative at the spinal cord of ALS/MND patients. ..
  30. Yamamoto M, Li M, Mitsuma N, Ito S, Kato M, Takahashi M, et al. Preserved phosphorylation of RET receptor protein in spinal motor neurons of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an immunohistochemical study by a phosphorylation-specific antibody at tyrosine 1062. Brain Res. 2001;912:89-94 pubmed
  31. Tsai C, Jong Y, Hu C, Chen C, Shih M, Chang C, et al. Molecular analysis of SMN, NAIP and P44 genes of SMA patients and their families. J Neurol Sci. 2001;190:35-40 pubmed
    ..We also found two novel point mutations, an A insertion at codon 8 (AGT-->AAGT) and an A substitution at codon 228 (TTA-->TAA). ..
  32. Eisen A. Kennedy's disease: a lower motor neuron model to identify upper motor neuron physiology in ALS. Clin Neurophysiol. 2008;119:971-2 pubmed publisher
  33. Tom V, Kadakia R, Santi L, Houle J. Administration of chondroitinase ABC rostral or caudal to a spinal cord injury site promotes anatomical but not functional plasticity. J Neurotrauma. 2009;26:2323-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that ChABC-mediated sprouting of spared fibers does not necessarily translate into functional recovery. ..
  34. Sasaki S, Iwata M. Dendritic synapses of anterior horn neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an ultrastructural study. Acta Neuropathol. 1996;91:278-83 pubmed
    ..The preservation of these synapses may be due to their relative resistance to degenerative processes, or may represent a compensatory mechanism of the synapses for diminished synaptic function in distal dendrites. ..
  35. Al Shekhlee A, Katirji B. Electrodiagnostic features of acute paralytic poliomyelitis associated with West Nile virus infection. Muscle Nerve. 2004;29:376-80 pubmed
    ..This report highlights the value of the electrodiagnostic studies in the diagnosis and prognosis of focal or generalized weakness due to acute paralytic poliomyelitis associated with WNV infection. ..
  36. Dengler R. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: who has the lead, the upper or the lower motor neuron?. Clin Neurophysiol. 2011;122:433-434 pubmed publisher
  37. Sasaki S, Shibata N, Komori T, Iwata M. iNOS and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurosci Lett. 2000;291:44-8 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that selective nitric oxide-mediated oxidative damage in the motor system plays a part in the pathomechanism of the neuronal degeneration in the spinal cord of sporadic ALS. ..
  38. Beattie C. Control of motor axon guidance in the zebrafish embryo. Brain Res Bull. 2000;53:489-500 pubmed
    ..Knowledge gained from this body of work not only relates to zebrafish, but to vertebrate axon guidance in general. ..
  39. Schucht P, Raineteau O, Schwab M, Fouad K. Anatomical correlates of locomotor recovery following dorsal and ventral lesions of the rat spinal cord. Exp Neurol. 2002;176:143-53 pubmed
    ..Locomotion on the grid walk required sparing in the ventrolateral funiculus and additional sparing of the dorsolateral and dorsal funiculus, where the cortico- and rubrospinal tracts are located. ..
  40. Carlin K, Brownstone R. Rapid pH and PO2 changes in the tissue recording chamber during stoppage of a gas-equilibrated perfusate: effects on calcium currents in ventral horn neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:1353-8 pubmed
  41. Rank M, Li X, Bennett D, Gorassini M. Role of endogenous release of norepinephrine in muscle spasms after chronic spinal cord injury. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97:3166-80 pubmed
  42. Thakore N, Pioro E, Rucker J, Leigh R. Motor neuronopathy with dropped hands and downbeat nystagmus: a distinctive disorder? A case report. BMC Neurol. 2006;6:3 pubmed
  43. Stephens B, Guiloff R, Navarrete R, Newman P, Nikhar N, Lewis P. Widespread loss of neuronal populations in the spinal ventral horn in sporadic motor neuron disease. A morphometric study. J Neurol Sci. 2006;244:41-58 pubmed
    ..The increasing evidence of loss of neurons other than motor neurons in MND suggests the need for revising the concept of selective motor neuron vulnerability. ..
