sleep arousal disorders

Summary

Summary: Sleep disorders characterized by impaired arousal from the deeper stages of sleep (generally stage III or IV sleep).

Top Publications

  1. Rostig S, Kantelhardt J, Penzel T, Cassel W, Peter J, Vogelmeier C, et al. Nonrandom variability of respiration during sleep in healthy humans. Sleep. 2005;28:411-7 pubmed
  2. Sawaguchi T, Franco P, Kato I, Shimizu S, Kadhim H, Groswasser J, et al. From epidemiology to physiology and pathology: apnea and arousal deficient theories in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)--with particular reference to hypoxic brainstem gliosis. Forensic Sci Int. 2002;130 Suppl:S21-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the present study sustains the possibility of an organic fragility within the arousal pathway in SIDS victims with repetitive sleep apneas...
  3. Frolich J, Lehmkuhl G, Wiater A. [Sleep disorders in hyperkinetic children--correlation with arousal disorders, differential diagnosis and comorbidity]. Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother. 2003;31:133-43 pubmed
    ..There are still very few findings on the role of comorbid internal and neurological disorders like sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome in the differential diagnosis of ADHD...
  4. Harper R. Impaired arousals and sudden infant death syndrome: preexisting neural injury?. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;168:1262-3 pubmed
  5. Trajanovic N, Shapiro C, Ong A. Atypical presentation of NREM arousal parasomnia with repetitive episodes. Eur J Neurol. 2007;14:947-50 pubmed
  6. Unalan D, Ozturk A, Ismailogullari S, Akgül N, Aksu M. The effect of sleep duration and quality on academical success of the elementary school children in Kayseri Turkey. J Pak Med Assoc. 2013;63:576-80 pubmed
    ..025) and science (r = -0.061, p < 0.036) lessons. As the sleeping period increased, the academic achievement of the students was negatively affected. The academic success was low in children who felt sleepy throughout the day. ..
  7. McKibben J, Fullerton C, Ursano R, Reissman D, Kowalski Trakofler K, Shultz J, et al. Sleep and arousal as risk factors for adverse health and work performance in public health workers involved in the 2004 Florida hurricane season. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2010;4 Suppl 1:S55-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research should continue to examine the effect of repeated exposure to disasters in first responders. ..
  8. Broughton R, Krupa S, Boucher B, Rivers M, Mullington J. Impaired circadian waking arousal in narcolepsy-cataplexy. Sleep Res Online. 1998;1:159-65 pubmed
  9. Seibold J, Alloussi S, Todenhöfer T, Stenzl A, Schwentner C. [Primary monosymptomatic enuresis: diagnostics and therapy]. Urologe A. 2013;52:9-10, 12-4 pubmed publisher
    ..At the end of therapy a protracted withdrawal shows better results than abrupt cessation. ..

