substantia gelatinosa

Summary

Summary: Gelatinous-appearing material in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, consisting chiefly of Golgi type II neurons and some larger nerve cells.

Top Publications

  1. Yang K, Furue H, Fujita T, Kumamoto E, Yoshimura M. Alterations in primary afferent input to substantia gelatinosa of adult rat spinal cord after neonatal capsaicin treatment. J Neurosci Res. 2003;74:928-33 pubmed
    ..This issue was addressed by performing whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in dorsal root-attached spinal cord slices...
  2. Ikeda H, Kusudo K, Ryu P, Murase K. Effects of corticotropin-releasing factor on plasticity of optically recorded neuronal activity in the substantia gelatinosa of rat spinal cord slices. Pain. 2003;106:197-207 pubmed
    ..of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) on plasticity of optically recorded neuronal activity in the substantia gelatinosa (lamina II) of 12-18-day-old rat spinal cord slices stained with a voltage-sensitive dye...
  3. Tamae A, Nakatsuka T, Koga K, Kato G, Furue H, Katafuchi T, et al. Direct inhibition of substantia gelatinosa neurones in the rat spinal cord by activation of dopamine D2-like receptors. J Physiol. 2005;568:243-53 pubmed
    ..DA) on nociceptive transmission by using behavioural studies and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurones in the spinal cord...
  4. Melnick I. A-type K+ current dominates somatic excitability of delayed firing neurons in rat substantia gelatinosa. Synapse. 2011;65:601-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Substantia gelatinosa neurons display three main types of intrinsic firing behavior: tonic, adapting, and delayed onset...
  5. Woodbury C, Ritter A, Koerber H. On the problem of lamination in the superficial dorsal horn of mammals: a reappraisal of the substantia gelatinosa in postnatal life. J Comp Neurol. 2000;417:88-102 pubmed
    Although it is one of the most distinctive and earliest recognized features in the spinal cord, the substantia gelatinosa (SG) remains among the most enigmatic of central nervous system regions...
  6. Santos S, Luz L, Szucs P, Lima D, Derkach V, Safronov B. Transmission efficacy and plasticity in glutamatergic synapses formed by excitatory interneurons of the substantia gelatinosa in the rat spinal cord. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8047 pubmed publisher
    b>Substantia gelatinosa (SG, lamina II) is a spinal cord region where most unmyelinated primary afferents terminate and the central nociceptive processing begins...
  7. Baba H, Kohno T, Okamoto M, Goldstein P, Shimoji K, Yoshimura M. Muscarinic facilitation of GABA release in substantia gelatinosa of the rat spinal dorsal horn. J Physiol. 1998;508 ( Pt 1):83-93 pubmed
    1. Blind patch clamp recordings were made from substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurones in the adult rat spinal cord slice to study the mechanisms of cholinergic modulation of GABAergic inhibition. 2...
  8. Lu V, Moran T, Balasubramanyan S, Alier K, Dryden W, Colmers W, et al. Substantia Gelatinosa neurons in defined-medium organotypic slice culture are similar to those in acute slices from young adult rats. Pain. 2006;121:261-75 pubmed
    ..This validates their use in evaluating the cellular mechanisms that may contribute to the development of chronic pain. ..
  9. Ferrini F, Salio C, Vergnano A, Merighi A. Vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1)-dependent activation of inhibitory neurotransmission in spinal substantia gelatinosa neurons of mouse. Pain. 2007;129:195-209 pubmed
    ..The peptide then excites inhibitory neurons in laminae I, III and IV, leading to an increased release of GABA/glycine in lamina II via a parallel alternative pathway to glutamate. ..

More Information

Publications91

  1. Bailey A, Ribeiro da Silva A. Transient loss of terminals from non-peptidergic nociceptive fibers in the substantia gelatinosa of spinal cord following chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. Neuroscience. 2006;138:675-90 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, such changes do not correlate with the time-course of the allodynia. ..
  2. Uemura S, Fujita T, Sakaguchi Y, Kumamoto E. Actions of a novel water-soluble benzodiazepine-receptor agonist JM-1232(-) on synaptic transmission in adult rat spinal substantia gelatinosa neurons. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;418:695-700 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the action of JM-1232(-) on synaptic transmission in spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons which play an important role in regulating nociceptive transmission from the periphery...
