Genomes and Genes
posterior horn cells
Summary: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.
- Ross S, Mardinly A, McCord A, Zurawski J, Cohen S, Jung C, et al. Loss of inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal spinal cord and elevated itch in Bhlhb5 mutant mice. Neuron. 2010;65:886-98 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest that Bhlhb5 is required for the survival of a specific population of inhibitory interneurons that regulate pruritus, and provide evidence that the loss of inhibitory synaptic input results in abnormal itch. ..
- Lemons L, Wiley R. Galanin receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons: role in nociception. Neuropeptides. 2011;45:377-83 pubmed publisher..These results are different than those seen with intrathecal neuropeptide Y-saporin and suggest the potential value of selectively targeting GalR1-expressing dorsal horn neurons to control pain. ..
- Leitner J, Westerholz S, Heinke B, Forsthuber L, Wunderbaldinger G, J ger T, et al. Impaired excitatory drive to spinal GABAergic neurons of neuropathic mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73370 pubmed publisher..This then leads to an inadequately low recruitment of inhibitory interneurons during nociception. We suggest that this previously unrecognized mechanism of impaired spinal inhibition contributes to hyperalgesia in neuropathy...
- Géranton S, Tochiki K, Chiu W, Stuart S, Hunt S. Injury induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the rat rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) is age dependant and requires the lamina I projection pathway. Mol Pain. 2010;6:54 pubmed publisher..Finally, the percentage of pERK expressing neurones that were also serotonergic was always around 60%, independent of pain state and age, indicating an important role for serotonin in descending controls of pain states. ..
- Pitcher M, Cervero F. Role of the NKCC1 co-transporter in sensitization of spinal nociceptive neurons. Pain. 2010;151:756-62 pubmed publisher..Our data support the hypothesis that NKCC1 plays an important role in the sensitization of dorsal horn neurons following a peripheral inflammatory insult. ..
- McGaraughty S, Chu K, Perner R, Didomenico S, Kort M, Kym P. TRPA1 modulation of spontaneous and mechanically evoked firing of spinal neurons in uninjured, osteoarthritic, and inflamed rats. Mol Pain. 2010;6:14 pubmed publisher..TRPA1 receptors also contribute to the transmission of low-intensity mechanical stimulation, and to the modulation of spontaneous WDR firing, but only after an inflammatory injury. ..
- Sardella T, PolgÃ¡r E, Watanabe M, Todd A. A quantitative study of neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in laminae I-III of the rat spinal dorsal horn. Neuroscience. 2011;192:708-20 pubmed publisher..They provide further evidence that axons of neurochemically defined populations of inhibitory interneuron are selective in their post-synaptic targets. ..
- Tiong S, PolgÃ¡r E, van Kralingen J, Watanabe M, Todd A. Galanin-immunoreactivity identifies a distinct population of inhibitory interneurons in laminae I-III of the rat spinal cord. Mol Pain. 2011;7:36 pubmed publisher..Together with results of a recent study, they suggest that the galanin and NPY populations account for around half of the inhibitory interneurons in lamina I and a quarter of those in lamina II. ..
- Staniland A, Clark A, Wodarski R, Sasso O, Maione F, D Acquisto F, et al. Reduced inflammatory and neuropathic pain and decreased spinal microglial response in fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) knockout mice. J Neurochem. 2010;114:1143-57 pubmed publisher..Loss of FKN/CX3CR1 neuroimmune communication attenuates hyperalgesia and allodynia in a modality-dependent fashion highlighting the complex nature of microglial response in pathological pain models. ..
- Rojas Piloni G, Martínez Lorenzana G, Condés Lara M, Rodríguez Jiménez J. Direct sensorimotor corticospinal modulation of dorsal horn neuronal C-fiber responses in the rat. Brain Res. 2010;1351:104-14 pubmed publisher..Our results show that corticospinal tract fibers arising from the sensorimotor cortex modulate directly the nociceptive C-fiber evoked responses of the dorsal horn. ..
- Laferriere A, Pitcher M, Haldane A, Huang Y, Cornea V, Kumar N, et al. PKM? is essential for spinal plasticity underlying the maintenance of persistent pain. Mol Pain. 2011;7:99 pubmed publisher..These results suggest spinal PKM? is essential for the maintenance of persistent pain by sustaining spinal nociceptive plasticity. ..
