efferent neurons


Summary: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.

Top Publications

  1. Daberkow D, Riedy M, Kesner R, Keefe K. Arc mRNA induction in striatal efferent neurons associated with response learning. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:228-41 pubmed
    ..striatum is involved in motor-response learning, but the extent to which distinct populations of striatal efferent neurons are differentially involved in such learning is unknown...
  2. Suli A, Mortimer N, Shepherd I, Chien C. Netrin/DCC signaling controls contralateral dendrites of octavolateralis efferent neurons. J Neurosci. 2006;26:13328-37 pubmed
    ..This work is the first evidence that Netrin/DCC signaling acts in dendrites in a vertebrate system. ..
  3. Helke C, Adryan K, Fedorowicz J, Zhuo H, Park J, Curtis R, et al. Axonal transport of neurotrophins by visceral afferent and efferent neurons of the vagus nerve of the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1998;393:102-17 pubmed
    The receptor-mediated axonal transport of [125I]-labeled neurotrophins by afferent and efferent neurons of the vagus nerve was determined to predict the responsiveness of these neurons to neurotrophins in vivo...
  4. Rossel M, Loulier K, Feuillet C, Alonso S, Carroll P. Reelin signaling is necessary for a specific step in the migration of hindbrain efferent neurons. Development. 2005;132:1175-85 pubmed
    ..not previously known to be affected in reeler mutants that show a common migratory defect: the olivocochlear efferent neurons and the facial visceral motor nucleus...
  5. Campero M, Serra J, Bostock H, Ochoa J. Partial reversal of conduction slowing during repetitive stimulation of single sympathetic efferents in human skin. Acta Physiol Scand. 2004;182:305-11 pubmed
    ..The distinctive activity-dependent slowing profiles of these type-4 sympathetic C units may help identification in vitro, and suggest that hyperpolarization-activated channels have a particularly prominent role in the axonal membrane. ..
  6. Haag J, Wertz A, Borst A. Integration of lobula plate output signals by DNOVS1, an identified premotor descending neuron. J Neurosci. 2007;27:1992-2000 pubmed
    ..The specific wiring leads to a preference of DNOVS1 for rotational flow fields around a particular body axis. In addition, DNOVS1 receives input from interneurons connected to the ocelli. ..
  7. Kinoshita M, Ito E, Urano A, Ito H, Yamamoto N. Periventricular efferent neurons in the optic tectum of rainbow trout. J Comp Neurol. 2006;499:546-64 pubmed
    ..of periventricular neurons were examined in the optic tectum of rainbow trout to classify periventricular efferent neurons in salmonids...
  8. Glowatzki E, Fuchs P. Cholinergic synaptic inhibition of inner hair cells in the neonatal mammalian cochlea. Science. 2000;288:2366-8 pubmed
    ..The synaptic currents, as well as the inner hair cell's response to acetylcholine, are mediated by a nicotinic (alpha9-containing) receptor and result in the activation of small-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels. ..
  9. Maison S, Parker L, Young L, Adelman J, Zuo J, Liberman M. Overexpression of SK2 channels enhances efferent suppression of cochlear responses without enhancing noise resistance. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97:2930-6 pubmed

More Information


  1. Goutman J, Fuchs P, Glowatzki E. Facilitating efferent inhibition of inner hair cells in the cochlea of the neonatal rat. J Physiol. 2005;566:49-59 pubmed
    ..Repetitive efferent stimulation at 5 Hz or higher hyperpolarized IHCs by 5-10 mV and could completely prevent the generation of calcium action potentials normally evoked by depolarizing current injection. ..
  2. Katz E, Verbitsky M, Rothlin C, Vetter D, Heinemann S, Elgoyhen A. High calcium permeability and calcium block of the alpha9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Hear Res. 2000;141:117-28 pubmed
  3. Cooper N, Guinan J. Separate mechanical processes underlie fast and slow effects of medial olivocochlear efferent activity. J Physiol. 2003;548:307-12 pubmed
    ..One plausible interpretation of these findings is that efferent slow effects are caused by outer-hair-cell stiffness decreases, while efferent fast effects are caused by reductions in 'negative damping'. ..
  4. Weiss T, Kreissl S, Rathmayer W. Localization of a FMRFamide-related peptide in efferent neurons and analysis of neuromuscular effects of DRNFLRFamide (DF2) in the crustacean Idotea emarginata. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;17:239-48 pubmed
    In the ventral nerve cord of the isopod Idotea emarginata, FMRFamide-immunoreactive efferent neurons are confined to pereion ganglion 5 where a single pair of these neurons was identified...