  3. Boada M, Woodbury C. Myelinated skin sensory neurons project extensively throughout adult mouse substantia gelatinosa. J Neurosci. 2008;28:2006-14 pubmed publisher
    The substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord is a recipient zone for unmyelinated sensory neurons in adults...
  4. Jiang N, Furue H, Katafuchi T, Yoshimura M. Somatostatin directly inhibits substantia gelatinosa neurons in adult rat spinal dorsal horn in vitro. Neurosci Res. 2003;47:97-107 pubmed
    Effects of somatostatin (SST) on the synaptic transmission to substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of adult spinal cord slices were investigated using intracellular recording and blind whole-cell patch-clamp technique...
  5. Yoshida K, Nakagawa T, Kaneko S, Akaike A, Satoh M. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate inhibits slow depolarization induced by repetitive dorsal root stimulation via P2Y purinoceptors in substantia gelatinosa neurons of the adult rat spinal cord slices with the dorsal root attached. Neurosci Lett. 2002;320:121-4 pubmed
    We previously reported that slow depolarization of substantia gelatinosa neurons is evoked by repetitive stimulation of C-fibers of dorsal root in adult rat spinal cord transverse slices with the dorsal root attached, which was ..
  6. Devor M. Centralization, central sensitization and neuropathic pain. Focus on "sciatic chronic constriction injury produces cell-type-specific changes in the electrophysiological properties of rat substantia gelatinosa neurons". J Neurophysiol. 2006;96:522-3 pubmed
  7. Kawamata M, Furue H, Kozuka Y, Narimatsu E, Yoshimura M, Namiki A. Changes in properties of substantia gelatinosa neurons after surgical incision in the rat: in vivo patch-clamp analysis. Anesthesiology. 2006;104:432-40 pubmed
    Noxious information through A delta and C afferent fibers is transmitted to substantia gelatinosa, a process that plays an important role in plastic changes of nociceptive processing in pathophysiological conditions...
  8. Wakai A, Kohno T, Yamakura T, Okamoto M, Ataka T, Baba H. Action of isoflurane on the substantia gelatinosa neurons of the adult rat spinal cord. Anesthesiology. 2005;102:379-86 pubmed
    ..This may be a possible mechanism for the antinociceptive effect of isoflurane in the spinal cord. ..
  9. Hantman A, Perl E. Molecular and genetic features of a labeled class of spinal substantia gelatinosa neurons in a transgenic mouse. J Comp Neurol. 2005;492:90-100 pubmed
    ..containing the prion promoter and the green fluorescent protein (GFP) coding sequence labels a set of substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons (SG-GFP) homogenous in morphology, electrophysiology, and gamma-amino-butyric acid expression...
  10. Voitenko N, Gerber G, Youn D, Randic M. Peripheral inflamation-induced increase of AMPA-mediated currents and Ca2+ transients in the presence of cyclothiazide in the rat substantia gelatinosa neurons. Cell Calcium. 2004;35:461-9 pubmed
    ..to induce membrane currents and rises in cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in the rat substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons using simultaneous whole-cell patch-clamp recording and fura-2 calcium imaging in spinal cord ..
  11. Yue H, Fujita T, Kawasaki Y, Kumamoto E. AM404 enhances the spontaneous release of L-glutamate in a manner sensitive to capsazepine in adult rat substantia gelatinosa neurones. Brain Res. 2004;1018:283-7 pubmed
    In 84% of substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurones examined in adult rat spinal cord slices, an anandamide transport inhibitor, AM404, increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in a manner similar to that of ..
  12. Kosugi M, Nakatsuka T, Fujita T, Kuroda Y, Kumamoto E. Activation of TRPA1 channel facilitates excitatory synaptic transmission in substantia gelatinosa neurons of the adult rat spinal cord. J Neurosci. 2007;27:4443-51 pubmed
    ..the present study, we examined whether activation of the TRPA1 channels affects synaptic transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of adult rat spinal cord slices by using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique...
  13. Melnick I. Morphophysiologic properties of islet cells in substantia gelatinosa of the rat spinal cord. Neurosci Lett. 2008;446:65-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of the spinal cord are highly heterogeneous in their morphophysiologic properties and could be categorized on several subtypes...
  14. Yang K, Li Y. Origins of spontaneous and noxious stimuli-evoked miniature EPSCs in substantia gelatinosa. Neuroreport. 2001;12:39-42 pubmed
    ..and noxious stimuli-evoked glutamatergic miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons were investigated by using whole-cell voltage-clamp technique on adult rat spinal cord slice...
