polyneuropathies

Summary

Summary: Diseases of multiple peripheral nerves simultaneously. Polyneuropathies usually are characterized by symmetrical, bilateral distal motor and sensory impairment with a graded increase in severity distally. The pathological processes affecting peripheral nerves include degeneration of the axon, myelin or both. The various forms of polyneuropathy are categorized by the type of nerve affected (e.g., sensory, motor, or autonomic), by the distribution of nerve injury (e.g., distal vs. proximal), by nerve component primarily affected (e.g., demyelinating vs. axonal), by etiology, or by pattern of inheritance.

Top Publications

  1. Drogemuller C, Becker D, Kessler B, Kemter E, Tetens J, Jurina K, et al. A deletion in the N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) gene in Greyhounds with polyneuropathy. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11258 pubmed publisher
    ..Selection against this mutation can now be used to eliminate polyneuropathy from Greyhound show dogs...
  2. Cats E, Jacobs B, Yuki N, Tio Gillen A, Piepers S, Franssen H, et al. Multifocal motor neuropathy: association of anti-GM1 IgM antibodies with clinical features. Neurology. 2010;75:1961-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the prevalence and specificity of antibodies against single gangliosides and ganglioside complexes in serum from 88 patients with multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and to study the association with clinical features...
  3. Casanova Molla J, Grau Junyent J, Morales M, Valls Sole J. On the relationship between nociceptive evoked potentials and intraepidermal nerve fiber density in painful sensory polyneuropathies. Pain. 2011;152:410-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The correlation between nociceptive evoked potentials (laser-evoked potentials and contact heat-evoked potentials) and skin biopsy aids in the diagnosis of painful neuropathies...
  4. Rajabally Y, Shah R. Dyslipidaemia in chronic acquired distal axonal polyneuropathy. J Neurol. 2011;258:1431-6 pubmed publisher
    ..As previously reported, IGT was in our cohort frequent, present in one case in three, in the absence of another identifiable aetiology...
  5. Erdoğan C, Yucel M, Degirmenci E, Oz O, Akgün H, Odabasi Z. Nerve excitability properties in early preclinical diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011;94:100-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently SDTc was commonly studied in the upper extremities but most of the diabetic neuropathies are predominant in the lower extremities. So here we also studied both upper and lower extremities to demonstrate a possible difference...
  6. Papanas N, Vinik A, Ziegler D. Neuropathy in prediabetes: does the clock start ticking early?. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011;7:682-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This Review summarizes the current evidence on the association between prediabetes and neuropathy...
  7. Anastasopoulos D, Kefaliakos A, Michalopoulos A. Is plasma calcium concentration implicated in the development of critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy?. Crit Care. 2011;15:R247 pubmed publisher
    ..This prospective study investigated whether plasma ionized calcium concentration abnormalities and other electrolyte disturbances represent risk factors for the development of critical illness polyneuromyopathy (CIPNM) in ICU patients...
  8. Granata G, Padua L, Celletti C, Castori M, Saraceni V, Camerota F. Entrapment neuropathies and polyneuropathies in joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Clin Neurophysiol. 2013;124:1689-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aims to investigate the involvement of the peripheral nervous system in Ehlers-Danlos syndromes/hypermobility type patients with particular attention to entrapment syndromes...
  9. Dyck P, Overland C, Low P, Litchy W, Davies J, Dyck P, et al. Signs and symptoms versus nerve conduction studies to diagnose diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy: Cl vs. NPhys trial. Muscle Nerve. 2010;42:157-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Study physician dx from signs and symptoms were excessively variable, often overestimating DSPN. Specific approaches to improving clinical proficiency should be tested...

More Information

Publications74

  1. Rajabally Y. Neuropathy and impaired glucose tolerance: an updated review of the evidence. Acta Neurol Scand. 2011;124:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, at present time, consideration of IGT as potential cause of painful small-fibre neuropathy appears justified, especially as patients may benefit from dietary and physical exercise interventions...