  5. Sladek C, Somponpun S. Estrogen receptors: their roles in regulation of vasopressin release for maintenance of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2008;29:114-27 pubmed
  6. Guinan J, Lin T, Cheng H. Medial-olivocochlear-efferent inhibition of the first peak of auditory-nerve responses: evidence for a new motion within the cochlea. J Acoust Soc Am. 2005;118:2421-33 pubmed
  7. Babalian A, Vidal P. Floccular modulation of vestibuloocular pathways and cerebellum-related plasticity: An in vitro whole brain study. J Neurophysiol. 2000;84:2514-28 pubmed
  8. Dartt D. Neural regulation of lacrimal gland secretory processes: relevance in dry eye diseases. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2009;28:155-77 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the neural regulation of lacrimal gland secretion under normal and dry eye conditions. ..
  9. de Jonge W, The F, van der Zanden E, van den Wijngaard R, Boeckxstaens G. Inflammation and gut motility; neural control of intestinal immune cell activation. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005;41 Suppl 1:S10-1 pubmed
  10. Hurley R, Hurley A, Berlin C. The effect of midline petrous apex lesions on tests of afferent and efferent auditory function. Ear Hear. 2002;23:224-34 pubmed
    ..Further, the TEOAE suppression paradigm is a clinically relevant test to assay the sound evoked efferent reflex that is mediated by the medial olivocochlear system of the SOC. ..
  11. Sobkowicz H, Slapnick S, August B. Differentiation of spinous synapses in the mouse organ of corti. Synapse. 2002;45:10-24 pubmed
    ..We propose that spinous synapses provide the morphological substrate for local processing of initial auditory signals within the cochlea. ..
  12. Khanbabyan M, Saakyan N, Sarkisyan R, Mushegyan G. Baseline spike activity of neurons in the locus coeruleus of the rat after lesions to a number of medulla oblongata nuclei. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2004;34:315-9 pubmed
    ..These data support the suggestion that the presublingual nucleus plays a significant role in the transmission of afferent influences on the activity of locus coeruleus neurons. ..
  13. Sugiuchi Y, Kakei S, Izawa Y, Shinoda Y. Functional synergies among neck muscles revealed by branching patterns of single long descending motor-tract axons. Prog Brain Res. 2004;143:411-21 pubmed
    ..In addition, in the head-movement system, the elaboration of functional synergies among neck muscles is another strategy, because it helps to decrease the degrees of freedom in this particularly complicated control system. ..
  14. Shankland W. The trigeminal nerve. Part IV: the mandibular division. Cranio. 2001;19:153-61 pubmed
    ..Pain is often referred within its branches and even into other trigeminal divisions, chiefly the maxillary. This fourth and last article about the trigeminal nerve will present in detail the mandibular division. ..
  15. Armour J. Alpha-adrenergic receptor modulation of the intrathoracic efferent sympathetic nervous system regulating the canine heart. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1989;67:1199-204 pubmed
  16. Butcher J. Todd Kuiken: pioneer of prostheses. Lancet Neurol. 2007;6:210 pubmed
  17. Li P, Li S, Lin Y, Liang J, Chien C, Shaw C. Thoracic vagal efferent nerve stimulation evokes substance P-induced early airway bronchonstriction and late proinflammatory and oxidative injury in the rat respiratory tract. J Biomed Sci. 2005;12:671-81 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, TVN efferent stimulation increases substance P release to trigger NF-kappaB mediated ICAM-1 expression and O (2)(-) and H(2)O(2) ROS production in the respiratory tract. ..
  18. Diaz C, Puelles L. [Segmentary organisation of the efferents of the vestibular complex in chicken embryos: is this an example of the general case?]. Rev Neurol. 2002;35:922-30 pubmed
    ..This type of analysis furthers our understanding of how the functional circuitry of a complex system, such as the vestibular system, is generated and is a line of reasoning that in principle can be applied to the whole neural tube. ..
  19. Schofield B, Coomes D. Pathways from auditory cortex to the cochlear nucleus in guinea pigs. Hear Res. 2006;216-217:81-9 pubmed
    ..In the SOC, the contacted cells projected ipsilaterally, contralaterally or bilaterally to the CN. We conclude that auditory cortex is in a position to modulate descending pathways from both the IC and SOC to the cochlear nucleus. ..
  20. Treesukosol Y, Blonde G, Jiang E, Gonzalez D, Smith J, Spector A. Necessity of the glossopharyngeal nerve in the maintenance of normal intake and ingestive bout size of corn oil by rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;299:R1050-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Whatever the mechanism, an intact GL is clearly necessary in maintaining normal intake of corn oil. ..
  21. Yamamoto K, Kawada T, Kamiya A, Takaki H, Sugimachi M, Sunagawa K. Static interaction between muscle mechanoreflex and arterial baroreflex in determining efferent sympathetic nerve activity. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;289:H1604-9 pubmed
    ..991, root mean square = 2.6% between estimated and measured SNA). In conclusion, the response ranges of SNA to baroreceptor and muscle mechanoreceptor input changed in a manner that could be explained by a parallel shift with threshold. ..