  15. Watanabe K, Konno S, Sekiguchi M, Sasaki N, Honda T, Kikuchi S. Increase of 200-kDa neurofilament-immunoreactive afferents in the substantia gelatinosa in allodynic rats induced by compression of the dorsal root ganglion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:1265-71 pubmed
    ..allodynia, c-Fos expression, and 200-kDa-neurofilament immunoreactive (IR) afferent expression in the substantia gelatinosa related to compression of dorsal root ganglion (DRG)...
  16. Balasubramanyan S, Stemkowski P, Stebbing M, Smith P. Sciatic chronic constriction injury produces cell-type-specific changes in the electrophysiological properties of rat substantia gelatinosa neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2006;96:579-90 pubmed
    ..sham-operated or CCI animals, and whole cell recording was used to compare the properties of five types of substantia gelatinosa neuron...
  17. Asghar A, Cilia La Corte P, LeBeau F, Al Dawoud M, Reilly S, Buhl E, et al. Oscillatory activity within rat substantia gelatinosa in vitro: a role for chemical and electrical neurotransmission. J Physiol. 2005;562:183-98 pubmed
    ..to record and determine the underlying mechanisms of potassium-evoked network field oscillations in the substantia gelatinosa of the neonatal rat dorsal horn, a lamina involved in nociceptive processing...
  18. Kohama I, Ishikawa K, Kocsis J. Synaptic reorganization in the substantia gelatinosa after peripheral nerve neuroma formation: aberrant innervation of lamina II neurons by Abeta afferents. J Neurosci. 2000;20:1538-49 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these observations indicate that the lamina II neurons receive inappropriate sensory information from low-threshold mechanoreceptor after sciatic nerve neuroma formation. ..
  19. Yue H, Fujita T, Kumamoto E. Biphasic modulation by galanin of excitatory synaptic transmission in substantia gelatinosa neurons of adult rat spinal cord slices. J Neurophysiol. 2011;105:2337-49 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, the action of galanin on synaptic transmission in the substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of adult rat spinal cord slices was examined, using the whole cell patch-clamp technique...
  20. Jang I, Rhee J, Kubota H, Akaike N. Developmental changes in P2X purinoceptors on glycinergic presynaptic nerve terminals projecting to rat substantia gelatinosa neurones. J Physiol. 2001;536:505-19 pubmed
    1. In mechanically dissociated rat spinal cord substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurones attached with native presynaptic nerve endings, glycinergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) were recorded using nystatin perforated ..
  21. Choi I, Cho J, Jeong S, Hong J, Kim S, Kim J, et al. GABA(B) receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition of glycinergic transmission onto substantia gelatinosa neurons in the rat spinal cord. Pain. 2008;138:330-42 pubmed publisher
    The GABA(B) receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition of glycinergic transmission was studied from young rat substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons using a conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique...
  22. Yang K, Li Y, Kumamoto E, Furue H, Yoshimura M. Voltage-clamp recordings of postsynaptic currents in substantia gelatinosa neurons in vitro and its applications to assess synaptic transmission. Brain Res Brain Res Protoc. 2001;7:235-40 pubmed
    We describe here procedures for recording postsynaptic currents in substantia gelatinosa neurons on a transverse spinal cord slice preparation with an attached dorsal root...
  23. Kim H, Kim S, Kim J, Oh S, Cho H, Jung S. Effect of nitric oxide on hyperpolarization-activated current in substantia gelatinosa neurons of rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;338:1648-53 pubmed
    ..Here, we have investigated the effect of NO on hyperpolarization-activated inward current (I(h)) in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons, using the whole-cell patch clamp technique...
  24. Kim S, Chung W, Rhim H, Eun S, Jung S, Kim J. Postsynaptic action mechanism of somatostatin on the membrane excitability in spinal substantia gelatinosa neurons of juvenile rats. Neuroscience. 2002;114:1139-48 pubmed
    ..whole-cell recording in juvenile rat spinal slices to investigate the action of somatostatin on substantia gelatinosa neurons...