More Information

Publications87

  1. Eidlitz Markus T, Zeharia A. Adolescent pertussis-induced partial arousal parasomnia. Pediatr Neurol. 2006;35:264-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, partial arousal parasomnia may be induced by pertussis infection. Further studies in larger groups are required to confirm this association...
  2. Tinuper P, Provini F, Bisulli F, Vignatelli L, Plazzi G, Vetrugno R, et al. Movement disorders in sleep: guidelines for differentiating epileptic from non-epileptic motor phenomena arising from sleep. Sleep Med Rev. 2007;11:255-67 pubmed
    ..Further investigations on pathophysiology, genetics and epidemiology are needed to clarify the relationship between epileptic and non-epileptic sleep related paroxysmal phenomena...
  3. Patil S, Schneider H, Schwartz A, Smith P. Adult obstructive sleep apnea: pathophysiology and diagnosis. Chest. 2007;132:325-37 pubmed
    ..Understanding nuances in the spectrum of presenting complaints and polysomnography correlates are important for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Knowledge of common patterns of OSA may help to identify patients and guide therapy. ..
  4. Malow B. Paroxysmal events in sleep. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2002;19:522-34 pubmed
    ..Essential historic elements that distinguish these events and the role of video-EEG-polysomnography in their differential diagnosis are emphasized...
  5. Kushida C, Littner M, Morgenthaler T, Alessi C, Bailey D, Coleman J, et al. Practice parameters for the indications for polysomnography and related procedures: an update for 2005. Sleep. 2005;28:499-521 pubmed
  6. Wilson D, Barnes M, Ellett L, Permezel M, Jackson M, Crowe S. Decreased sleep efficiency, increased wake after sleep onset and increased cortical arousals in late pregnancy. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011;51:38-46 pubmed publisher
  7. Siclari F, Khatami R, Urbaniok F, Nobili L, Mahowald M, Schenck C, et al. Violence in sleep. Brain. 2010;133:3494-509 pubmed publisher
    ..It also discusses current pathophysiological models, establishing a link between sleep-related violence and violence observed in other settings...
  8. Moldofsky H. Management of sleep disorders in fibromyalgia. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2002;28:353-65 pubmed
    ..As yet, no medication is known to improve the EEG sleep arousal disorders that include phasic (alpha-delta), tonic alpha non-REM sleep disorders, or the periodic K alpha cycling ..
  9. Verrillo E, Bruni O, Franco P, Ferri R, Thiriez G, Pavone M, et al. Analysis of NREM sleep in children with Prader-Willi syndrome and the effect of growth hormone treatment. Sleep Med. 2009;10:646-50 pubmed publisher
    ..GH therapy is likely to increase CAP rate and A1 index during SWS in PWS patients. ..
  10. BaHammam A. Sleep quality of patients with acute myocardial infarction outside the CCU environment: a preliminary study. Med Sci Monit. 2006;12:CR168-72 pubmed
    ..Future research should explore other possible etiologies of sleep disruption in patients with AMI, including the underlying infarction itself and its associated physiological and inflammatory changes. ..
  11. Ednick M, Tinkle B, Phromchairak J, Egelhoff J, Amin R, Simakajornboon N. Sleep-related respiratory abnormalities and arousal pattern in achondroplasia during early infancy. J Pediatr. 2009;155:510-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that the concomitant increased apneic events and decreased arousal response will lead to vulnerability in these infants and may underlie the pathophysiologic mechanism of sudden unexpected death in this population. ..
  12. AbdelFatah D, Shaker H, Ismail M, Ezzat M. Nocturnal polyuria and nocturnal arginine vasopressin (AVP): a key factor in the pathophysiology of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. Neurourol Urodyn. 2009;28:506-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify the relationship between nocturnal AVP deficiency, nocturnal polyuria (NP), and low urinary osmolality in children suffering of primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (NE)...
  13. Silvestri R, Gagliano A, Aricò I, Calarese T, Cedro C, Bruni O, et al. Sleep disorders in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) recorded overnight by video-polysomnography. Sleep Med. 2009;10:1132-8 pubmed publisher
  14. Terzaghi M, Sartori I, Mai R, Tassi L, Francione S, Cardinale F, et al. Coupling of minor motor events and epileptiform discharges with arousal fluctuations in NFLE. Epilepsia. 2008;49:670-6 pubmed
  15. Vinai P, Ferri R, Ferini Strambi L, Cardetti S, Anelli M, Vallauri P, et al. Defining the borders between Sleep-Related Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome. Sleep Med. 2012;13:686-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to better define psychological, behavioral, and polysomnographic characteristics of the two syndromes...
  16. Heidbreder A, Frauscher B, Mitterling T, Boentert M, Schirmacher A, Hörtnagl P, et al. Not Only Sleepwalking But NREM Parasomnia Irrespective of the Type Is Associated with HLA DQB1*05:01. J Clin Sleep Med. 2016;12:565-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings therefore support a common genetic background, and corroborate the importance of video-polysomnography in the work-up of parasomnia. ..
  17. Kraus R, Li Y, Gregan Y, Gotter A, Uebele V, Fox S, et al. In vitro characterization of T-type calcium channel antagonist TTA-A2 and in vivo effects on arousal in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;335:409-17 pubmed publisher