- Takazawa T, Macdermott A. Synaptic pathways and inhibitory gates in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1198:153-8 pubmed publisher..We further discuss several aspects of inhibition in the dorsal horn that might contribute to suppressing pathological signaling. ..
- Wildner H, Das Gupta R, Bröhl D, Heppenstall P, Zeilhofer H, Birchmeier C. Genome-wide expression analysis of Ptf1a- and Ascl1-deficient mice reveals new markers for distinct dorsal horn interneuron populations contributing to nociceptive reflex plasticity. J Neurosci. 2013;33:7299-307 pubmed publisher..Functional experiments in isolated spinal cords showed that the Ascl1-dependent inhibitory interneurons are key players of nociceptive reflex plasticity. ..
- Hughes D, Sikander S, Kinnon C, Boyle K, Watanabe M, Callister R, et al. Morphological, neurochemical and electrophysiological features of parvalbumin-expressing cells: a likely source of axo-axonic inputs in the mouse spinal dorsal horn. J Physiol. 2012;590:3927-51 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest that a loss of normal function in parvalbumin positive dorsal horn neurons may result in the development of tactile allodynia, where non-painful stimuli gain the capacity to evoke the sensation of pain. ..
- Zeilhofer H, Wildner H, Yevenes G. Fast synaptic inhibition in spinal sensory processing and pain control. Physiol Rev. 2012;92:193-235 pubmed publisher..Particular emphasis is placed on the role and mechanisms of spinal inhibitory malfunction in inflammatory and neuropathic chronic pain syndromes. ..
- Ku W, Schneider S. Multiple T-type Ca2+ current subtypes in electrophysiologically characterized hamster dorsal horn neurons: possible role in spinal sensory integration. J Neurophysiol. 2011;106:2486-98 pubmed publisher..I(T) may enhance responses of phasic-firing dorsal horn neurons to rapid membrane depolarizations and contribute to an ability to discriminate between afferent sensory inputs that encode high- and low-frequency stimulus information. ..
- Guan Y, Wacnik P, Yang F, Carteret A, Chung C, Meyer R, et al. Spinal cord stimulation-induced analgesia: electrical stimulation of dorsal column and dorsal roots attenuates dorsal horn neuronal excitability in neuropathic rats. Anesthesiology. 2010;113:1392-405 pubmed publisher..e., windup). These results suggest a potential cellular mechanism underlying spinal cord stimulation-induced pain relief. This in vivo model allows the neurophysiologic basis for spinal cord stimulation-induced analgesia to be studied. ..
- Polgár E, Sardella T, Tiong S, Locke S, Watanabe M, Todd A. Functional differences between neurochemically defined populations of inhibitory interneurons in the rat spinal dorsal horn. Pain. 2013;154:2606-15 pubmed publisher..They also suggest that the nociceptive inputs to the nNOS cells differ from those to the galanin and NPY populations. ..
- Zhang X, Chen G, Xue Q, Yu B. Early changes of beta-Catenins and Menins in spinal cord dorsal horn after peripheral nerve injury. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30:885-90 pubmed publisher..Antagonists of these molecules may serve as new therapeutic agents. ..
- Staniaszek L, Norris L, Kendall D, Barrett D, Chapman V. Effects of COX-2 inhibition on spinal nociception: the role of endocannabinoids. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160:669-76 pubmed publisher..Further understanding of the complexities of endocannabinoid catabolism by multiple enzymes is essential to understand their contribution to COX-2-mediated analgesia. ..
- PolgÃ¡r E, Sardella T, Watanabe M, Todd A. Quantitative study of NPY-expressing GABAergic neurons and axons in rat spinal dorsal horn. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:1007-23 pubmed publisher..These results show that NPY-containing neurons make up a considerable proportion of the inhibitory interneurons in laminae I-III, and that their axons preferentially target certain classes of dorsal horn neuron. ..
- Gao H, Smith B. Tonic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition in the rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. J Neurophysiol. 2010;103:904-14 pubmed publisher..Our results indicate that I(tonic) contributes to DMV neuron membrane potential and activity and is thus an important regulator of vagally mediated GI function. ..