  25. Xu H, Wu L, Zhao M, Toyoda H, Vadakkan K, Jia Y, et al. Presynaptic regulation of the inhibitory transmission by GluR5-containing kainate receptors in spinal substantia gelatinosa. Mol Pain. 2006;2:29 pubmed
    ..However, the role of GluR5-containing KARs in the modulation of inhibitory transmission in the spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) in slices remains unknown...
  26. Koga A, Fujita T, Totoki T, Kumamoto E. Tramadol produces outward currents by activating mu-opioid receptors in adult rat substantia gelatinosa neurones. Br J Pharmacol. 2005;145:602-7 pubmed
    1. An action of a tramadol metabolite, mono-O-dimethyl-tramadol (M1), on substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurones in adult rat spinal cord slices was examined by using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. 2...
  27. Santos S, Rebelo S, Derkach V, Safronov B. Excitatory interneurons dominate sensory processing in the spinal substantia gelatinosa of rat. J Physiol. 2007;581:241-54 pubmed
    b>Substantia gelatinosa (SG, lamina II) is a spinal cord region where most unmyelinated primary afferents terminate and the central nociceptive processing begins...
  28. Lu Y, Perl E. A specific inhibitory pathway between substantia gelatinosa neurons receiving direct C-fiber input. J Neurosci. 2003;23:8752-8 pubmed
    The spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) is a major termination region for unmyelinated (C) primary afferent fibers; however, how the input it receives from these sensory fibers is processed by SG neurons remains primarily a matter of ..
  29. Baba H, Goldstein P, Okamoto M, Kohno T, Ataka T, Yoshimura M, et al. Norepinephrine facilitates inhibitory transmission in substantia gelatinosa of adult rat spinal cord (part 2): effects on somatodendritic sites of GABAergic neurons. Anesthesiology. 2000;92:485-92 pubmed
    ..Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from substantia gelatinosa neurons using the blind patch-clamp technique...
  30. Pinto V, Szucs P, Derkach V, Safronov B. Monosynaptic convergence of C- and Adelta-afferent fibres from different segmental dorsal roots on to single substantia gelatinosa neurones in the rat spinal cord. J Physiol. 2008;586:4165-77 pubmed publisher
    ..To study whether C- and Adelta-afferents from different roots can converge monosynaptically on to a single substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurone, we performed tight-seal recordings from SG neurones in the entire lumbar enlargement of the ..
  31. Inoue M, Fujita T, Goto M, Kumamoto E. Presynaptic enhancement by eugenol of spontaneous excitatory transmission in rat spinal substantia gelatinosa neurons is mediated by transient receptor potential A1 channels. Neuroscience. 2012;210:403-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated how eugenol affects spontaneous glutamatergic excitatory transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG; lamina II of Rexed) neurons of adult rat spinal cord slices by use of the blind whole-cell patch-..
  32. Youn D, Randic M. Modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the spinal substantia gelatinosa of mice deficient in the kainate receptor GluR5 and/or GluR6 subunit. J Physiol. 2004;555:683-98 pubmed
    Functional kainate (KA) receptors (KARs) are expressed in the spinal cord substantia gelatinosa (SG) region, and their activation has a capacity to modulate excitatory synaptic transmission at primary afferent synapses with SG neurones...
  33. Hantman A, van den Pol A, Perl E. Morphological and physiological features of a set of spinal substantia gelatinosa neurons defined by green fluorescent protein expression. J Neurosci. 2004;24:836-42 pubmed
    The spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) is known to be involved in the manipulation of nociceptive and thermal primary afferent input; however, the interrelationships of its neuronal components are poorly understood...
  34. Deumens R, Jaken R, Knaepen L, van der Meulen I, Joosten E. Inverse relation between intensity of GFAP expression in the substantia gelatinosa and degree of chronic mechanical allodynia. Neurosci Lett. 2009;452:101-5 pubmed publisher
    ..with a higher degree of mechanical allodynia had a lower intensity of GFAP expression in lamina II (substantia gelatinosa)...
  35. Wang H, Zylka M. Mrgprd-expressing polymodal nociceptive neurons innervate most known classes of substantia gelatinosa neurons. J Neurosci. 2009;29:13202-9 pubmed publisher
    ..subset of sensory neurons that transmit polymodal nociceptive information from the skin epidermis to the substantia gelatinosa (SG, lamina II) of the spinal cord...