  2. Klostermann F, Jugel C, Muller T, Marzinzik F. Malnutritional neuropathy under intestinal levodopa infusion. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2012;119:369-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We assume that LCIG can provoke PNP most likely of malnutritional origin. To avoid this side effect, the assessment of predisposing factors before treatment as well as neurophysiological and laboratory screenings appear necessary...
  3. Novak P, Vidmar G, Kuret Z, Bizovičar N. Rehabilitation of critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy patients: an observational study. Int J Rehabil Res. 2011;34:336-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Rehabilitation of such patients should start as early as possible once the diagnosis has been established. Comprehensive assessment of such patients combining established scales, objective clinical tests, and the ICF is recommended...
  4. Schulz A, Baader S, Niwa Kawakita M, Jung M, Bauer R, Garcia C, et al. Merlin isoform 2 in neurofibromatosis type 2-associated polyneuropathy. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:426-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Sciatic nerves from these mice and sural nerve biopsies from NF2 patients revealed reduced phosphorylation of the neurofilament H subunit, decreased interfilament spacings and irregularly shaped axons...
  5. Santos Garcia D, de la Fuente Fernandez R, Valldeoriola F, Palasí A, Carrillo F, Grande M, et al. Polyneuropathy while on duodenal levodopa infusion in Parkinson's disease patients: we must be alert. J Neurol. 2012;259:1668-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Vitamin B(12) deficiency in patients on duodenal levodopa infusion therapy may be more frequent than the published data suggest. We must be alert...
  6. Bruun C, Jäderlund K, Berendt M, Jensen K, Spodsberg E, Gredal H, et al. A Gly98Val mutation in the N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) in Alaskan Malamutes with polyneuropathy. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54547 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, selection against this mutation can now be used to eliminate the disease in Alaskan Malamutes...
  7. Latronico N, Bolton C. Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy: a major cause of muscle weakness and paralysis. Lancet Neurol. 2011;10:931-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Control of hyperglycaemia might reduce the severity of these complications of critical illness, and early rehabilitation in the intensive care unit might improve the functional recovery and independence of patients...
  8. Adamolekun B. Neurological disorders associated with cassava diet: a review of putative etiological mechanisms. Metab Brain Dis. 2011;26:79-85 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that urgent research is needed to evaluate thiamine status and implement a therapeutic trial of thiamine in these debilitating neurological disorders. ..
  9. Koch S, Spuler S, Deja M, Bierbrauer J, Dimroth A, Behse F, et al. Critical illness myopathy is frequent: accompanying neuropathy protracts ICU discharge. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2011;82:287-93 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is unknown whether differential diagnosis has an impact on prognosis. This study investigates whether there is an association between the early differentiation of CIM versus CIP and clinical prognosis...
  10. Nineb A, Rosso C, Dumurgier J, Nordine T, Lefaucheur J, Creange A. Restless legs syndrome is frequently overlooked in patients being evaluated for polyneuropathies. Eur J Neurol. 2007;14:788-92 pubmed
    ..Toes symptoms were more frequently observed in patients with PN but without RLS (P < 0.02). We conclude that RLS frequently presents with symptoms suggestive of peripheral neuropathy, and therefore, is often overlooked. ..
  11. England J, Gronseth G, Franklin G, Carter G, Kinsella L, Cohen J, et al. Practice Parameter: evaluation of distal symmetric polyneuropathy: role of autonomic testing, nerve biopsy, and skin biopsy (an evidence-based review). Report of the American Academy of Neurology, American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiag. Neurology. 2009;72:177-84 pubmed publisher
  12. Rudolph T, Farbu E. Hospital-referred polyneuropathies--causes, prevalences, clinical- and neurophysiological findings. Eur J Neurol. 2007;14:603-8 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the causes, prevalences, clinical manifestations of hospital-referred polyneuropathies, and evaluate neurophysiological findings in idiopathic polyneuropathy...
  13. Niermeijer J, Fischer K, Eurelings M, Franssen H, Wokke J, Notermans N. Prognosis of polyneuropathy due to IgM monoclonal gammopathy: a prospective cohort study. Neurology. 2010;74:406-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our Web-based prognostic model allows determination of prognosis in IgM MGUSP. ..
