radiculopathy

Summary

Summary: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.

Top Publications

  1. Engquist M, Löfgren H, Oberg B, Holtz A, Peolsson A, Söderlund A, et al. Surgery versus nonsurgical treatment of cervical radiculopathy: a prospective, randomized study comparing surgery plus physiotherapy with physiotherapy alone with a 2-year follow-up. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013;38:1715-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective randomized controlled trial...
  2. Benoist M, Boulu P, Hayem G. Epidural steroid injections in the management of low-back pain with radiculopathy: an update of their efficacy and safety. Eur Spine J. 2012;21:204-13 pubmed publisher
    ..steroid injections (ESIs) have been widely used for over 50 years in the treatment of low-back pain with radiculopathy. Most interventional pain physicians strongly believe in their efficacy and safety...
  3. Schebesch K, Albert R, Schödel P, Proescholdt M, Lange M, Brawanski A. A single neurosurgical center's experience of the resolution of cervical radiculopathy after dorsal foraminotomy and ventral discectomy. J Clin Neurosci. 2011;18:1090-2 pubmed publisher
    ..However, assessment of the long-term outcome is required and further studies are required to confirm our results...
  4. Iversen T, Solberg T, Romner B, Wilsgaard T, Twisk J, Anke A, et al. Effect of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy: multicentre, blinded, randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2011;343:d5278 pubmed publisher
    To assess the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy in the short (6 weeks), intermediate (12 weeks), and long term (52 weeks).
  5. Scaia V, Baxter D, Cook C. The pain provocation-based straight leg raise test for diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation, lumbar radiculopathy, and/or sciatica: a systematic review of clinical utility. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2012;25:215-23 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of a finding of pain during the straight leg raise test for lumbar disc herniation, lumbar radiculopathy, and/or sciatica.
  6. Mondelli M, Aretini A, Arrigucci U, Ginanneschi F, Greco G, Sicurelli F. Sensory nerve action potential amplitude is rarely reduced in lumbosacral radiculopathy due to herniated disc. Clin Neurophysiol. 2013;124:405-9 pubmed publisher
    ..is a classical neurographic rule whether damage is located proximal to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) as in radiculopathy. The study's aim is to check SNAP reduction in patients with lumbosacral radiculopathy due to herniated disc (..
  7. Mahn F, Hüllemann P, Gockel U, Brosz M, Freynhagen R, Tolle T, et al. Sensory symptom profiles and co-morbidities in painful radiculopathy. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18018 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, several clinical trials with neuropathic pain medications failed in painful radiculopathy. Epidemiological and clinical data of 2094 patients with painful radiculopathy were collected within a cross ..
  8. Langevin P, Roy J, Desmeules F. Cervical radiculopathy: study protocol of a randomised clinical trial evaluating the effect of mobilisations and exercises targeting the opening of intervertebral foramen [NCT01500044]. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13:10 pubmed publisher
    Cervical radiculopathy is a common form of neck pain and has been shown to lead to severe disability...
  9. Quraishi N. Transforaminal injection of corticosteroids for lumbar radiculopathy: systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Spine J. 2012;21:214-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Transforaminal epidural injection of steroids is used to treat lumbar radicular pain. However, there are only a few well-designed randomized, controlled studies on the effectiveness of steroid injection...

More Information

Publications88

  1. Diab A, Moustafa I. The efficacy of forward head correction on nerve root function and pain in cervical spondylotic radiculopathy: a randomized trial. Clin Rehabil. 2012;26:351-61 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effect of forward head posture correction on pain and nerve root function in cases of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy.
  2. Cohen S, Gupta A, Strassels S, Christo P, Erdek M, Griffith S, et al. Effect of MRI on treatment results or decision making in patients with lumbosacral radiculopathy referred for epidural steroid injections: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172:134-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) improves outcomes or affects decision making in patients with lumbosacral radiculopathy referred for ESI.
  3. Chibbaro S, Mirone G, Yasuda M, Marsella M, Di Emidio P, George B. Vertebral artery loop--a cause of cervical radiculopathy. World Neurosurg. 2012;78:375.e11-3 pubmed publisher
    To report a case of cervical radiculopathy caused by an anomalous vertebral artery (VA) and illustrate the efficacy of microvascular decompression by the anterolateral approach.