  36. Morisset V, Urban L. Cannabinoid-induced presynaptic inhibition of glutamatergic EPSCs in substantia gelatinosa neurons of the rat spinal cord. J Neurophysiol. 2001;86:40-8 pubmed
    The effect of cannabinoids on excitatory transmission in the substantia gelatinosa was investigated using intracellular recording from visually identified neurons in a transverse slice preparation of the juvenile rat spinal cord...
  37. Liu T, Fujita T, Nakatsuka T, Kumamoto E. Phospholipase A2 activation enhances inhibitory synaptic transmission in rat substantia gelatinosa neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2008;99:1274-84 pubmed publisher
    Phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activation enhances glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons, which play a pivotal role in regulating nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord...
  38. Baba H, Shimoji K, Yoshimura M. Norepinephrine facilitates inhibitory transmission in substantia gelatinosa of adult rat spinal cord (part 1): effects on axon terminals of GABAergic and glycinergic neurons. Anesthesiology. 2000;92:473-84 pubmed
    ..Membrane hyperpolarization of substantia gelatinosa (Rexed lamina II) neurons by the activation of alpha2 receptors may account for depression of pain ..
  39. Moran T, Smith P. Morphine-3beta-D-glucuronide suppresses inhibitory synaptic transmission in rat substantia gelatinosa. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002;302:568-76 pubmed
    ..Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from substantia gelatinosa neurons in transverse slices of adult rat lumbar spinal cord to compare the actions of M3G with those of ..
  40. Santos S, Melnick I, Safronov B. Selective postsynaptic inhibition of tonic-firing neurons in substantia gelatinosa by mu-opioid agonist. Anesthesiology. 2004;101:1177-83 pubmed
    Spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) is a site of action of administered and endogenous opioid agonists and is an important element in the system of antinociception...
  41. Liu T, Fujita T, Kumamoto E. Acetylcholine and norepinephrine mediate GABAergic but not glycinergic transmission enhancement by melittin in adult rat substantia gelatinosa neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2011;106:233-46 pubmed publisher
    GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory synaptic transmissions in substantia gelatinosa (SG; lamina II of Rexed) neurons of the spinal dorsal horn play an important role in regulating nociceptive transmission from the periphery...
  42. Narikawa K, Furue H, Kumamoto E, Yoshimura M. In vivo patch-clamp analysis of IPSCs evoked in rat substantia gelatinosa neurons by cutaneous mechanical stimulation. J Neurophysiol. 2000;84:2171-4 pubmed
    ..periphery to the rat spinal dorsal horn, we examined inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) elicited in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons by mechanical stimuli applied to the skin using the newly developed in vivo patch-clamp ..
  43. Park S, Yin H, Bhattarai J, Park S, Lee J, Kim C, et al. Postnatal change of GluR5 kainate receptor expression in the substantia gelatinosa neuron of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis in mice. Brain Res. 2010;1346:52-61 pubmed publisher
    The substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) has been implicated in the processing of nociceptive information from the orofacial region. Kainate receptors (KARs) play an important role in sensory transmission...
  44. Yasaka T, Kato G, Furue H, Rashid M, Sonohata M, Tamae A, et al. Cell-type-specific excitatory and inhibitory circuits involving primary afferents in the substantia gelatinosa of the rat spinal dorsal horn in vitro. J Physiol. 2007;581:603-18 pubmed
    The substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the spinal dorsal horn shows significant morphological heterogeneity and receives primary afferent input predominantly from A delta- and C-fibres...
  45. Vergnano A, Salio C, Merighi A. NK1 receptor activation leads to enhancement of inhibitory neurotransmission in spinal substantia gelatinosa neurons of mouse. Pain. 2004;112:37-47 pubmed
    Substance P (SP) is a well-established pain messenger in the spinal cord, although its role in substantia gelatinosa (lamina II) still remains elusive...
  46. Youn D, Voitenko N, Gerber G, Park Y, Galik J, Randic M. Altered long-term synaptic plasticity and kainate-induced Ca2+ transients in the substantia gelatinosa neurons in GLU(K6)-deficient mice. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;142:9-18 pubmed
    Functional kainate receptors are expressed in the spinal cord substantia gelatinosa region, and their activation contributes to bi-directional regulation of excitatory synaptic transmission at primary afferent synapses with spinal cord ..