- Haseneder R, Kratzer S, Kochs E, Mattusch C, Eder M, Rammes G. Xenon attenuates excitatory synaptic transmission in the rodent prefrontal cortex and spinal cord dorsal horn. Anesthesiology. 2009;111:1297-307 pubmed publisher..These results provide evidence that the effects of xenon are primarily due to postsynaptic mechanisms. ..
- Xu J, Zhao X, Yaster M, Tao Y. Expression and distribution of mTOR, p70S6K, 4E-BP1, and their phosphorylated counterparts in rat dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord dorsal horn. Brain Res. 2010;1336:46-57 pubmed publisher..Our findings support the view that mTOR and its downstream effectors do not play a key role in acute pain. ..
- Todd A. Neuronal circuitry for pain processing in the dorsal horn. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2010;11:823-36 pubmed publisher..Recent studies have begun to shed light on the neuronal organization and circuitry of this complex region. ..
- Yang K, Takeuchi K, Wei F, Dubner R, Ren K. Activation of group I mGlu receptors contributes to facilitation of NMDA receptor membrane current in spinal dorsal horn neurons after hind paw inflammation in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;670:509-18 pubmed publisher..These findings support the hypothesis that signal transduction coupling between group I mGlu receptors and NMDA receptors underlies the activation of NMDA receptors in spinal hyperexcitability and hyperalgesia. ..
- Aoyama R, Okada Y, Yokota S, Yasui Y, Fukuda K, Shinozaki Y, et al. Spatiotemporal and anatomical analyses of P2X receptor-mediated neuronal and glial processing of sensory signals in the rat dorsal horn. Pain. 2011;152:2085-97 pubmed publisher..Astrocytes are involved in sensitization of sensory network activity more importantly in the superficial than in the deep layer. ..
- Jiang L, Li S, Zhao F, Spanswick D, Lin M. Norepinephrine can act via alpha(2)-adrenoceptors to reduce the hyper-excitability of spinal dorsal horn neurons following chronic nerve injury. J Formos Med Assoc. 2010;109:438-45 pubmed publisher..This study aimed to investigate the effect of bath application of norepinephrine on whole cell patch clamp recordings from spinal cord slices of CCI rats with allodynia...
- Yasaka T, Tiong S, Hughes D, Riddell J, Todd A. Populations of inhibitory and excitatory interneurons in lamina II of the adult rat spinal dorsal horn revealed by a combined electrophysiological and anatomical approach. Pain. 2010;151:475-88 pubmed publisher..Combining this approach with identification of other neurochemical markers should allow further clarification of neuronal circuitry in the superficial dorsal horn. ..
- Xu Z, Zhang L, Liu T, Park J, Berta T, Yang R, et al. Resolvins RvE1 and RvD1 attenuate inflammatory pain via central and peripheral actions. Nat Med. 2010;16:592-7, 1p following 597 pubmed publisher..Given the potency of resolvins and the well-known side effects of opioids and COX inhibitors, resolvins may represent new analgesics for treating inflammatory pain. ..
- Cheng L, Lu N, Zhang Y, Zhao Z. Ryanodine receptors contribute to the induction of nociceptive input-evoked long-term potentiation in the rat spinal cord slice. Mol Pain. 2010;6:1 pubmed publisher..These data indicate that activation of presynaptic RyRs play a crucial role in the induction of LTP in the spinal pain pathway, probably through enhancement of transmitter release. ..
- Yasaka T, Hughes D, PolgÃ¡r E, Nagy G, Watanabe M, Riddell J, et al. Evidence against AMPA receptor-lacking glutamatergic synapses in the superficial dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. J Neurosci. 2009;29:13401-9 pubmed publisher..This suggests that pure NMDAr-mediated EPSCs seen in previous studies do not correspond to AMPAr-lacking synapses but result from another mechanism, for example, loss of labile AMPArs from recently formed synapses. ..