  4. Thoomes E, Scholten Peeters G, de Boer A, Olsthoorn R, Verkerk K, Lin C, et al. Lack of uniform diagnostic criteria for cervical radiculopathy in conservative intervention studies: a systematic review. Eur Spine J. 2012;21:1459-70 pubmed publisher
    Cervical radiculopathy (CR) is a common diagnosis. It is unclear if intervention studies use uniform definitions and criteria for patient selection...
  5. Gu X, Peng L, Yang D, Ma Q, Zheng Y, Liu C, et al. The respective and interaction effects of spinal GRs and MRs on radicular pain induced by chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion in the rat. Brain Res. 2011;1396:88-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Spironolactone can enhance the analgesic effects of dexamethasone via complex mechanisms...
  6. Thoomes E, Scholten Peeters W, Koes B, Falla D, Verhagen A. The effectiveness of conservative treatment for patients with cervical radiculopathy: a systematic review. Clin J Pain. 2013;29:1073-86 pubmed publisher
    ..of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of conservative treatments for patients with cervical radiculopathy, a term used to describe neck pain associated with pain radiating into the arm...
  7. Zweig T, Hemmeler C, Aghayev E, Melloh M, Etter C, Röder C. Influence of preoperative nucleus pulposus status and radiculopathy on outcomes in mono-segmental lumbar total disc replacement: results from a nationwide registry. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011;12:275 pubmed publisher
    Currently, herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) with radiculopathy and other preconditions are regarded as relative or absolute contraindications for lumbar total disc replacement (TDR)...
  8. Jeon C, Chung N, Lee Y, Son K, Kim J. Assessment of hip abductor power in patients with foot drop: a simple and useful test to differentiate lumbar radiculopathy and peroneal neuropathy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013;38:257-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective study on a diagnostic test...
  9. Peolsson A, Söderlund A, Engquist M, Lind B, Löfgren H, Vavruch L, et al. Physical function outcome in cervical radiculopathy patients after physiotherapy alone compared with anterior surgery followed by physiotherapy: a prospective randomized study with a 2-year follow-up. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013;38:300-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective randomized study...
  10. Manchikanti L, Singh V, Cash K, Pampati V, Damron K, Boswell M. A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of fluoroscopic caudal epidural injections in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation and radiculitis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:1897-905 pubmed publisher
    ..A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial...
  11. Chang Y, Winkelstein B. Schwann cell proliferation and macrophage infiltration are evident at day 14 after painful cervical nerve root compression in the rat. J Neurotrauma. 2011;28:2429-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Although these different cellular mechanisms may explain pain, they may also only reflect varying injury etiologies...
  12. Sasaki M, Aoki M, Nishioka K, Yoshimine T. Radiculopathy caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures in the lumbar spine. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2011;51:484-9 pubmed
    The clinical features of radiculopathy caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVFs) in the lumbar spine were investigated in 66 patients treated for pain caused by OVFs from January 2006 to December 2009...
  13. Tampin B, Slater H, Hall T, Lee G, Briffa N. Quantitative sensory testing somatosensory profiles in patients with cervical radiculopathy are distinct from those in patients with nonspecific neck-arm pain. Pain. 2012;153:2403-14 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to establish the somatosensory profiles of patients with cervical radiculopathy and patients with nonspecific neck-arm pain associated with heightened nerve mechanosensitivity (NSNAP)...
  14. Caglar Y, Bozkurt M, Kahilogullari G, Tuna H, Bakir A, Torun F, et al. Keyhole approach for posterior cervical discectomy: experience on 84 patients. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2007;50:7-11 pubmed
    ..Successful relief of radiculopathy symptoms was achieved in 80 patients (96%). In 4 patients the symptoms recurred. One patient (1...
  15. Genevay S, Finckh A, Payer M, Mezin F, Tessitore E, Gabay C, et al. Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in periradicular fat tissue in patients with radiculopathy from herniated disc. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33:2041-6 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-6 and IL-8] are elevated in tissues intimately surrounding involved nerve roots of patients suffering from radiculopathy form herniated disc (HD)...