  14. Z Graggen W, Lin C, Howard R, Beale R, Bostock H. Nerve excitability changes in critical illness polyneuropathy. Brain. 2006;129:2461-70 pubmed
    ..The chronic membrane depolarization may contribute to the development of neuropathy. ..
  15. Meyer zu Horste G, Hartung H, Kieseier B. From bench to bedside--experimental rationale for immune-specific therapies in the inflamed peripheral nerve. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2007;3:198-211 pubmed
    ..We will summarize successful therapeutic trials in human autoimmune neuropathies to provide a vantage point for the transfer of experimental treatment strategies to clinical practice in immune-mediated diseases of the peripheral nerve. ..
  16. Motomura M. [Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2003;43:802-4 pubmed
    ..The prognosis is directly related to the age of the patient and the seriousness of the underlying illness. ..
  17. Hermans G, Schrooten M, Van Damme P, Berends N, Bouckaert B, De Vooght W, et al. Benefits of intensive insulin therapy on neuromuscular complications in routine daily critical care practice: a retrospective study. Crit Care. 2009;13:R5 pubmed publisher
    ..IIT significantly improved glycaemic control and significantly and independently reduced the electrophysiological incidence of CIP/CIM. This reduction partially explained the beneficial effect of IIT on prolonged MV. ..
  18. Nanas S, Kritikos K, Angelopoulos E, Siafaka A, Tsikriki S, Poriazi M, et al. Predisposing factors for critical illness polyneuromyopathy in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008;118:175-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study revealed the association of aminoglycosides, hyperglycemia and illness severity with CIPM development, as well as the association between Gram (-) bacteremia and development of CIPM in less severely ill patient population. ..
  19. Latronico N, Shehu I, Seghelini E. Neuromuscular sequelae of critical illness. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2005;11:381-90 pubmed
    ..Critical illness polyneuropathy and critical illness myopathy are an important cause of difficult weaning of patients from the ventilator and of persisting muscle weakness and disability after intensive care unit discharge. ..
  20. Garnacho Montero J, Amaya Villar R, Garcia Garmendia J, Madrazo Osuna J, Ortiz Leyba C. Effect of critical illness polyneuropathy on the withdrawal from mechanical ventilation and the length of stay in septic patients. Crit Care Med. 2005;33:349-54 pubmed
    ..In critically ill septic patients, critical illness polyneuropathy significantly increases the duration of mechanical ventilation and prolongs the lengths of intensive care unit and hospital stays. ..
  21. Mulrooney D, Davies S, Walk D, Charnas L. Late occurrence of chronic immune-mediated axonal polyneuropathy following bone marrow transplant for juvenile-onset alpha-mannosidosis. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2003;32:953-5 pubmed
    ..Chronic polyneuropathies following BMT are rare and are usually temporally related to GVHD or infection...
  22. Oluwole O, Onabolu A, Cotgreave I, Rosling H, Persson A, Link H. Incidence of endemic ataxic polyneuropathy and its relation to exposure to cyanide in a Nigerian community. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74:1417-22 pubmed
    ..However, it has been shown that the prevalence of ataxic polyneuropathy is not high in several communities in the tropics where exposure to cyanide from cassava foods is high...
  23. Williams S, Horrocks I, Ouvrier R, Gillis J, Ryan M. Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy in pediatric intensive care: A review. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2007;8:18-22 pubmed
    ..To review the medical literature on critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy in childhood...
  24. Haslbeck K, Neundörfer B, Schlötzer Schrehardtt U, Bierhaus A, Schleicher E, Pauli E, et al. Activation of the RAGE pathway: a general mechanism in the pathogenesis of polyneuropathies?. Neurol Res. 2007;29:103-10 pubmed
    ..expression of NF-kappaB regulated cytokines and is a possible pathomechanism in diabetic and in vasculitic polyneuropathies (PNP)...
  25. Pandit L, Agrawal A. Neuromuscular disorders in critical illness. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2006;108:621-7 pubmed
    ..This update focuses on neuromuscular disorders occurring in the critical care set up associated with diffuse and severe weakness...