  44. Theiss R, Kuo J, Heckman C. Persistent inward currents in rat ventral horn neurones. J Physiol. 2007;580:507-22 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the persistent sodium current plays a major role in determining firing patterns in these cells. ..
  45. Kakinohana M, Oshiro M, Saikawa S, Nakamura S, Higa T, Davison K, et al. Intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine can prevent the degeneration of spinal ventral neurons induced by intrathecal morphine after a noninjurious interval of spinal cord ischemia in rats. Anesth Analg. 2007;105:1086-93, table of contents pubmed
    ..The use of dexmedetomidine may provide beneficial effects on neurological outcome after IT morphine after spinal cord ischemia in rats. ..
  46. Prior T, Nagan N, Sugarman E, Batish S, Braastad C. Technical standards and guidelines for spinal muscular atrophy testing. Genet Med. 2011;13:686-94 pubmed publisher characterized by progressive symmetrical muscle weakness resulting from the degeneration and loss of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and brainstem nuclei...
  47. Katsuse O, Lin W, Lewis J, Hutton M, Dickson D. Neurofibrillary tangle-related synaptic alterations of spinal motor neurons of P301L tau transgenic mice. Neurosci Lett. 2006;409:95-9 pubmed
    We investigated axosomatic synapses of anterior horn cells of transgenic (TG) mice expressing mutant P301L human tau and non-transgenic (NTG) mice using electron microscopic methods to demonstrate the relationship between neurofibrillary ..
  48. Sonmez A, Kabakci B, Vardar E, Gurel D, Sonmez U, Orhan Y, et al. Erythropoietin attenuates neuronal injury and potentiates the expression of pCREB in anterior horn after transient spinal cord ischemia in rats. Surg Neurol. 2007;68:297-303; discussion 303 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that a single dose of EPO given before ISCI provides significant neuroprotection and potentiates the expression of pCREB in this region. ..
  49. Kalueff A, Maisky V, Pilyavskii A, Makarchuk N. Persistent c-fos expression and NADPH-d reactivity in the medulla and the lumbar spinal cord in rat with short-term peripheral anosmia. Neurosci Lett. 2001;301:131-4 pubmed
    ..Nucleus tractus solitaris also contained a few NADPH-d-reactive, medium sized neurons intermixed with Fos-immunoreactive cells. ..
  50. Kobayashi S, Uchida K, Yayama T, Takeno K, Miyazaki T, Shimada S, et al. Motor neuron involvement in experimental lumbar nerve root compression: a light and electron microscopic study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:627-34 pubmed
    ..Patients with weakness of lower leg should therefore be fully informed of the fact that these symptoms will not resolve immediately after surgery. ..
  51. Yamamoto M, Tanaka F, Sobue G. [Gene expression profile of spinal ventral horn in ALS]. Brain Nerve. 2007;59:1129-39 pubmed
  52. Marini G, Pianca L, Tredici G. Descending projections arising from the parafascicular nucleus in rats: trajectory of fibers, projection pattern and mapping of terminations. Somatosens Mot Res. 1999;16:207-22 pubmed
    ..Further investigations are required to resolve this question. ..
  53. Nomura H, Furuta A, Suzuki S, Iwaki T. Dorsal horn lesion resulting from spinal root avulsion leads to the accumulation of stress-responsive proteins. Brain Res. 2001;893:84-94 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Hsp27 is a useful marker for demonstrating dorsal horn lesions following avulsion injury and that avulsion injury may induce Hsp27 in the dorsal horn more rapidly than distal axotomy. ..
  54. Pavelko K, Howe C, Drescher K, Gamez J, Johnson A, Wei T, et al. Interleukin-6 protects anterior horn neurons from lethal virus-induced injury. J Neurosci. 2003;23:481-92 pubmed
    ..Virus antigen was localized predominantly to anterior horn cells in infected IL-6-/- H-2q mice...
  55. Su H, Zhang W, Guo J, Guo A, Yuan Q, Wu W. Lithium enhances the neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells in vitro and after transplantation into the avulsed ventral horn of adult rats through the secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. J Neurochem. 2009;108:1385-98 pubmed publisher
  56. Federici T, Riley J, Park J, Bain M, Boulis N. Preclinical safety validation of a stabilized viral vector direct injection approach to the cervical spinal cord. Clin Transl Sci. 2009;2:165-7 pubmed publisher
    ..0 microL/min) over a period (t= 10 minutes). Preliminary validation is provided by behavioral and targeting data demonstrating safe delivery of a viral vector carrying a fluorescent reporter gene to the cervical spinal cord ventral horn. ..