  47. Melnick I, Santos S, Szokol K, Szucs P, Safronov B. Ionic basis of tonic firing in spinal substantia gelatinosa neurons of rat. J Neurophysiol. 2004;91:646-55 pubmed
    Ionic conductances underlying excitability in tonically firing neurons (TFNs) from substantia gelatinosa (SG) were studied by the patch-clamp method in rat spinal cord slices...
  48. Sonohata M, Furue H, Katafuchi T, Yasaka T, Doi A, Kumamoto E, et al. Actions of noradrenaline on substantia gelatinosa neurones in the rat spinal cord revealed by in vivo patch recording. J Physiol. 2004;555:515-26 pubmed
    ..pathway in the spinal cord, the effects of noradrenaline (NA) on noxious synaptic responses of substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurones, and postsynaptic actions of NA were investigated in rats using an in vivo whole-cell patch-..
  49. Lu Y, Perl E. Modular organization of excitatory circuits between neurons of the spinal superficial dorsal horn (laminae I and II). J Neurosci. 2005;25:3900-7 pubmed
    ..Together, these observations indicate that the neural circuitry in the SDH, including its substantia gelatinosa (lamina II), has an explicit organization in which particular combinations of neurons comprise modules ..
  50. Ishii H, Kohno T, Yamakura T, Ikoma M, Baba H. Action of dexmedetomidine on the substantia gelatinosa neurons of the rat spinal cord. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:3182-90 pubmed publisher
    ..has been found to produce analgesia, whether this analgesia results from an effect on spinal cord substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons remains unclear...
  51. Cui L, Kim Y, Kim H, Lee S, Shin H, Szabo G, et al. Modulation of synaptic transmission from primary afferents to spinal substantia gelatinosa neurons by group III mGluRs in GAD65-EGFP transgenic mice. J Neurophysiol. 2011;105:1102-11 pubmed publisher
    ..we first investigated the physiological properties of GAD65-EGFP- and non-EGFP-expressing neurons in substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the spinal dorsal horn...
  52. Wu J, Kohno T, Georgiev S, Ikoma M, Ishii H, Petrenko A, et al. Taurine activates glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors in rat substantia gelatinosa neurons. Neuroreport. 2008;19:333-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the pharmacological properties of taurine were investigated in adult rat substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp method...
  53. Pan Y, Pan H. Primary afferent stimulation differentially potentiates excitatory and inhibitory inputs to spinal lamina II outer and inner neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2004;91:2413-21 pubmed
    Spinal lamina II (substantia gelatinosa) neurons play an important role in processing of nociceptive information from primary afferent nerves...
  54. Bencivinni I, Ferrini F, Salio C, Beltramo M, Merighi A. The somatostatin analogue octreotide inhibits capsaicin-mediated activation of nociceptive primary afferent fibres in spinal cord lamina II (substantia gelatinosa). Eur J Pain. 2011;15:591-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that SSTR2a plays an important role in the pre-synaptic modulation of central excitatory nociceptive transmission in mouse. ..
  55. Furue H, Narikawa K, Kumamoto E, Yoshimura M. Responsiveness of rat substantia gelatinosa neurones to mechanical but not thermal stimuli revealed by in vivo patch-clamp recording. J Physiol. 1999;521 Pt 2:529-35 pubmed
    1. Synaptic responses of 46 substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurones in the spinal dorsal horn to cutaneous mechanical and/or thermal stimuli were investigated in an in vivo rat preparation with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings...
  56. Kawasaki Y, Kumamoto E, Furue H, Yoshimura M. Alpha 2 adrenoceptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition of primary afferent glutamatergic transmission in rat substantia gelatinosa neurons. Anesthesiology. 2003;98:682-9 pubmed
    ..50 microm) on glutamatergic transmission were examined by using the whole cell patch clamp technique in substantia gelatinosa neurons of an adult rat spinal cord slice with an attached dorsal root...
  57. Taniguchi W, Nakatsuka T, Miyazaki N, Yamada H, Takeda D, Fujita T, et al. In vivo patch-clamp analysis of dopaminergic antinociceptive actions on substantia gelatinosa neurons in the spinal cord. Pain. 2011;152:95-105 pubmed publisher
    ..by the dopaminergic descending pathway in the spinal cord, we investigated the actions of dopamine (DA) on substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons by in vivo whole-cell patch-clamp methods...