  18. Derry C, Harvey A, Walker M, Duncan J, Berkovic S. NREM arousal parasomnias and their distinction from nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a video EEG analysis. Sleep. 2009;32:1637-44 pubmed
    ..Our observations provide an evidence base to assist in the clinical diagnosis of NREM parasomnias, and their distinction from NFLE seizures, on semiological grounds. ..
  19. Simor P, Bodizs R, Horváth K, Ferri R. Disturbed dreaming and the instability of sleep: altered nonrapid eye movement sleep microstructure in individuals with frequent nightmares as revealed by the cyclic alternating pattern. Sleep. 2013;36:413-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Disturbed dreaming and the instability of sleep: altered nonrapid eye movement sleep microstructure in individuals with frequent nightmares as revealed by the cyclic alternating pattern. SLEEP 2013;36(3):413-419. ..
  20. Kahn A, Sawaguchi T, Sawaguchi A, Groswasser J, Franco P, Scaillet S, et al. Sudden infant deaths: from epidemiology to physiology. Forensic Sci Int. 2002;130 Suppl:S8-20 pubmed
    ..Although the description of the mechanisms responsible for SIDS is still far from complete, it appears to involve both arousal responses and cardiac autonomic controls during sleep-wake processes. ..
  21. Itani O, Kaneita Y, Ikeda M, Kondo S, Yamamoto R, Osaki Y, et al. Disorders of arousal and sleep-related bruxism among Japanese adolescents: a nationwide representative survey. Sleep Med. 2013;14:532-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The main objective of our study was to clarify the prevalence of disorders of arousal (confusional arousals, sleepwalking, sleep terrors) and sleep-related bruxism (teeth grinding) and their associated factors among Japanese adolescents...
  22. Derry C, Duncan J, Berkovic S. Paroxysmal motor disorders of sleep: the clinical spectrum and differentiation from epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2006;47:1775-91 pubmed
    ..The value of recording episodes with video EEG polysomnography is discussed...
  23. Shmiel O, Shmiel T, Dagan Y, Teicher M. Data mining techniques for detection of sleep arousals. J Neurosci Methods. 2009;179:331-7 pubmed publisher
    ..2%, positive predictive value=76.5%) with those detected manually by experts. Since the total number of arousals is a measure of sleep quality, this algorithm constitutes a novel approach to automatically estimate sleep quality...
  24. Malow A, Bowes R, Ross D. Relationship of temporal lobe seizures to sleep and arousal: a combined scalp-intracranial electrode study. Sleep. 2000;23:231-4 pubmed
    ..To examine the question of whether seizures precede or follow arousals from sleep, we defined the timing of temporal lobe seizures in relation to sleep and arousal using combined scalp-intracranial electrodes...
  25. Colrain I. The K-complex: a 7-decade history. Sleep. 2005;28:255-73 pubmed
  26. Mason P, Escobedo I, Burgin C, Bergan J, Lee J, Last E, et al. Nociceptive responsiveness during slow-wave sleep and waking in the rat. Sleep. 2001;24:32-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, pain evokes at least two distinct reactions that are differentially modulated across sleep/wake cycles...
  27. Edéll Gustafsson U, Carstensen J, Regestein Q, Swahn E, Svanborg E. Hyperarousal, depression and quality of life--validity and reliability of the Swedish version of the Hyperarousal Scale. Scand J Caring Sci. 2006;20:58-67 pubmed
  28. Fusco L, Specchio N. Non-epileptic paroxysmal manifestations during sleep in infancy and childhood. Neurol Sci. 2005;26 Suppl 3:s205-9 pubmed
    ..The widespread use of neurophysiological techniques and better knowledge of the semeiology of epileptic seizures have led us to correctly define these events, which have sometimes been erroneously treated in the past...
  29. Nayak C, Sinha S, Nagappa M, Kandavel T, Taly A. Effect of valproate on the sleep microstructure of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy patients - a cross-sectional CAP based study. Sleep Med. 2016;17:129-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This might indicate that anti-epileptic medications such as valproate may beneficially modulate arousal instability in JME patients, and hence promote sleep quality and continuity. ..
  30. Kapur V, Baldwin C, Resnick H, Gottlieb D, Nieto F. Sleepiness in patients with moderate to severe sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep. 2005;28:472-7 pubmed
    ..We investigated the prevalence of sleepiness as well as factors associated with sleepiness in individuals with moderate to severe sleep-disordered breathing (apnea-hypopnea index > or = 15)...
  31. Nixon G, Brouillette R. Sleep . 8: paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea. Thorax. 2005;60:511-6 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis and treatment of this condition in children differs in many respects from that in adults. We review here the key features of paediatric OSA, highlighting differences from adult OSA, and suggest future directions for research...
  32. Paruthi S, Chervin R. Approaches to the assessment of arousals and sleep disturbance in children. Sleep Med. 2010;11:622-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Incorporation of autonomic arousal measures-such as heart rate variability, pulse transit time, or peripheral arterial tone-into standard reports may additionally capture subtle sleep fragmentation...
