adrenergic fibers


Summary: Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.

Top Publications

  1. Mejías Aponte C, Drouin C, Aston Jones G. Adrenergic and noradrenergic innervation of the midbrain ventral tegmental area and retrorubral field: prominent inputs from medullary homeostatic centers. J Neurosci. 2009;29:3613-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of medullary noradrenergic and adrenergic afferents to DA neuron areas indicates new pathways for visceral-related inputs to reward-related areas in the midbrain. ..
  2. Bostock H, Campero M, Serra J, OCHOA J. Velocity recovery cycles of C fibres innervating human skin. J Physiol. 2003;553:649-63 pubmed
  3. Xie W, Strong J, Zhang J. Increased excitability and spontaneous activity of rat sensory neurons following in vitro stimulation of sympathetic fiber sprouts in the isolated dorsal root ganglion. Pain. 2010;151:447-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter treatment, a relatively minimal form of sympathectomy, was also highly effective in reducing mechanical pain ipsilateral to the SNL. ..
  4. Jiang X, Hand A, Shen S, Cone R, O Rourke J. Enhanced tissue plasminogen activator synthesis by the sympathetic neurons that innervate aging vessels. J Neurosci Res. 2003;71:567-74 pubmed
    ..The possibility that increased sympathetic nervous system plasminogenesis influences the aging process in nonvascular tissues also deserves further investigation. ..
  5. Li H, Xie W, Strong J, Zhang J. Systemic antiinflammatory corticosteroid reduces mechanical pain behavior, sympathetic sprouting, and elevation of proinflammatory cytokines in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Anesthesiology. 2007;107:469-77 pubmed
  6. Logan S, Pickering A, Gibson I, Nolan M, Spanswick D. Electrotonic coupling between rat sympathetic preganglionic neurones in vitro. J Physiol. 1996;495 ( Pt 2):491-502 pubmed
    ..6. The ability of groups of electrotonically coupled SPNs to generate spontaneous discharges within the spinal cord provides a novel mechanism for the integration and synchronization of information within the sympathetic nervous system. ..
  7. Orimo S, Kanazawa T, Nakamura A, Uchihara T, Mori F, Kakita A, et al. Degeneration of cardiac sympathetic nerve can occur in multiple system atrophy. Acta Neuropathol. 2007;113:81-6 pubmed
    ..Moreover, concurrent Lewy body pathology in the sympathetic ganglia might accelerate cardiac sympathetic denervation even in MSA. ..
  8. Uzun L, Ugur M, Ozdemir H. Cervical sympathetic chain schwannoma mimicking a carotid body tumor: a case report. Tumori. 2005;91:84-6 pubmed
    ..They may appear pulsatile due to the displacement of vascular structures by the non-vascular mass and thus may mimic a CBT. A case of CSC schwannoma masquerading as CBT in a 25-year-old woman is presented and discussed here...
  9. Rossi L. Alterations of cardiac innervation in evolving myocardial infarction and transplanted hearts. An anatomo-clinical reappraisal. Ital Heart J. 2003;4:448-53 pubmed
    ..The rich sympatho-vagal cardiac network might further provide alternative bypasses for post-infarct reinnervation. The functional implications of this process remain unclear. ..

More Information


  1. Kawada T, Uemura K, Kashihara K, Jin Y, Li M, Zheng C, et al. Uniformity in dynamic baroreflex regulation of left and right cardiac sympathetic nerve activities. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;284:R1506-12 pubmed
    ..969 to 0.999). These findings indicate no laterality in the dynamic as well as static baroreflex regulation of LSNA and RSNA as far as grouped axonal activity is concerned. ..
  2. Haensch C, Jörg J, Lerch H. I-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake of the forearm shows dysfunction in peripheral sympathetic mediated neurovascular transmission in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I). J Neurol. 2002;249:1742-3 pubmed
  3. Sveshnikov D, Smirnov V, Myasnikov I, Mongush M, Yurasova I. Catecholamines, ?-, and ?-adrenoceptors are not responsible for activation of duodenum motility induced by sympathetic nerve stimulation. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2011;152:5-8 pubmed
    ..The data showed that catecholamines as well as ?- and ?-adrenoceptors are not involved in the excitatory effect of sympathetic origin...