  22. Niu X, Canlon B. Activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in the lateral efferent terminals by sound conditioning. Hear Res. 2002;174:124-32 pubmed
  23. Vickers E, Cousins M. Neuropathic orofacial pain part 1--prevalence and pathophysiology. Aust Endod J. 2000;26:19-26 pubmed
  24. Hernadi L. Topographic organization of efferent neurons with different neurochemical characters in the cerebral ganglia of the snail Helix pomatia. Microsc Res Tech. 2000;49:521-33 pubmed
  25. Weller C, Lindstrom S, de Grip W, Wilson M. The area centralis in the chicken retina contains efferent target amacrine cells. Vis Neurosci. 2009;26:249-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the difference between the two species is attributable to the presence of a fovea within the area centralis of the pigeon and its absence from that of the chicken. ..
  26. Schmidt M, Lehnert G, Baker R, Hoffmann K. Dendritic morphology of projection neurons in the cat pretectum. J Comp Neurol. 1996;369:520-32 pubmed
    ..Thus, the morphological appearance of neurons located dorsally predominantly was fusiform while neurons located ventrally mostly were multipolar. ..
  27. Dotson R, Ochoa J, Marchettini P, Cline M. Sympathetic neural outflow directly recorded in patients with primary autonomic failure: clinical observations, microneurography, and histopathology. Neurology. 1990;40:1079-85 pubmed
    ..bursts of sympathetic nerve impulses that confirmed the functional integrity of post-ganglionic sympathetic efferent neurons. Neurosecretory activity of these neurons correlated with the electrophysiologic findings...
  28. Bolay H, Bayazit Y, Gunduz B, Ugur A, Akcali D, Altunyay S, et al. Subclinical dysfunction of cochlea and cochlear efferents in migraine: an otoacoustic emission study. Cephalalgia. 2008;28:309-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption in the contralateral suppression may be one of the mechanisms predisposing to the phonophobia symptom associated with migraine headache. ..
  29. Murinson B, Archer D, Li Y, Griffin J. Degeneration of myelinated efferent fibers prompts mitosis in Remak Schwann cells of uninjured C-fiber afferents. J Neurosci. 2005;25:1179-87 pubmed
    ..In summary, we find that the degeneration of myelinated motor axons produced signals that were mitogenic for nonmyelinating Schwann cells with intact axons but not for myelinating Schwann cells with intact axons. ..
  30. Mikkelsen J. Analysis of the efferent projections of the lateral geniculate nucleus with special reference to the innervation of the subcommissural organ and related areas. Cell Tissue Res. 1994;277:437-45 pubmed
    ..The IGL innervates both the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the pineal organ; the connections between the IGL and the midline structures, including the SCO, suggest that these areas are influenced by the circadian system. ..
  31. Schrott Fischer A, Kammen Jolly K, Scholtz A, Kong W, Eybalin M. Neurotransmission in the human labyrinth. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2002;59:11-7 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemical studies in human inner ear research, however, face a problem of procuring well-preserved specimens with maintained neurotransmitter antigenicity and morphology. Methods and findings are reported and discussed. ..
  32. Cattaert D, Le Bon M, Le Ray D. Efferent controls in crustacean mechanoreceptors. Microsc Res Tech. 2002;58:312-24 pubmed
    ..Several of these mechanisms can coexist on the same sensory neuron, and the functional significance of such multiple modulations is discussed. ..
  33. Wylie D, Pakan J, Elliott C, Graham D, Iwaniuk A. Projections of the nucleus of the basal optic root in pigeons (Columba livia): a comparison of the morphology and distribution of neurons with different efferent projections. Vis Neurosci. 2007;24:691-707 pubmed
    ..We conclude that individual nBOR neurons have unique projections, which may have differential roles in processing optic flow and controlling the optokinetic response. ..
  34. Alibardi L. Putative inhibitory collicular boutons contact large neurons and their dendrites in the dorsal cochlear nucleus of the rat. J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol. 2002;34:433-46 pubmed
  35. Raybould H, Glatzle J, Robin C, Meyer J, Phan T, Wong H, et al. Expression of 5-HT3 receptors by extrinsic duodenal afferents contribute to intestinal inhibition of gastric emptying. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003;284:G367-72 pubmed
    ..The primary glucose sensors of the intestine may be mucosal enterochromaffin cells. ..
  36. Ford A, Gever J, Nunn P, Zhong Y, Cefalu J, Dillon M, et al. Purinoceptors as therapeutic targets for lower urinary tract dysfunction. Br J Pharmacol. 2006;147 Suppl 2:S132-43 pubmed
  37. Kato F. Suppression of inspiratory fast rhythm, but not bilateral short-term synchronization, by morphine in anesthetized rabbit. Neurosci Lett. 1998;258:89-92 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that there is little influence of opioid receptor system to the neural connectivity underlying bilateral phrenic synchronization. ..