  16. Kulkarni A, Hee H, Wong H. Solis cage (PEEK) for anterior cervical fusion: preliminary radiological results with emphasis on fusion and subsidence. Spine J. 2007;7:205-9 pubmed
    ..single-level anterior cervical interbody fusion using the Solis cage (PEEK material) for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy or myelopathy was performed. The follow-up ranged from 12 to 35 months (average 18 months)...
  17. Bigbee A, Hoang T, Havton L. At-level neuropathic pain is induced by lumbosacral ventral root avulsion injury and ameliorated by root reimplantation into the spinal cord. Exp Neurol. 2007;204:273-82 pubmed
    ..We believe that our findings are of translational research interest, as root implantation surgery is emerging as a potentially useful strategy for the repair of cauda equina/conus medullaris injuries...
  18. Zenmyo M, Yamamoto T, Ishidou Y, Komiya S, Ijiri K. Osteoid osteoma near the intervertebral foramen may induce radiculopathy through tumorous inflammation. Diagn Pathol. 2011;6:10 pubmed publisher
    ..We present here two rare cases of spinal osteoid osteoma causing radiculopathy and the first histological evidence of tumorous inflammation as a cause of radiculopathy in osteoid osteoma ..
  19. Rubinstein S, Pool J, van Tulder M, Riphagen I, de Vet H. A systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of provocative tests of the neck for diagnosing cervical radiculopathy. Eur Spine J. 2007;16:307-19 pubmed
    ..or relieve arm symptoms, are commonly used in clinical practice in patients with a suspected cervical radiculopathy. Their diagnostic accuracy, however, has never been examined in a systematic review...
  20. Van Boxem K, van Eerd M, Brinkhuizen T, Brinkhuize T, Patijn J, van Kleef M, et al. Radiofrequency and pulsed radiofrequency treatment of chronic pain syndromes: the available evidence. Pain Pract. 2008;8:385-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The value of PRF treatment of the peripheral nerves also needs to be confirmed in well-designed trials. ..
  21. Tarulli A, Raynor E. Lumbosacral radiculopathy. Neurol Clin. 2007;25:387-405 pubmed
    Lumbosacral radiculopathy is one of the most common disorders evaluated by neurologists and is a leading referral diagnosis for the performance of electromyography...
  22. Penas C, Pascual Font A, Mancuso R, Forés J, Casas C, Navarro X. Sigma receptor agonist 2-(4-morpholinethyl)1 phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate (Pre084) increases GDNF and BiP expression and promotes neuroprotection after root avulsion injury. J Neurotrauma. 2011;28:831-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, early application of Sig-1R agonist appears to be a promising therapy to improve MN survival after root avulsion. ..
  23. Casey E. Natural history of radiculopathy. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2011;22:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Most cases of radiculopathy are self-limiting, and symptoms resolve over the course of weeks to months...
  24. Ghazi N, Jane J, Lopes M, Newman S. Capillary hemangioma of the cauda equina presenting with radiculopathy and papilledema. J Neuroophthalmol. 2006;26:98-102 pubmed
    ..If papilledema is present, spinal cord imaging should be performed when lumbar puncture discloses unexplained protein elevation and in cases that lack clinical features typical of idiopathic intracranial hypertension...
  25. Kuijper B, Tans J, van der Kallen B, Nollet F, Lycklama A Nijeholt G, de Visser M. Root compression on MRI compared with clinical findings in patients with recent onset cervical radiculopathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2011;82:561-3 pubmed publisher
    ..caused by herniated discs and spondylotic foraminal stenosis by MRI in patients with recent onset cervical radiculopathy. 78 patients with symptoms and signs of cervical radiculopathy of less than one month's duration...
  26. Anderson P, Sasso R, Riew K. Comparison of adverse events between the Bryan artificial cervical disc and anterior cervical arthrodesis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33:1305-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Four hundred sixty-three (463) patients having cervical radiculopathy and or myelopathy at a single level were treated at 31 sites...
  27. Mazanec D, Reddy A. Medical management of cervical spondylosis. Neurosurgery. 2007;60:S43-50 pubmed
    Medical management is often the initial management of cervical spondylitic syndromes, including radiculopathy, myelopathy, and neck pain. This includes pharmacological and rehabilitation treatment...