  57. Koul R, Al Futaisi A, Al Thihli K, Bruwer Z, Scott P. Segmental Spinal Muscular Atrophy Localised to the Lower Limbs: First case from Oman. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2017;17:e355-e357 pubmed publisher
    ..It usually involves all of the skeletal muscles innervated by the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. In rare cases, there is also localised involvement of the spinal cord...
  58. Satoda T, Matsumoto H, Zhou L, Rose P, Richmond F. Mesencephalic projections to the first cervical segment in the cat. Exp Brain Res. 2002;144:397-413 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that at least ten different cell groups project to the ventral horn of the first cervical segment. Most, but not all, groups originate from regions implicated previously in the control of eye or head movements. ..
  59. Chen H, Hippenmeyer S, Arber S, Frank E. Development of the monosynaptic stretch reflex circuit. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2003;13:96-102 pubmed
    ..Finally, neurotrophin 3 released from muscle spindles regulates the strength of sensory-motor connections within the spinal cord postnatally. ..
  60. van de Warrenburg B, Notermans N, Schelhaas H, van Alfen N, Sinke R, Knoers N, et al. Peripheral nerve involvement in spinocerebellar ataxias. Arch Neurol. 2004;61:257-61 pubmed
    ..Electrodiagnostic studies in this group of patients should be conducted in such a way that primary neuronopathy is detected. ..
  61. Fujisawa R, Kimura J, Taniguchi S, Ichikawa H, Hara M, Shimizu H, et al. Effect of volitional relaxation and motor imagery on F wave and MEP: do these tasks affect excitability of the spinal or cortical motor neurons?. Clin Neurophysiol. 2011;122:1405-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings help elucidate physiologic mechanisms underlying motor imagery. ..
  62. Mihaylova T, Biondo A, Zak I, Lewis R. Anterior horn cell loss from subdural hygroma: a consequence of spontaneous spinal fluid leak. J Neurol Sci. 2011;305:156-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The possibility that intervention to prevent or treat the subdural CSF collection might have avoided the shoulder girdle weakness is considered. ..
  63. Baba H, Goldstein P, Okamoto M, Kohno T, Ataka T, Yoshimura M, et al. Norepinephrine facilitates inhibitory transmission in substantia gelatinosa of adult rat spinal cord (part 2): effects on somatodendritic sites of GABAergic neurons. Anesthesiology. 2000;92:485-92 pubmed
    ..The alpha1 actions reported herein may contribute to the analgesic action of intrathecally administered phenylephrine. ..
  64. Lukacova N, Cizkova D, Marsala M, Lukác I, Marsala J. The regional distribution of nitric oxide synthase activity in the spinal cord of the dog. Brain Res Bull. 2002;58:173-8 pubmed
    ..Comparing the enzyme's activity in upper and lower lumbar segments of the spinal cord, cNOS activity prevailed in L4-L7 segments in the dorsal horn and in all the above mentioned white matter columns. ..
  65. Wengenack T, Holasek S, Montano C, Gregor D, Curran G, Poduslo J. Activation of programmed cell death markers in ventral horn motor neurons during early presymptomatic stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a transgenic mouse model. Brain Res. 2004;1027:73-86 pubmed
    ..These enzymes may provide new markers for earlier diagnosis of ALS and new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. ..
  66. Kang J, Albadawi H, Casey P, Abbruzzese T, Patel V, Yoo H, et al. The effects of systemic hypothermia on a murine model of thoracic aortic ischemia reperfusion. J Vasc Surg. 2010;52:435-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that delayed-onset paralysis may be the result of a local insult, rather than a systemic inflammatory event, precipitating spinal cord injury. ..
  67. Del Rayo Garrido M, Silva García R, Garcia E, Martiñón S, Morales M, Mestre H, et al. Therapeutic window for combination therapy of A91 peptide and glutathione allows delayed treatment after spinal cord injury. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2013;112:314-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with this combined strategy has a clinically feasible therapeutic window. This therapy provides enough time to transport and diagnose the patient and allows the concomitant use of other neuroprotective therapies. ..