  4. Maunoury C, Acar P, Sidi D. Use of 123I-MIBG scintigraphy to assess the impact of carvedilol on cardiac adrenergic neuronal function in childhood dilated cardiomyopathy. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2003;30:1651-6 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed to assess the relationship between improvement in MIBG cardiac uptake and the beneficial effects of carvedilol on morbidity and mortality. ..
  5. Ulas M, Penkowski A, Lakomy M. Adrenergic and cholinergic innervation of the chicken pancreas. Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2003;62:243-6 pubmed
    ..Single TH- and ChAT-positive nerve cell bodies were also found in the organ under study. ..
  6. Schultheiss T, Flau K, Kathmann M, Gothert M, Schlicker E. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor-mediated inhibition of noradrenaline release in guinea-pig vessels, but not in rat and mouse aorta. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2005;372:139-46 pubmed
  7. Parthenakis F, Prassopoulos V, Koukouraki S, Zacharis E, Diakakis G, Karkavitsas N, et al. Segmental pattern of myocardial sympathetic denervation in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: relationship to regional wall motion and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. J Nucl Cardiol. 2002;9:15-22 pubmed
    ..The severity of these changes is partially correlated with abnormalities of regional wall motion and myocardial perfusion. ..
  8. Longo G, Osikowicz M, Ribeiro Da Silva A. Sympathetic fiber sprouting in inflamed joints and adjacent skin contributes to pain-related behavior in arthritis. J Neurosci. 2013;33:10066-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Blocking the sympathetic fiber sprouting may provide a novel therapeutic approach to alleviate pain in arthritis. ..
  9. Demchenko I, Moskvin A, Krivchenko A, Piantadosi C, Allen B. Nitric oxide-mediated central sympathetic excitation promotes CNS and pulmonary O? toxicity. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012;112:1814-23 pubmed publisher
  10. Rabchevsky A. Segmental organization of spinal reflexes mediating autonomic dysreflexia after spinal cord injury. Prog Brain Res. 2006;152:265-74 pubmed
    ..These responses are manifested as autonomic dysreflexia...
  11. Ralevic V, Kendall D. Cannabinoids inhibit pre- and postjunctionally sympathetic neurotransmission in rat mesenteric arteries. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002;444:171-81 pubmed
    ..The pre-junctional action is mediated by a cannabinoid CB(1)-like receptor, but the postjunctional action does not appear to involve either cannabinoid CB(1) or CB(2) receptors. ..
  12. Söderström T, Stefanovska A, Veber M, Svensson H. Involvement of sympathetic nerve activity in skin blood flow oscillations in humans. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;284:H1638-46 pubmed
    ..02-0.05 hz. ..
  13. Scheiermann C, Kunisaki Y, Lucas D, Chow A, Jang J, Zhang D, et al. Adrenergic nerves govern circadian leukocyte recruitment to tissues. Immunity. 2012;37:290-301 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide unique insights in the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the potential for time-based therapeutics for transplantation and inflammatory diseases. ..
  14. Ghasemlou N, Krol K, Macdonald D, Kawaja M. Comparison of target innervation by sympathetic axons in adult wild type and heterozygous mice for nerve growth factor or its receptor trkA. J Pineal Res. 2004;37:230-40 pubmed
  15. Frisbee J, Hollander J, Brock R, Yu H, Boegehold M. Integration of skeletal muscle resistance arteriolar reactivity for perfusion responses in the metabolic syndrome. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R1771-82 pubmed publisher
  16. Moak J, Goldstein D, Eldadah B, Saleem A, Holmes C, Pechnik S, et al. Supine low-frequency power of heart rate variability reflects baroreflex function, not cardiac sympathetic innervation. Heart Rhythm. 2007;4:1523-9 pubmed
    ..BRS at baseline predicted LF responses to tyramine and yohimbine. LF power reflects baroreflex function, not cardiac sympathetic innervation. ..