  28. Ajmal S, Enam S, Shamim M. Neurogenic claudication and radiculopathy as delayed presentations of retained spinal bullet. Spine J. 2009;9:e5-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These cases illustrate that retained intraspinal bullets can present with delayed neurological findings secondary to reactive changes around the bullet. ..
  29. Manchikanti L, Singh V, Falco F, Cash K, Pampati V. Evaluation of the effectiveness of lumbar interlaminar epidural injections in managing chronic pain of lumbar disc herniation or radiculitis: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Pain Physician. 2010;13:343-55 pubmed
    ..Overall, 74% of patients in Group I without steroids and 86% in Group II with steroids with lumbar disc herniation or radiculitis might benefit from lumbar interlaminar epidural injections. ..
  30. Manchikanti L, Cash K, Pampati V, Wargo B, Malla Y. The effectiveness of fluoroscopic cervical interlaminar epidural injections in managing chronic cervical disc herniation and radiculitis: preliminary results of a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Pain Physician. 2010;13:223-36 pubmed
  31. Tong H. Specificity of needle electromyography for lumbar radiculopathy in 55- to 79-yr-old subjects with low back pain and sciatica without stenosis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2011;90:233-8; quiz 239-42 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to determine the specificity of needle electromyography for lumbar radiculopathy in subjects with low back pain and sciatica without stenosis.
  32. Havton L, Carlstedt T. Repair and rehabilitation of plexus and root avulsions in animal models and patients. Curr Opin Neurol. 2009;22:570-4 pubmed publisher
  33. Eggers R, Tannemaat M, Ehlert E, Verhaagen J. A spatio-temporal analysis of motoneuron survival, axonal regeneration and neurotrophic factor expression after lumbar ventral root avulsion and implantation. Exp Neurol. 2010;223:207-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have important implications for future strategies to promote long-distance regeneration through distal, chronically denervated peripheral nerves. ..
  34. Tachihara H, Kikuchi S, Konno S, Sekiguchi M. Does facet joint inflammation induce radiculopathy?: an investigation using a rat model of lumbar facet joint inflammation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:406-12 pubmed
    The association between lumbar facet joint inflammation and radiculopathy was investigated using behavioral, histologic, and immunohistochemical testing in rats.
  35. Lee J, An J, Lee S, Seo I. Three-dimensional gait analysis of patients with weakness of ankle dorsiflexor as a result of unilateral L5 radiculopathy. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2010;23:49-54 pubmed publisher
    L5 radiculopathy leads to weakness in ankle dorsiflexor, which can further affect ambulation status. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of gait patterns associated with L5 radiculopathy...
  36. Matsudaira K, Yamazaki T, Seichi A, Hoshi K, Hara N, Ogiwara S, et al. Modified fenestration with restorative spinoplasty for lumbar spinal stenosis. J Neurosurg Spine. 2009;10:587-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The MFRS technique produces an adequate and safe decompression of the spinal canal, even in patients with narrow and steep facet joints in whom conventional fenestration is technically demanding. ..
  37. Chou R, Baisden J, Carragee E, Resnick D, Shaffer W, Loeser J. Surgery for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34:1094-109 pubmed publisher
    ..assess benefits and harms of surgery for nonradicular back pain with common degenerative changes, radiculopathy with herniated lumbar disc, and symptomatic spinal stenosis...
  38. Genevay S, Atlas S, Katz J. Variation in eligibility criteria from studies of radiculopathy due to a herniated disc and of neurogenic claudication due to lumbar spinal stenosis: a structured literature review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:803-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies involving radiculopathy due to lumbar herniated disc (HD) and for neurogenic claudication due to lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) were ..
  39. Kirita T, Takebayashi T, Mizuno S, Takeuchi H, Kobayashi T, Fukao M, et al. Electrophysiologic changes in dorsal root ganglion neurons and behavioral changes in a lumbar radiculopathy model. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:E65-72 pubmed
    ..The DRG neuron was electrophysiologically investigated using a rat model with constriction of the proximal site of the DRG...
  40. Simopoulos T, Kraemer J, Nagda J, Aner M, Bajwa Z. Response to pulsed and continuous radiofrequency lesioning of the dorsal root ganglion and segmental nerves in patients with chronic lumbar radicular pain. Pain Physician. 2008;11:137-44 pubmed
    ..We aimed to prospectively evaluate the response and safety of pulsed and continuous radiofrequecy lesioning of the dorsal root ganglion/segmental nerves in patients with chronic lumbosacral radicular pain...