  26. Bercker S, Weber Carstens S, Deja M, Grimm C, Wolf S, Behse F, et al. Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2005;33:711-5 pubmed
    ..Clinically relevant paresis is major symptom of CIP/CIM. We aimed at determining risk factors and diagnostic value of electrophysiologic testing for CIP/CIM in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
  27. Merkies I, Schmitz P, van der Meche F, Samijn J, Van Doorn P. Connecting impairment, disability, and handicap in immune mediated polyneuropathies. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74:99-104 pubmed
    ..However, the ICIDH has been criticised on the grounds that it only represents a general, non-specific relation between its entities...
  28. Ali N, O Brien J, Hoffmann S, Phillips G, Garland A, Finley J, et al. Acquired weakness, handgrip strength, and mortality in critically ill patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;178:261-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is unclear whether ICUAP is independently associated with mortality, as sicker patients are more prone and existing studies have not adjusted for this...
  29. England J, Gronseth G, Franklin G, Carter G, Kinsella L, Cohen J, et al. Evaluation of distal symmetric polyneuropathy: the role of laboratory and genetic testing (an evidence-based review). Muscle Nerve. 2009;39:116-25 pubmed publisher
    ..There is insufficient evidence to determine the usefulness of routine genetic testing in patients with cryptogenic polyneuropathy who do not exhibit a hereditary neuropathy phenotype (Level U)...
  30. Suzuki S, Mori T, Mihara A, Aisa Y, Ikeda Y, Suzuki N, et al. Immune-mediated motor polyneuropathy after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2007;40:289-91 pubmed
  31. Padovan C, Sostak P, Reich P, Kolb H, Müller Felber W, Straube A. [Neuromuscular complications after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation]. Nervenarzt. 2003;74:159-66 pubmed
    ..GVHD-associated polyneuropathies as well as muscular complications have been found to occur during the early BMT phase, while myasthenia ..
  32. Pestronk A, Florence J, Miller T, Choksi R, Al Lozi M, Levine T. Treatment of IgM antibody associated polyneuropathies using rituximab. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74:485-9 pubmed
    b>Polyneuropathies with associated serum IgM antibodies are often difficult to treat. Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody directed against the B cell surface membrane marker CD20...
  33. Bednarik J, Lukas Z, Vondracek P. Critical illness polyneuromyopathy: the electrophysiological components of a complex entity. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29:1505-14 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the spectrum and time profile of electrophysiological parameters in the detection of neuromuscular involvement in critically ill patients and establish their correlation with biopsy findings...
  34. Ziegler D, Bierhaus A. [Treatment of diabetic neuropathy]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2007;132:1043-7 pubmed
  35. Bolton C. Neuromuscular manifestations of critical illness. Muscle Nerve. 2005;32:140-63 pubmed
    ..The information is valuable in deciding treatment and prognosis...
  36. Cankayali I, Dogan Y, Solak I, Demirag K, Eris O, Demirgoren S, et al. Neuromuscular deterioration in the early stage of sepsis in rats. Crit Care. 2007;11:R1 pubmed
    ..In this study, electrophysiological alterations in the early stage of experimentally induced sepsis were investigated in septic rats...
  37. Lefaucheur J, Nordine T, Rodriguez P, Brochard L. Origin of ICU acquired paresis determined by direct muscle stimulation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2006;77:500-6 pubmed
    ..Acquired diffuse paresis in an intensive care unit (ICU) can result from critical illness myopathy or polyneuropathy. Clinical examination and conventional neurophysiological techniques may not distinguish between these entities...
  38. Ferdinandusse S, Kostopoulos P, Denis S, Rusch H, Overmars H, Dillmann U, et al. Mutations in the gene encoding peroxisomal sterol carrier protein X (SCPx) cause leukencephalopathy with dystonia and motor neuropathy. Am J Hum Genet. 2006;78:1046-52 pubmed
    ..Mutation analysis revealed a homozygous 1-nucleotide insertion, 545_546insA, leading to a frameshift and premature stop codon (I184fsX7)...