  17. Cardin J, Schmidt M. Noradrenergic inputs mediate state dependence of auditory responses in the avian song system. J Neurosci. 2004;24:7745-53 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that noradrenergic release in a single forebrain area is a mechanism underlying behavioral state-dependent regulation of auditory processing in a neural system specialized for vocal learning. ..
  18. Shoemaker S, Kudwa A, Isaacson L. Sympathetic ingrowth to the trigeminal ganglion following intracerebroventricular infusion of nerve growth factor. Brain Res. 2002;956:136-48 pubmed
  19. Owczuk R, Steffek M, Wujtewicz M, Szymanowicz W, Twardowski P, Marjański T, et al. Effects of thoracic epidural anaesthesia on cardiac repolarization. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2009;36:880-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes may explain the anti-arrhythmic action seen with central blockade. ..
  20. Weidler C, Holzer C, Harbuz M, Hofbauer R, Angele P, Scholmerich J, et al. Low density of sympathetic nerve fibres and increased density of brain derived neurotrophic factor positive cells in RA synovium. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;64:13-20 pubmed
    ..BDNF may have a stimulatory role on growth of sympathetic in relation to SP(+) sensory nerve fibres in Co and OA, but not in RA. ..
  21. Tanaka M, McKinley M, McAllen R. Roles of two preoptic cell groups in tonic and febrile control of rat tail sympathetic fibers. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R1248-57 pubmed publisher
  22. Tjen A Looi S, Fu L, Longhurst J. Xanthine oxidase, but not neutrophils, contributes to activation of cardiac sympathetic afferents during myocardial ischaemia in cats. J Physiol. 2002;543:327-36 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that ROS generated from the oxidation of purines contribute to the stimulation of ischaemically sensitive cardiac sympathetic afferents, whereas PMNs do not play a major role in this process. ..
  23. Parker L, Shanks J, Kennard J, Brain K. Dynamic monitoring of NET activity in mature murine sympathetic terminals using a fluorescent substrate. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;159:797-807 pubmed publisher
  24. Noguchi E. Acupuncture regulates gut motility and secretion via nerve reflexes. Auton Neurosci. 2010;156:15-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to the reflexes that are activated, the effects of acupuncture may be mediated via centers in the limbic system, the hypothalamus and the brain stem. ..
  25. Caliskan G, Albrecht A. Noradrenergic interactions via autonomic nervous system: a promising target for extinction-based exposure therapy?. J Neurophysiol. 2013;110:2507-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Their findings stress the importance of activating the NA system through VNS in treatment of anxiety disorders such as PTSD or phobia. ..
  26. Tompkins R, Melling C, Wilson T, Bates B, Shoemaker J. Arrangement of sympathetic fibers within the human common peroneal nerve: implications for microneurography. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2013;115:1553-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings confirm the bundled organization of sympathetic axons within the peroneal nerve and provide the anatomical basis for outcomes in microneurographic studies. ..
  27. Kaufmann H, Biaggioni I, Voustianiouk A, Diedrich A, Costa F, Clarke R, et al. Vestibular control of sympathetic activity. An otolith-sympathetic reflex in humans. Exp Brain Res. 2002;143:463-9 pubmed
    ..Because of its short latency, this reflex may be one of the earliest mechanisms to sustain blood pressure upon standing. ..
  28. Chung J, Ohrbach R, McCall W. Effect of increased sympathetic activity on electrical activity from myofascial painful areas. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2004;83:842-50 pubmed
    ..The significant electromyographic increase from painful areas and no significant increase from control channels are consistent with the view that sympathetic neural outflow increases painful-area electrical activity. ..
  29. Kim H, Na H, Back S, Hong S. Sympathetic sprouting in sensory ganglia depends on the number of injured neurons. Neuroreport. 2001;12:3529-32 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the extent of sympathetic sprouting in the DRG following peripheral nerve injury is proportionally related to the amount of injured nerve fibers, but not related to the degree of neuropathic pain behaviors. ..