  38. Payne B, Lomber S. A method to assess the functional impact of cerebral connections on target populations of neurons. J Neurosci Methods. 1999;86:195-208 pubmed
  39. Mizuno H, Hirano T, Tagawa Y. Pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neuronal activity supports the axon development of callosal projection neurons during different post-natal periods in the mouse cerebral cortex. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;31:410-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide in-vivo evidence that pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neuronal activities play critical, and presumably differential, roles in axon growth, branching, arbor formation and elaboration during cortical axon development. ..
  40. Fuchs P. The synaptic physiology of cochlear hair cells. Audiol Neurootol. 2002;7:40-4 pubmed
    ..Calcium influx during efferent inhibition is regulated by a 'synaptic cistern' that also may act as a calcium store that is triggered by ACh under some conditions. ..
  41. Kienbaum P, Heuter T, Michel M, Peters J. Racemic ketamine decreases muscle sympathetic activity but maintains the neural response to hypotensive challenges in humans. Anesthesiology. 2000;92:94-101 pubmed
    ..Finally, hypotensive challenges still evoke an unchanged sympathetic reflex response. Thus, our results do not support the assumption that ketamine anesthesia increases sympathetic nerve activity in a generalized fashion. ..
  42. Santer R, Yamawaki Y, Rind F, Simmons P. Preparing for escape: an examination of the role of the DCMD neuron in locust escape jumps. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2008;194:69-77 pubmed
    ..We therefore propose that the DCMD contributes to hindleg flexion in preparation for an escape jump, but that its activity affects only flexion timing and is not necessary for the occurrence of hindleg flexion. ..
  43. Dorofeeva A, Panteleev S, Makarov F. Involvement of the sacral parasympathetic nucleus in the innervation of the descending colon and rectum in cats. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2009;39:207-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The largest number of labeled cells was seen in the lateral group. ..
  44. Zachary S, Fuchs P. Re-Emergent Inhibition of Cochlear Inner Hair Cells in a Mouse Model of Hearing Loss. J Neurosci. 2015;35:9701-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These efferent neurons inhibit inner hair cells, raising the possibility that they play a role in the progression of age-related ..
  45. Messutat S, Heine M, Wicher D. Calcium-induced calcium release in neurosecretory insect neurons: fast and slow responses. Cell Calcium. 2001;30:199-211 pubmed
    ..Taken together our findings seem to indicate that there are different stores using different Ca(2+) uptake pathways and that some of these pathways involve mitochondria. ..
  46. Pan H, Deal D, Xu Z, Chen S. Differential responses of regional sympathetic activity and blood flow to visceral afferent stimulation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;280:R1781-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this study provides substantial new evidence that stimulation of abdominal visceral afferents differentially induces sympathetic outflow to the splanchnic vascular bed...
  47. Ransmayr G. Constantin von Economo's contribution to the understanding of movement disorders. Mov Disord. 2007;22:469-75 pubmed
    ..CvE was an outstanding multidisciplinary movement disorder specialist who contributed substantially to modern basal ganglia research...
  48. Goto M, Canteras N, Burns G, Swanson L. Projections from the subfornical region of the lateral hypothalamic area. J Comp Neurol. 2005;493:412-38 pubmed
  49. Berezhnaia L. [NADPH-diaphorase positive cells of the human thalamic nuclei and internal capsule]. Morfologiia. 2004;125:16-22 pubmed
    ..NADPH-d-positive cells forming contacts with blood vessels were found. Thus, NADPH-d-positive cells of dorsal thalamus, reticular nucleus and capsula interna appear to be evolutionally more ancient and structurally less complex. ..
  50. Tang Q, Li J, Yang Y, Yang X. [Distribution of projection neurons of the superior olivary complex in the auditory brainstem in cats]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2008;33:651-6 pubmed
    ..While the projection of MOC neurons is predominantly contralateral, the distribution of MOC neurons is more adjacent to the rostral extent of the pons than LOC neurons. ..
  51. Rouzade Dominguez M, Miselis R, Valentino R. Central representation of bladder and colon revealed by dual transsynaptic tracing in the rat: substrates for pelvic visceral coordination. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:3311-24 pubmed
    ..These anatomical substrates may underlie the central coordination of bladder and colon function and play a role in disorders characterized by a coexistence of bladder and colonic symptoms. ..
  52. Haxhiu M, Erokwu B, Cherniack N. The brainstem network involved in coordination of inspiratory activity and cholinergic outflow to the airways. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1996;61:155-61 pubmed
  53. Kirkwood P, Munson J. The incidence of initial doublets in the discharges of motoneurones of two different inspiratory muscles in the cat. J Physiol. 1996;493 ( Pt 2):577-87 pubmed