  39. Gabriel A, Poncelet L, Van Ham L, Clercx C, Braund K, Bhatti S, et al. Laryngeal paralysis-polyneuropathy complex in young related Pyrenean mountain dogs. J Small Anim Pract. 2006;47:144-9 pubmed
    ..To characterise clinical, electrophysiological and histopathological findings. To analyse pedigree information in six young related Pyrenean mountain dogs with laryngeal paralysis-polyneuropathy complex (LP-PNC)...
  40. Hughes R, Umapathi T, Gray I, Gregson N, Noori M, Pannala A, et al. A controlled investigation of the cause of chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy. Brain. 2004;127:1723-30 pubmed
    ..A logistic regression analysis identified environmental toxin exposure and hypertriglyceridaemia, but not glucose intolerance or alcohol overuse as significant risk factors that deserve further investigation as possible causes of CIAP...
  41. England J, Gronseth G, Franklin G, Miller R, Asbury A, Carter G, et al. Distal symmetric polyneuropathy: a definition for clinical research: report of the American Academy of Neurology, the American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine, and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Neurology. 2005;64:199-207 pubmed
    ..The inclusion of this formalized case definition in clinical and epidemiologic research studies will ensure greater consistency of case selection...
  42. Green D. Weakness in the ICU: Guillain-Barré syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy. Neurologist. 2005;11:338-47 pubmed
    ..Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and myasthenia gravis (MG) are examples of conditions that might lead to an ICU admission. The most likely cause of weakness after ICU admission is critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy (CIP/M)...
  43. Spallone V, Morganti R, Siampli M, Fedele T, D Amato C, Cacciotti L, et al. Neuropad as a diagnostic tool for diabetic autonomic and sensorimotor neuropathy. Diabet Med. 2009;26:686-92 pubmed publisher
  44. Dyck P, Dyck P, Klein C, Weigand S. Does impaired glucose metabolism cause polyneuropathy? Review of previous studies and design of a prospective controlled population-based study. Muscle Nerve. 2007;36:536-41 pubmed
    ..Here we review previous studies, list the reasons that the issue needs further study, and outline a study now in progress to address the question more definitively...
  45. Perkins B, Grewal J, Ng E, Ngo M, Bril V. Validation of a novel point-of-care nerve conduction device for the detection of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:2023-7 pubmed
  46. Latronico N, Guarneri B. Critical illness myopathy and neuropathy. Minerva Anestesiol. 2008;74:319-23 pubmed
    ..Bioenergetic failure is thought to be a relevant pathophysiological mechanism explaining both CIP/CIM and multi-organ failure. Indeed, CIP/CIM itself should be considered as the failure of the peripheral nervous-muscular system...
  47. Brannagan T. Current treatments of chronic immune-mediated demyelinating polyneuropathies. Muscle Nerve. 2009;39:563-78 pubmed publisher
    ..This review examines the use and toxicity associated with these immunotherapy medications in treating patients with chronic immune-mediated demyelinating neuropathies. Muscle Nerve, 2009...
  48. Ziegler D, Rathmann W, Dickhaus T, Meisinger C, Mielck A. Prevalence of polyneuropathy in pre-diabetes and diabetes is associated with abdominal obesity and macroangiopathy: the MONICA/KORA Augsburg Surveys S2 and S3. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:464-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of polyneuropathy in subjects with diabetes, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or normal glucose tolerance (NGT)...
  49. Szigeti K, Garcia C, Lupski J. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and related hereditary polyneuropathies: molecular diagnostics determine aspects of medical management. Genet Med. 2006;8:86-92 pubmed
    ..An evidence-based approach was used to determine the frequency distribution of genes contributing to the Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease phenotype...
  50. Boulton A, Malik R, Arezzo J, Sosenko J. Diabetic somatic neuropathies. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:1458-86 pubmed
  51. Van den Berghe G, Schoonheydt K, Becx P, Bruyninckx F, Wouters P. Insulin therapy protects the central and peripheral nervous system of intensive care patients. Neurology. 2005;64:1348-53 pubmed
    ..To investigate the effectiveness of maintaining blood glucose levels below 6.1 mmol/L with insulin as prevention of secondary injury to the central and peripheral nervous systems of intensive care patients...