  30. Bonnemeier H. The never-ending story: unraveling the mysteries of the low-frequency component of heart rate variability. Heart Rhythm. 2007;4:1530-1 pubmed
  31. Salo L, Nalivaiko E, Anderson C, McAllen R. Control of cardiac rate, contractility, and atrioventricular conduction by medullary raphe neurons in anesthetized rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;296:H318-24 pubmed publisher
  32. Wu X, Johns E. Interactions between nitric oxide and superoxide on the neural regulation of proximal fluid reabsorption in hypertensive rats. Exp Physiol. 2004;89:255-61 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that in the hypertensive rats, superoxide anion production is raised which depresses Jva and interacts with NO preventing a normal Jva response to renal nerve stimulation. ..
  33. Heermann S, Mätlik K, Hinz U, Fey J, Arumae U, Krieglstein K. Glia cell line-derived neurotrophic factor mediates survival of murine sympathetic precursors. J Neurosci Res. 2013;91:780-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that GDNF also maintained neonatal sympathetic neurons (40%) cultured for 2 days. However, the GDNF responsiveness was lost at 5 days in vitro. ..
  34. Giraldi A, Alm P, Werkstrom V, Myllymäki L, Wagner G, Andersson K. Morphological and functional characterization of a rat vaginal smooth muscle sphincter. Int J Impot Res. 2002;14:271-82 pubmed
    ..The present studies suggest that in the rat the L-arginine/NO-system not only plays an important role in the regulation of vaginal smooth muscle tone, but also affects blood flow, and may have sensory functions. ..
  35. Gonsalvez D, Kerman I, McAllen R, Anderson C. Chemical coding for cardiovascular sympathetic preganglionic neurons in rats. J Neurosci. 2010;30:11781-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that CART immunoreactivity may identify the postulated "accessory" preganglionic neurons, whose actions may amplify vasomotor ganglionic transmission. ..
  36. Miller L, Weidler C, Falk W, Angele P, Schaumburger J, Scholmerich J, et al. Increased prevalence of semaphorin 3C, a repellent of sympathetic nerve fibers, in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:1156-63 pubmed
    ..The inability of sympathetic nerve fibers to reinnervate synovial tissue could contribute to the chronic nature of RA. ..
  37. Sanders M, Fazzi G, Janssen G, de Leeuw P, Blanco C, De Mey J. Reduced uteroplacental blood flow alters renal arterial reactivity and glomerular properties in the rat offspring. Hypertension. 2004;43:1283-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, prenatal stress transiently modifies renal arterial reactivity and results in long-lasting adverse effects on renal structure and function and on renal compensatory mechanisms. ..
  38. Hillefors M, Gioio A, Mameza M, Kaplan B. Axon viability and mitochondrial function are dependent on local protein synthesis in sympathetic neurons. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2007;27:701-16 pubmed
    ..4) Taken together, these results indicate that the local protein synthetic system plays an important role in mitochondrial function and the maintenance of the axon. ..
  39. Estanol B, Sentíes Madrid H, Elías Y, Coyac P, Martínez Memije R, Infante O, et al. Respiratory and non respiratory oscillations of the skin blood flow: a window to the function of the sympathetic fibers to the skin blood vessels. Arch Cardiol Mex. 2008;78:187-94 pubmed
    ..While breathing at rest the modulation of SBF amplitude was clearly seen at LF and non respiratory related. With rhythmic breathing there is a strong modulation of amplitude and frequency at the respiratory frequency. ..
  40. Eguchi K, Pickering T, Ishikawa J, Hoshide S, Komori T, Tomizawa H, et al. Severe orthostatic hypotension with diabetic autonomic neuropathy successfully treated with a beta(1)-blocker: a case report. J Hum Hypertens. 2006;20:801-3 pubmed
  41. Tomita R, Igarashi S, Fijisaki S, Koshinaga T, Tanjoh K. Regulation of enteric nervous system in the proximal and distal parts of the normal human pyloric sphincter--in vitro study. Hepatogastroenterology. 2007;54:1289-92 pubmed
    ..Relaxation reaction via inhibitory nerves, especially NANC inhibitory nerves, was mainly involved in the regulation of enteric nerve responses to EFS in the DPS. ..