  68. Kumar S, Mehta V, Shukla R. Owl's eye sign: A rare neuroimaging finding in flail arm syndrome. Neurology. 2015;84:1500 pubmed publisher
  69. Hayashi M, Kobayashi K, Furuta H. Immunohistochemical study of neuronal intranuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions in Machado-Joseph disease. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2003;57:205-13 pubmed
    ..It is noteworthy that the nuclei of the spinal motoneurons lacked 1C2-positive immunoreactivity, so that ubiquitination of 1C2-positive structures is presumed to occur late in the course of the disease...
  70. Iannaccone S, Smith S, Simard L. Spinal muscular atrophy. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2004;4:74-80 pubmed
    ..Rehabilitation and proper management of medical complications have improved both the quality and duration of life for children with spinal muscular atrophy. ..
  71. Aloisi A, Ceccarelli I, Affaitati G, Lerza R, Vecchiet L, Larenna D, et al. c-Fos expression in the spinal cord of female rats with artificial ureteric calculosis. Neurosci Lett. 2004;361:212-5 pubmed
    ..03). Nociceptive input from the ureter thus activates not only sensory but also efferent neurons in the spinal cord, suggesting the triggering of reflex arcs by the visceral focus. ..
  72. Knakiewicz M, Rutowski R, Gosk J, Kuryszko J, Kielan W, Rudno Rudzińska J, et al. The evaluation of the influence of a high injury to brachial plexus elements on the condition of neurons of the anterior horns of the spinal cord--experimental research. Folia Neuropathol. 2009;47:347-53 pubmed
  73. Ostberg P, Bogdanovic N. Semantic dementia with lower motor neuron disease showing FTLD-TDP type 3 pathology (sensu Mackenzie). Neuropathology. 2011;31:271-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that FTLD-TDP type 3 can be associated with semantic dementia and lower motor neuron disease in combination...
  74. Sasaki S, Warita H, Abe K, Iwata M. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of transgenic mice with G93A mutant SOD1 gene. Acta Neuropathol. 2002;103:421-7 pubmed
    ..6%), and at the age of 32 weeks (early symptomatic), nNOS-positive anterior horn cells, including degenerated ones showing central chromatolysis, were frequently demonstrated (27...
  75. Sköld M, Marti H, Lindholm T, Lindå H, Hammarberg H, Risling M, et al. Induction of HIF1alpha but not HIF2alpha in motoneurons after ventral funiculus axotomy-implication in neuronal survival strategies. Exp Neurol. 2004;188:20-32 pubmed
    ..We conclude that axotomized motoneurons in this model respond to injury by specific induction of HIF1alpha and VEGF expression that may provide an endogenous mechanism with the potential to promote motoneuron survival after injury. ..
  76. Wilkinson K, Maurer A, Sadacca B, Yates B. Responses of feline medial medullary reticular formation neurons with projections to the C5-C6 ventral horn to vestibular stimulation. Brain Res. 2004;1018:247-56 pubmed
    ..These data support the hypothesis that the MRF participates in generating vestibulo-respiratory responses, but also suggest that some neurons in this region have other functions. ..
  77. Sethi P, Khandelwal D, Thukral R, Sethi N, Torgovnick J. Neuroimage: monomelic amyotrophy. Eur Neurol. 2006;56:261 pubmed
  78. Wang Y, Pillai S, Wolpaw J, Chen X. H-reflex down-conditioning greatly increases the number of identifiable GABAergic interneurons in rat ventral horn. Neurosci Lett. 2009;452:124-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding supports the hypothesis that the corticospinal tract influence that induces the motoneuron plasticity underlying down-conditioning reaches the motoneuron through GABAergic interneurons in the ventral horn. ..
  79. Ikeda K, Wong V, Holmlund T, Greene T, Cedarbaum J, Lindsay R, et al. Histometric effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor in wobbler mouse motor neuron disease. Ann Neurol. 1995;37:47-54 pubmed
    ..The number of terminal axonal branching points and the mean length of motor end-plates were also higher in the ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated mice (p < 0.001 and p < 0.02, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
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