  41. Cahana A, Van Zundert J, Macrea L, van Kleef M, Sluijter M. Pulsed radiofrequency: current clinical and biological literature available. Pain Med. 2006;7:411-23 pubmed
    ..Clinical advantages and mechanisms of this treatment remain unclear. The objective of this study was to review current clinical and laboratory data...
  42. Jensen T, Albert H, Sorensen J, Manniche C, Leboeuf Yde C. Magnetic resonance imaging findings as predictors of clinical outcome in patients with sciatica receiving active conservative treatment. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2007;30:98-108 pubmed
  43. Thomas K, Fisher C, Boyd M, Bishop P, Wing P, Dvorak M. Outcome evaluation of surgical and nonsurgical management of lumbar disc protrusion causing radiculopathy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:1414-22 pubmed
    ..Prospective cohort study...
  44. Korinth M, Mull M. Vertebral artery loop causing cervical radiculopathy. Surg Neurol. 2007;67:172-3 pubmed
    ..loop of the extracranial VA enlarging the intervertebral foramen at C4-5 and compressing the C5 root causing radiculopathy. The diagnosis was confirmed on contrast enhanced CT and MR angiography after initial conservative treatment ..
  45. Wilby M, Fraser R, Vernon Roberts B, Moore R. The prevalence and pathogenesis of synovial cysts within the ligamentum flavum in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis and radiculopathy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34:2518-24 pubmed publisher
    ..A clinicopathologic study of synovial cysts in the ligamentum flavum (LF) in patients with spinal stenosis...
  46. Khoromi S, Cui L, Nackers L, Max M. Morphine, nortriptyline and their combination vs. placebo in patients with chronic lumbar root pain. Pain. 2007;130:66-75 pubmed
    ..Within the limitations of the modest sample size and high dropout rate, these results suggest that nortriptyline, morphine and their combination may have limited effectiveness in the treatment of chronic sciatica...
  47. Abbed K, Coumans J. Cervical radiculopathy: pathophysiology, presentation, and clinical evaluation. Neurosurgery. 2007;60:S28-34 pubmed
    Cervical radiculopathy is a common condition that usually results from compression and inflammation of the cervical nerve root or roots in the region of the neural foramen...
  48. Nguyen T, Randolph D, Talmage J, Succop P, Travis R. Long-term outcomes of lumbar fusion among workers' compensation subjects: a historical cohort study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:320-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Historical cohort study...
  49. Tomasević Todorović S. [Assessment of life quality in surgically treated patients with lumbar radiculopathy]. Med Arh. 2008;62:34-7 pubmed
    Assessment of life quality in surgically treated patients with lumbar radiculopathy is defined by changes in physical, functional, mental and social status...
  50. Stout A. Epidural steroid injections for cervical radiculopathy. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2011;22:149-59 pubmed publisher
    Epidural steroid injection (ESI) has been used to treat cervical radiculopathy for several decades. Generally, available studies demonstrate favorable results, although definitive evidence of efficacy is lacking...
  51. Haswell K, Gilmour J, Moore B. Clinical decision rules for identification of low back pain patients with neurologic involvement in primary care. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33:68-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Descriptive study...
  52. Majlesi J, Togay H, Unalan H, Toprak S. The sensitivity and specificity of the Slump and the Straight Leg Raising tests in patients with lumbar disc herniation. J Clin Rheumatol. 2008;14:87-91 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, the Slump test applies traction to the nerve roots by incorporating spinal and hip joint flexion into the leg raising and would warn the examiner of the presence of nerve root compression when there is a negative SLR test...
  53. Shiri R, Karppinen J, Leino Arjas P, Solovieva S, Varonen H, Kalso E, et al. Cardiovascular and lifestyle risk factors in lumbar radicular pain or clinically defined sciatica: a systematic review. Eur Spine J. 2007;16:2043-54 pubmed
    ..However, more prospective studies are needed in order to further clarify these associations and the mechanisms of action...