  52. England J, Asbury A. Peripheral neuropathy. Lancet. 2004;363:2151-61 pubmed
  53. Latronico N, Peli E, Botteri M. Critical illness myopathy and neuropathy. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2005;11:126-32 pubmed
    ..To present the major pathophysiological and diagnostic features of critical illness myopathy (CIM) and polyneuropathy (CIP), and to discuss problems concerning the risk factors for CIM and CIP...
  54. van Nes S, Faber C, Hamers R, Harschnitz O, Bakkers M, Hermans M, et al. Revising two-point discrimination assessment in normal aging and in patients with polyneuropathies. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79:832-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To revise the static and dynamic normative values for the two-point discrimination test and to examine its applicability and validity in patients with a polyneuropathy...
  55. Thaisetthawatkul P, Collazo Clavell M, Sarr M, Norell J, Dyck P. A controlled study of peripheral neuropathy after bariatric surgery. Neurology. 2004;63:1462-70 pubmed
    ..Although peripheral neuropathy (PN) occurs after bariatric surgery (BS), a causal association has not been established...
  56. Niermeijer J, Eurelings M, van der Linden M, Lokhorst H, Franssen H, Fischer K, et al. Intermittent cyclophosphamide with prednisone versus placebo for polyneuropathy with IgM monoclonal gammopathy. Neurology. 2007;69:50-9 pubmed
    ..We therefore performed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of combined oral cyclophosphamide and prednisone in IgM MGUS polyneuropathy...
  57. Guarneri B, Bertolini G, Latronico N. Long-term outcome in patients with critical illness myopathy or neuropathy: the Italian multicentre CRIMYNE study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79:838-41 pubmed publisher
    ..There is no evidence that differentiating between CIP and CIM has any impact on patient prognosis...
  58. Keswani S, Leitz G, Hoke A. Erythropoietin is neuroprotective in models of HIV sensory neuropathy. Neurosci Lett. 2004;371:102-5 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that EPO may be useful in the treatment of HIV-SN...
  59. Bednarik J, Vondracek P, Dusek L, Moravcova E, Cundrle I. Risk factors for critical illness polyneuromyopathy. J Neurol. 2005;252:343-51 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the presence and duration of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the severity of multiple and several organ failures are associated with increased risk of the development of CIPM...
  60. Hermans G, De Jonghe B, Bruyninckx F, Van den Berghe G. Clinical review: Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy. Crit Care. 2008;12:238 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, conflicting evidence concerning the neuromuscular effects of corticosteroids exists. A systematic review of the available literature on the optimal approach for preventing CIP/CIM seems warranted...
  61. van Engelen B, van Veenendaal H, Van Doorn P, Faber C, van der Hoeven J, Janssen N, et al. The Dutch neuromuscular database CRAMP (Computer Registry of All Myopathies and Polyneuropathies): development and preliminary data. Neuromuscul Disord. 2007;17:33-7 pubmed
    ..For this reason, the Dutch neuromuscular database, CRAMP (Computer Registry of All Myopathies and Polyneuropathies), was developed in 2004 by the Dutch Neuromuscular Research Support Centre, to store information on patient ..
  62. Schweickert W, Hall J. ICU-acquired weakness. Chest. 2007;131:1541-9 pubmed
    ..We advocate an approach to this common syndrome that identifies risk factors early in the hope of minimizing their impact...
  63. Hoffman Snyder C, Smith B, Ross M, Hernandez J, Bosch E. Value of the oral glucose tolerance test in the evaluation of chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy. Arch Neurol. 2006;63:1075-9 pubmed
    ..This increased prevalence rate was identified using the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (2h-OGTT) and a previous version of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines...
  64. Ahlbeck K, Fredriksson K, Rooyackers O, Måbäck G, Remahl S, Ansved T, et al. Signs of critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy can be seen early in the ICU course. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2009;53:717-23 pubmed publisher
  65. Perkins B, Bril V. Diabetic neuropathy: a review emphasizing diagnostic methods. Clin Neurophysiol. 2003;114:1167-75 pubmed
    ..Novel investigative techniques are highly promising, but their usefulness in the clinic setting remains limited at this time. This article presents an overview of diagnostic methods for DSP...