  58. Kato G, Kawasaki Y, Ji R, Strassman A. Differential wiring of local excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to islet cells in rat spinal lamina II demonstrated by laser scanning photostimulation. J Physiol. 2007;580:815-33 pubmed
    The substantia gelatinosa (lamina II) of the spinal dorsal horn contains inhibitory and excitatory interneurons that are thought to play a critical role in the modulation of nociception...
  59. Melnick I, Santos S, Safronov B. Mechanism of spike frequency adaptation in substantia gelatinosa neurones of rat. J Physiol. 2004;559:383-95 pubmed
    ..labelling and computer simulation, we analysed the mechanisms of spike frequency adaptation in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurones...
  60. Chen Y, Balasubramanyan S, Lai A, Todd K, Smith P. Effects of sciatic nerve axotomy on excitatory synaptic transmission in rat substantia gelatinosa. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:3203-15 pubmed publisher
    ..changes in synaptic excitation of five different electrophysiologically defined neuronal phenotypes in the substantia gelatinosa of the dorsal horn...
  61. Moran T, Colmers W, Smith P. Opioid-like actions of neuropeptide Y in rat substantia gelatinosa: Y1 suppression of inhibition and Y2 suppression of excitation. J Neurophysiol. 2004;92:3266-75 pubmed
    ..In substantia gelatinosa neurons in spinal cord slices from adult rats, we find that NPY acts via presynaptic Y2 receptors to ..
  62. Maeda A, Katafuchi T, Oba Y, Shiokawa H, Yoshimura M. Enhancement of GABAergic tonic currents by midazolam and noradrenaline in rat substantia gelatinosa neurons in vitro. Anesthesiology. 2010;113:429-37 pubmed publisher
    b>Substantia gelatinosa of the spinal dorsal horn is crucial for transmission and modification of noxious stimuli. Previous studies have demonstrated that intrathecal midazolam, a benzodiazepine agonist, enhanced perioperative analgesia...
  63. Liu T, Fujita T, Kawasaki Y, Kumamoto E. Regulation by equilibrative nucleoside transporter of adenosine outward currents in adult rat spinal dorsal horn neurons. Brain Res Bull. 2004;64:75-83 pubmed
    A current response induced by superfusing adenosine was examined in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of adult rat spinal cord slices by using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique...
  64. Abe K, Kato G, Katafuchi T, Tamae A, Furue H, Yoshimura M. Responses to 5-HT in morphologically identified neurons in the rat substantia gelatinosa in vitro. Neuroscience. 2009;159:316-24 pubmed publisher
    ..2%) of substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons from the rat spinal cord in vitro...
  65. Uta D, Furue H, Pickering A, Rashid M, Mizuguchi Takase H, Katafuchi T, et al. TRPA1-expressing primary afferents synapse with a morphologically identified subclass of substantia gelatinosa neurons in the adult rat spinal cord. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;31:1960-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the spinal cord is a key site for integration of noxious inputs...
  66. Nakatsuka T, Fujita T, Inoue K, Kumamoto E. Activation of GIRK channels in substantia gelatinosa neurones of the adult rat spinal cord: a possible involvement of somatostatin. J Physiol. 2008;586:2511-22 pubmed publisher
    ..GIRK channels are activated by an endogenous neurotransmitter using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurones in adult rat spinal cord slices...
  67. Lu V, Smith P, Rashiq S. The excitability of dorsal horn neurons is affected by cerebrospinal fluid from humans with osteoarthritis. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2012;90:783-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Although OACSF had no effect on the membrane properties and excitability of neurons in the substantia gelatinosa, synaptic transmission was clearly altered...
  68. Flynn J, Brichta A, Galea M, Callister R, Graham B. A horizontal slice preparation for examining the functional connectivity of dorsal column fibres in mouse spinal cord. J Neurosci Methods. 2011;200:113-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This preparation is a potentially valuable tool for SCI research where confirmation of regenerated, functional synapses across a spinal lesion is critical. ..
  69. Georgiev S, Wakai A, Kohno T, Yamakura T, Baba H. Actions of norepinephrine and isoflurane on inhibitory synaptic transmission in adult rat spinal cord substantia gelatinosa neurons. Anesth Analg. 2006;102:124-8 pubmed
    ..relevant concentrations of ISO (1 MAC) and NE (20 microM) on spontaneous inhibitory transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons were examined using the blind whole-cell patch-clamp method...