  54. Matsuda H, Tsai C, Tseng C, Noriage A, Tsai T, Dai Y, et al. Neurophysiologic changes after preganglionic and postganglionic nerve-root constriction: an experimental study in the rat. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:950-8 pubmed
    We investigated changes in spinal somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP) and nerve action potential (NAP), correlated behavior, and associated pathologic observation in experimental radiculopathy.
  55. Mobbs R, Steel T. Migration of lumbar disc herniation: an unusual case. J Clin Neurosci. 2007;14:581-4 pubmed
    ..The patient did not wish to pursue surgery. Disc fragment migration patterns are discussed. We conclude that extruded disc fragments may migrate distant from their initial origin...
  56. Heary R, Ryken T, Matz P, Anderson P, Groff M, Holly L, et al. Cervical laminoforaminotomy for the treatment of cervical degenerative radiculopathy. J Neurosurg Spine. 2009;11:198-202 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this systematic review was to use evidence-based medicine to examine the efficacy of posterior laminoforaminotomy in the treatment of cervical radiculopathy.
  57. Penas C, Casas C, Robert I, Forés J, Navarro X. Cytoskeletal and activity-related changes in spinal motoneurons after root avulsion. J Neurotrauma. 2009;26:763-79 pubmed publisher
    ..This study presents a detailed description of motoneuron reaction after root avulsion, which suggests an early time-window during the first 2 weeks for attempts to repair the injury and promote motoneuron survival and regeneration...
  58. Manchikanti L, Cash K, McManus C, Pampati V, Benyamin R. Preliminary results of a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of fluoroscopic lumbar interlaminar epidural injections in managing chronic lumbar discogenic pain without disc herniation or radiculitis. Pain Physician. 2010;13:E279-92 pubmed
    ..However, little evidence exists regarding the effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity of lumbar epidural injections in managing axial low back pain without disc herniation or radiculitis...
  59. Ash L, Modic M, Obuchowski N, Ross J, Brant Zawadzki M, Grooff P. Effects of diagnostic information, per se, on patient outcomes in acute radiculopathy and low back pain. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2008;29:1098-103 pubmed publisher
    We conducted a prospective randomized study of patients with acute low back pain and/or radiculopathy to assess the effect of knowledge of diagnostic findings on clinical outcome...
  60. Hahne A, Ford J. Functional restoration for a chronic lumbar disk extrusion with associated radiculopathy. Phys Ther. 2006;86:1668-80 pubmed
    The effectiveness of functional restoration (FR) for patients with lumbar disk herniation with associated radiculopathy (LDHR) is unclear. This case report describes how an FR program was used to rehabilitate a patient with such an injury.
  61. Nagashima H, Morio Y, Meshitsuka S, Yamane K, Nanjo Y, Teshima R. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with cervical myelopathy and lumbar radiculopathy. Eur Spine J. 2010;19:1363-8 pubmed publisher
    ..CSF samples were obtained from 30 patients with cervical myelopathy (Group M), 30 patients with lumbar radiculopathy (Group R), and 10 volunteers (control)...
  62. Jensen O, Nielsen C, Stengaard Pedersen K. One-year prognosis in sick-listed low back pain patients with and without radiculopathy. Prognostic factors influencing pain and disability. Spine J. 2010;10:659-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous research has documented various psychosocial risk factors with influence on outcome in low back pain (LBP) patients, but the value of clinical predictors has been less well documented...
  63. Mendoza Lattes S, Weiss A, Found E, Zimmerman B, Gao Y. Comparable effectiveness of caudal vs. trans-foraminal epidural steroid injections. Iowa Orthop J. 2009;29:91-6 pubmed
    ..Retrospective case-control study...
  64. Bogduk N. Pulsed radiofrequency. Pain Med. 2006;7:396-407 pubmed
  65. Carlstedt T. Root repair review: basic science background and clinical outcome. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2008;26:225-41 pubmed
    ..In order to improve this situation and achieve further recovery of useful function including sensory perceptions and to fully alleviate pain it is necessary to pursue research and development of both basic and clinical science...
  66. Anderberg L, Annertz M, Persson L, Brandt L, Saveland H. Transforaminal steroid injections for the treatment of cervical radiculopathy: a prospective and randomised study. Eur Spine J. 2007;16:321-8 pubmed
    ..Forty consecutive patients were employed for the study. The inclusion criteria were one-sided cervical radiculopathy with radicular distribution of arm pain distal to the elbow and corresponding significant degenerative ..