- Hu H, Alter B, Carrasquillo Y, Qiu C, Gereau R. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 modulates nociceptive plasticity via extracellular signal-regulated kinase-Kv4.2 signaling in spinal cord dorsal horn neurons. J Neurosci. 2007;27:13181-91 pubmed..2-containing potassium channels in dorsal horn neurons. This modulation may contribute to nociceptive plasticity and central sensitization associated with chronic inflammatory pain conditions. ..
- Lu Y, Sun Y, Wu X, Sun Q, Liu F, Xing G, et al. Role of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor subunit GluR1 in spinal dorsal horn in inflammatory nociception and neuropathic nociception in rat. Brain Res. 2008;1200:19-26 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that phosphorylated GluR1 (pGluR1-Ser845 and pGluR1-Ser831) might play a role in the induction of inflammatory but not neuropathic pain. ..
- Huang J, Wang Y, Wang W, Li Y, Tamamaki N, Wu S. 5-HT(3A) receptor subunit is expressed in a subpopulation of GABAergic and enkephalinergic neurons in the mouse dorsal spinal cord. Neurosci Lett. 2008;441:1-6 pubmed publisher..The different cellular localization of 5-HT(3A) receptor subunit suggest the complex participation of this receptor in the inhibitory neuronal circuits of the SDH neurons. ..
- Drdla R, Gassner M, Gingl E, Sandkühler J. Induction of synaptic long-term potentiation after opioid withdrawal. Science. 2009;325:207-10 pubmed publisher..These findings provide a previously unrecognized target to selectively combat pro-nociceptive effects of opioids without compromising opioid analgesia. ..
- Cheng H, Suzuki M, Hegarty D, Xu Q, Weyerbacher A, South S, et al. Inflammatory pain-induced signaling events following a conditional deletion of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in spinal cord dorsal horn. Neuroscience. 2008;155:948-58 pubmed publisher..Our findings provide evidence that inflammatory reactions are responsible for the recurrence of pain after NR1 KO in the SCDH. ..
- Park J, Voitenko N, Petralia R, Guan X, Xu J, Steinberg J, et al. Persistent inflammation induces GluR2 internalization via NMDA receptor-triggered PKC activation in dorsal horn neurons. J Neurosci. 2009;29:3206-19 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that dorsal horn GluR2 internalization might participate in the maintenance of NMDA receptor/PKC-dependent nociceptive hypersensitivity in persistent inflammatory pain. ..
- Marvizon J, Chen W, Murphy N. Enkephalins, dynorphins, and beta-endorphin in the rat dorsal horn: an immunofluorescence colocalization study. J Comp Neurol. 2009;517:51-68 pubmed publisher..These results show that enkephalins and dynorphins are present in different populations of dorsal horn neurons. In addition, dynorphin is present in some C-fibers. ..
- Al Ghamdi K, Polgar E, Todd A. Soma size distinguishes projection neurons from neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing interneurons in lamina I of the rat lumbar spinal dorsal horn. Neuroscience. 2009;164:1794-804 pubmed publisher..Since almost all of the NK1r-immunoreactive cells with soma size >200 microm(2) were retrogradely labelled, cells of this type can be identified as projection cells in anatomical studies. ..
- Song X, Zheng J, Cao J, Liu W, Song X, Huang Z. EphrinB-EphB receptor signaling contributes to neuropathic pain by regulating neural excitability and spinal synaptic plasticity in rats. Pain. 2008;139:168-80 pubmed publisher..This novel role for ephrinB-EphB receptor signaling suggests that these molecules may be useful therapeutic targets for treating pain after nerve injury. ..
- Lau W, Chan W, Zhang J, Yung K, Zhang H. Electroacupuncture inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 up-regulation in rat spinal cord after spinal nerve ligation. Neuroscience. 2008;155:463-8 pubmed publisher..The present results suggest that EA may alleviate neuropathic hypersensitivity by, at least partially, inhibiting COX-2 expression in the spinal cord. ..
- Walsh M, Graham B, Brichta A, Callister R. Evidence for a critical period in the development of excitability and potassium currents in mouse lumbar superficial dorsal horn neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2009;101:1800-12 pubmed publisher..Together, our data indicate that intrinsic properties and I(Ar) expression change dramatically in SDH neurons during development, with the greatest alterations occurring on either side of a critical period, P6-P10. ..