  42. Lin Y, Bennett M. Varicosity-Schwann cell interactions mediated by ATP in the mouse vas deferens. J Neurophysiol. 2005;93:2787-96 pubmed
    ..This work suggests the possibility that Schwann cells are active participants in the process of junctional transmission in the autonomic nervous system. ..
  43. Hayes M, Skibicka K, Grill H. Caudal brainstem processing is sufficient for behavioral, sympathetic, and parasympathetic responses driven by peripheral and hindbrain glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor stimulation. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4059-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Contrary to the literature, hypothalamic/forebrain processing and forebrain-caudal brainstem communication is not required for the observed responses. ..
  44. Ziessen T, Cellek S. Purines and pyrimidines are not involved in NANC relaxant responses in the rabbit vaginal wall. Br J Pharmacol. 2002;137:513-21 pubmed
    ..8. These results suggest that adenosine A(2A) receptors and P2 receptors are present in the rabbit vaginal wall, but that they are not involved in non-nitrergic NANC relaxant responses. ..
  45. Cavallotti C, Frati A, Sagnelli P, Pescosolido N. Re-evaluation and quantification of the different sources of nerve fibres supplying the rat eye. J Anat. 2005;206:217-24 pubmed
    ..The denervation experiments confirmed the presence of the different types of nerve fibres (sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensitive) in the three studied structures of the rat eye. ..
  46. Ferens D, Yin L, Bron R, Hunne B, Ohashi Doi K, Kitchener P, et al. Functional and in situ hybridization evidence that preganglionic sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurons express ghrelin receptors. Neuroscience. 2010;166:671-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that activation of excitatory ghrelin receptors on sympathetic preganglionic neurons increases blood pressure, and that decreases in blood pressure caused by ghrelin agonists are mediated through receptors on blood vessels. ..
  47. Amino T, Uchihara T, Tsunekawa H, Takahata K, Shimazu S, Mizusawa H, et al. Myocardial nerve fibers are preserved in MPTP-treated mice, despite cardiac sympathetic dysfunction. Neurosci Res. 2008;60:314-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot analyses also showed no difference in the amounts of these proteins. Myocardial nerve fibers were well preserved in MPTP-treated mice, despite apparent cardiac sympathetic dysfunction. ..
  48. Koeda T, Tamura R, Sato J, Mizumura K. Substance P is involved in the cutaneous blood flow increase response to sympathetic nerve stimulation in persistently inflamed rats. J Physiol Sci. 2007;57:361-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that NK-1 receptor activation is involved in the BF-increase response to SS, and that this activation is in part mediated by SP from lumbar SG that was synthesized de novo in inflamed animals. ..
  49. Zacharia J, Mauban J, Raina H, Fisher S, WIER W. High vascular tone of mouse femoral arteries in vivo is determined by sympathetic nerve activity via ?1A- and ?1D-adrenoceptor subtypes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65969 pubmed publisher
    ..p.) reduced basal tone by 90%. Tone of mouse femoral arteries in vivo is almost entirely sympathetic in origin. Activation of ?1A- and ?1D-adrenoceptors elevates [Ca(2+)]i and accounts for at least 55% of the tone. ..
  50. Mano T. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity in blood pressure control against gravitational stress. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2001;38 Suppl 1:S7-11 pubmed
    ..Orthostatic intolerance after exposure to prolonged microgravity was associated with a reduction of increased MSNA response to gravitational stress. Aging influenced gravity-related responses of MSNA. ..
  51. Krupatkin A. [Functional evaluation of the perivascular innervation of the skin of the extremities using laser Doppler flowmetry]. Fiziol Cheloveka. 2004;30:99-104 pubmed
  52. Ivancheva C, Radomirov R. Control of non-adrenergic non-cholinergic reflex motor responses in circular muscle of guinea-pig small intestine by Met-enkephalin. Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 2002;22:199-207 pubmed
    ..A higher sensitivity of the descending relaxation to Met-enkephalin was observed suggesting an essential role of opioid(s) in reducing the efficacy of descending motor activity. ..
  53. van Keulen L, Vromans M, van Zijderveld F. Early and late pathogenesis of natural scrapie infection in sheep. APMIS. 2002;110:23-32 pubmed