  67. Agarwal S, Allison G, Agarwal A, Singer K. Reliability and validity of the Hindi version of the Neck Pain and Disability Scale in cervical radiculopathy patients. Disabil Rehabil. 2006;28:1405-11 pubmed
    ..To assess the reliability and validity of the Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPAD) translated into Hindi...
  68. Owlia M, Salimzadeh A, Alishiri G, Haghighi A. Comparison of two doses of corticosteroid in epidural steroid injection for lumbar radicular pain. Singapore Med J. 2007;48:241-5 pubmed
    ..Many clinicians use 80 mg long-acting glucocorticoids in epidural steroid injections (ESI). The aim of this study is to compare the clinical response of 80 mg versus 40 mg methylprednisolone in ESI...
  69. Voorhies R, Jiang X, Thomas N. Predicting outcome in the surgical treatment of lumbar radiculopathy using the Pain Drawing Score, McGill Short Form Pain Questionnaire, and risk factors including psychosocial issues and axial joint pain. Spine J. 2007;7:516-24 pubmed
    The surgical decompression of a symptomatic lumbar nerve root is generally regarded as effective treatment for radiculopathy. Nevertheless this straightforward surgical procedure is not universally successful, and the results are often ..
  70. Schoenfeld A, George A, Bader J, Caram P. Incidence and epidemiology of cervical radiculopathy in the United States military: 2000 to 2009. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2012;25:17-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Epidemiological review of a prospectively collected military database...
  71. Transfeldt E, Topp R, Mehbod A, Winter R. Surgical outcomes of decompression, decompression with limited fusion, and decompression with full curve fusion for degenerative scoliosis with radiculopathy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:1872-5 pubmed publisher
    A retrospective clinical cohort study at a single spine center of patients with degenerative scoliosis and radiculopathy severe enough to require surgery.
  72. Cohen S, Wenzell D, Hurley R, Kurihara C, Buckenmaier C, Griffith S, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response pilot study evaluating intradiscal etanercept in patients with chronic discogenic low back pain or lumbosacral radiculopathy. Anesthesiology. 2007;107:99-105 pubmed
    ..recent years, convincing evidence has emerged implicating tumor necrosis factor alpha as a causative factor in radiculopathy and discogenic back pain...
  73. Rainville J, Noto D, Jouve C, Jenis L. Assessment of forearm pronation strength in C6 and C7 radiculopathies. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:72-5 pubmed
    ..Consecutive case series of patients with C6 and C7 radiculopathies...
  74. De Luigi A, Fitzpatrick K. Physical examination in radiculopathy. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2011;22:7-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this article is to aid the clinician in distinguishing radiculopathy from other causes of neck and low back pain...
  75. Zhang K, Zheng Z, Liu H, Liu X. The effects of punctured nucleus pulposus on lumbar radicular pain in rats: a behavioral and immunohistochemical study. J Neurosurg Spine. 2009;11:492-500 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors of this study investigated pain-related behaviors and expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) to evaluate the effects of punctured NP on lumbar radiculopathy.
  76. Van Zundert J, Patijn J, Kessels A, Lamé I, van Suijlekom H, van Kleef M. Pulsed radiofrequency adjacent to the cervical dorsal root ganglion in chronic cervical radicular pain: a double blind sham controlled randomized clinical trial. Pain. 2007;127:173-82 pubmed
  77. Sethee J, Rathmell J. Epidural steroid injections are useful for the treatment of low back pain and radicular symptoms: pro. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2009;13:31-4 pubmed
    ..The role of epidural steroid injections in the management of acute radicular pain due to herniated nucleus pulposus is simply to provide earlier pain relief...
  78. Wu J, Huang W, Huang M, Tsai Y, Chen Y, Shih Y, et al. A novel strategy for repairing preganglionic cervical root avulsion in brachial plexus injury by sural nerve grafting. J Neurosurg. 2009;110:775-85 pubmed publisher
  79. Konstantinou K, Dunn K. Sciatica: review of epidemiological studies and prevalence estimates. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33:2464-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Review of studies on sciatica prevalence and synthesis of available evidence...