- Li A, Wang Y, Xin J, Lao L, Ren K, Berman B, et al. Electroacupuncture suppresses hyperalgesia and spinal Fos expression by activating the descending inhibitory system. Brain Res. 2007;1186:171-9 pubmed..The results demonstrate that EA inhibits transmission of noxious messages and hyperalgesia by activating supraspinal neurons that project to the spinal cord. ..
- Luongo L, Sajic M, Grist J, Clark A, Maione S, Malcangio M. Spinal changes associated with mechanical hypersensitivity in a model of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neurosci Lett. 2008;437:98-102 pubmed publisher..The expression of the chemokine CX3CL1 (fractalkine) and its receptor CX3CR1 were also higher in EAN than in control dorsal horns suggesting spinal microglia and CX3CL1/CX3CR1 may play a role in the pain-like behaviour. ..
- Medvedeva Y, Kim M, Usachev Y. Mechanisms of prolonged presynaptic Ca2+ signaling and glutamate release induced by TRPV1 activation in rat sensory neurons. J Neurosci. 2008;28:5295-311 pubmed publisher..These data suggest that mitochondria control vanilloid-induced neurotransmission by translating the strength of presynaptic TRPV1 stimulation into duration of the postsynaptic response. ..
- Kato G, Kawasaki Y, Koga K, Uta D, Kosugi M, Yasaka T, et al. Organization of intralaminar and translaminar neuronal connectivity in the superficial spinal dorsal horn. J Neurosci. 2009;29:5088-99 pubmed publisher..These results reveal a specific three-dimensional organization in the local patterns of excitatory and inhibitory connectivity that has implications for the processing of information related to both somatotopy and sensory modality. ..
- PolgÃ¡r E, Todd A. Tactile allodynia can occur in the spared nerve injury model in the rat without selective loss of GABA or GABA(A) receptors from synapses in laminae I-II of the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn. Neuroscience. 2008;156:193-202 pubmed publisher..An alternative explanation for disinhibition after nerve injury is that it results from reduced excitatory drive to GABAergic dorsal horn neurons following loss of primary afferent input to these cells. ..
- Zhou L, Zhong Y, Ren W, Li Y, Zhang T, Liu X. BDNF induces late-phase LTP of C-fiber evoked field potentials in rat spinal dorsal horn. Exp Neurol. 2008;212:507-14 pubmed publisher..The results suggest that BDNF play a crucial role in protein synthesis-dependent L-LTP in spinal dorsal horn via activation of ERK, p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB signal pathways. ..
- Song X, Cao J, Li H, Zheng J, Song X, Xiong L. Upregulation and redistribution of ephrinB and EphB receptor in dorsal root ganglion and spinal dorsal horn neurons after peripheral nerve injury and dorsal rhizotomy. Eur J Pain. 2008;12:1031-9 pubmed publisher..This study may also provide a new mechanism underlying DR-induced analgesia in clinic. ..
- Hegarty D, Mitchell J, Swanson K, Aicher S. Kainate receptors are primarily postsynaptic to SP-containing axon terminals in the trigeminal dorsal horn. Brain Res. 2007;1184:149-59 pubmed..These results provide anatomical evidence that KARs primarily mediate nociceptive transmission postsynaptic to SP-containing afferents and may also modulate the presynaptic release of SP and glutamate in trigeminal dorsal horn. ..
- Ikoma M, Kohno T, Baba H. Differential presynaptic effects of opioid agonists on Adelta- and C-afferent glutamatergic transmission to the spinal dorsal horn. Anesthesiology. 2007;107:807-12 pubmed..Given that the substantia gelatinosa is the main termination of Adelta and C fibers transmitting nociceptive information, the current findings may partially explain the different potency of opioid agonists. ..
- Géranton S, Fratto V, Tochiki K, Hunt S. Descending serotonergic controls regulate inflammation-induced mechanical sensitivity and methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 phosphorylation in the rat superficial dorsal horn. Mol Pain. 2008;4:35 pubmed publisher..We conclude that descending serotonergic pathways play a crucial role in regulating gene expression in the dorsal horn and mechanical sensitivity associated with an inflammatory pain state. ..