  70. Santha P, Jancso G. Transganglionic transport of choleragenoid by capsaicin-sensitive C-fibre afferents to the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal dorsal horn after peripheral nerve section. Neuroscience. 2003;116:621-7 pubmed
    ..labelling of primary afferents not only in the deeper layers (Rexed's laminae III-IV), but also in the substantia gelatinosa (Rexed's laminae II) of the spinal dorsal horn...
  71. Jarius S, Ringelstein M, Haas J, Serysheva I, Komorowski L, Fechner K, et al. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 autoantibodies in paraneoplastic and non-paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathy. J Neuroinflammation. 2016;13:278 pubmed
    ..ITPR1 is expressed not only by Purkinje cells but also in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, in the substantia gelatinosa and in the motor, sensory (including the dorsal root ganglia) and autonomic peripheral nervous system, ..
  72. Peng H, Ma L, Lv M, Hu T, Liu T. Minocycline enhances inhibitory transmission to substantia gelatinosa neurons of the rat spinal dorsal horn. Neuroscience. 2016;319:183-93 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the effect of minocycline on synaptic transmission in rat spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons, we recorded spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) using whole-cell patch-..
  73. Yue H, Jiang C, Fujita T, Kumamoto E. Zingerone enhances glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory transmission by activating TRPA1 but not TRPV1 channels in the adult rat substantia gelatinosa. J Neurophysiol. 2013;110:658-71 pubmed publisher
    ..potential (TRP) channels are thought to play a role in regulating nociceptive transmission to spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons...
  74. Kohno T. Zaltoprofen inhibits bradykinin-mediated enhancement of glutamate receptor activity in substantia gelatinosa neurons. Anesth Analg. 2011;113:412-6 pubmed publisher
  75. Jiang C, Fujita T, Yue H, Piao L, Liu T, Nakatsuka T, et al. Effect of resiniferatoxin on glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission in substantia gelatinosa neurons of the adult rat spinal cord. Neuroscience. 2009;164:1833-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the effect of RTX on excitatory transmission using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of adult rat spinal cord slices...
  76. Yoshimura M, Doi A, Mizuno M, Furue H, Katafuchi T. In vivo and in vitro patch-clamp recording analysis of the process of sensory transmission in the spinal cord and sensory cortex. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2005;24:93-7 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the synaptic responses in cortical neurons are processed in a more complex manner; and this may be due to the reciprocal synaptic connection between thalamus and cortex. ..
  77. Woodbury C, Koerber H. Widespread projections from myelinated nociceptors throughout the substantia gelatinosa provide novel insights into neonatal hypersensitivity. J Neurosci. 2003;23:601-10 pubmed
    ..This frequently overlooked population is in a position, therefore, to contribute substantially to paradoxical nocifensive behaviors in neonates and various pain states in adults. ..
  78. Feng Y, Yang K, Li Y. Norepinephrine depresses the capsaicin-evoked miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents in substantia gelatinosa of the rat spinal cord. Neurosci Lett. 2002;322:99-102 pubmed
    ..and increases the frequency of glutaminergic miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) in the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal dorsal horn...
  79. Gonzalez S, Labombarda F, Gonzalez Deniselle M, Saravia F, Roig P, De Nicola A. Glucocorticoid effects on Fos immunoreactivity and NADPH-diaphorase histochemical staining following spinal cord injury. Brain Res. 2001;912:144-53 pubmed
    ..Differential hormonal effects on these molecules agree with their localization in different cell populations. ..
  80. Wall P, Lidierth M, Hillman P. Brief and prolonged effects of Lissauer tract stimulation on dorsal horn cells. Pain. 1999;83:579-89 pubmed
    ..activation of Lissauer's tract, a tract containing propriospinal axons which arise from cells in the substantia gelatinosa and which project to the substantia of neighbouring spinal segments...
  81. Nguyen T, Bhattarai J, Park S, Han S. Activation of glycine and extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors by taurine on the substantia gelatinosa neurons of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis. Neural Plast. 2013;2013:740581 pubmed publisher
    The substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) has been known for the processing and transmission of orofacial nociceptive information...
  82. Dun N, Dun S, Wu S, Williams C, Kwok E. Endomorphins: localization, release and action on rat dorsal horn neurons. J Biomed Sci. 2000;7:213-20 pubmed
    ..Lastly, whole-cell patch clamp recordings from substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of rat lumbar spinal cord slices revealed two distinct actions of exogenous Endo-1 and Endo-2:..