  33. Provini F, Tinuper P, Bisulli F, Lugaresi E. Arousal disorders. Sleep Med. 2011;12 Suppl 2:S22-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Videopolysomnographic recording in a sleep laboratory is not always necessary and homemade video-recordings are useful to capture events closest to real life episodes...
  34. Foldvary N, Caruso A, Mascha E, Perry M, Klem G, McCarthy V, et al. Identifying montages that best detect electrographic seizure activity during polysomnography. Sleep. 2000;23:221-9 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the value of limited EEG montages viewed with EEG reformatting capability in the identification of seizures during PSG...
  35. Mukonzo J, Okwera A, Nakasujja N, Luzze H, Sebuwufu D, Ogwal Okeng J, et al. Influence of efavirenz pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics on neuropsychological disorders in Ugandan HIV-positive patients with or without tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:261 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the influence of rifampicin cotreatment, efavirenz pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics on neuropsychiatric disorders in Ugandan HIV patients with or without tuberculosis coinfection...
  36. Foldvary Schaefer N, Alsheikhtaha Z. Complex nocturnal behaviors: nocturnal seizures and parasomnias. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2013;19:104-31 pubmed publisher
  37. Prihodova I, Sonka K, Kemlink D, Volna J, Nevsimalova S. Arousals in nocturnal groaning. Sleep Med. 2009;10:1051-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to assess its impact on sleep microstructure, i.e., the frequency of arousals relative to the groaning episodes. The frequency, duration and sleep-stage distribution of the groaning episodes were also studied...
  38. Palombini L. [Diagnostic criteria and treatment for sleep-disordered breathing: RERA]. J Bras Pneumol. 2010;36 Suppl 2:19-22 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is recommended that polysomnographic reports indicate which abnormal respiratory events were taken into consideration in the evaluation of the severity of sleep-disordered breathing...
  39. Nixon G, Brouillette R. Sleep and breathing in Prader-Willi syndrome. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2002;34:209-17 pubmed
    ..Treatment options depend on the underlying problem, but may include behavioral interventions, weight control, adenotonsillectomy, and nocturnal ventilation...
  40. Neveus T. The role of sleep and arousal in nocturnal enuresis. Acta Paediatr. 2003;92:1118-23 pubmed
    ..To review what is known about the role of sleep and arousal mechanisms in the pathogenesis of nocturnal enuresis...
  41. Garcia Jimenez M. [Arousal and motor activity during sleep]. Rev Neurol. 1999;28:559-65 pubmed
    ..To describe different types of motor activity which occur during sleep in relation to episodes of arousal and sleep disorder...
  42. Schames S, Schames J, Schames M, Chagall Gungur S. Sleep bruxism, an autonomic self-regulating response by triggering the trigeminal cardiac reflex. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2012;40:670-1, 674-6 pubmed
    ..Sleep bruxism by triggering the trigeminal cardiac reflex leads to bradycardia. Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity-sleep bruxism, thereby, serves to slow the heart rate when brain microarousals cause tachycardia...
  43. Askenasy J. Sleep disturbances in Parkinsonism. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2003;110:125-50 pubmed
    ..Each therapeutic approach must be tailored to the individual PD patient...
  44. van Dyk J, Duvenhage F, Coetzee L, Segone A, Fockema M, Smart D, et al. South African guidelines for the management of nocturnal enuresis. S Afr Med J. 2003;93:338-40 pubmed
  45. Wei C, Wan L, Lin W, Tsai F. Rs 6313 polymorphism in 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A gene association with polysymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis. J Clin Lab Anal. 2010;24:371-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Both TCA and SSRI have similar influences on serotonin transmission. This study was aimed at evaluating whether 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (5HTR2A) gene is associated with NE...
  46. Wu A, Drummond G. Sleep arousal after lower abdominal surgery and relation to recovery from respiratory obstruction. Anesthesiology. 2003;99:1295-302 pubmed
  47. Bisulli F, Vignatelli L, Naldi I, Licchetta L, Provini F, Plazzi G, et al. Increased frequency of arousal parasomnias in families with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a common mechanism?. Epilepsia. 2010;51:1852-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to verify whether relatives of patients with NFLE have a higher frequency of parasomnias, namely arousal disorders, and thereby shed light on the still unknown pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying NFLE...
  48. Larsen C, Dooley J, Gordon K. Fever-associated confusional arousal. Eur J Pediatr. 2004;163:696-7 pubmed
  49. Diederich N, Vaillant M, Leischen M, Mancuso G, Golinval S, Nati R, et al. Sleep apnea syndrome in Parkinson's disease. A case-control study in 49 patients. Mov Disord. 2005;20:1413-8 pubmed
    ..Longitudinal studies of patients with such "abortive" SAS are warranted to establish if this finding reflects benign nocturnal respiratory muscle dyskinesia or constitutes a precursor sign of dysautonomia in PD...
  50. Lopes M, Quera Salva M, Guilleminault C. Non-REM sleep instability in patients with major depressive disorder: subjective improvement and improvement of non-REM sleep instability with treatment (Agomelatine). Sleep Med. 2007;9:33-41 pubmed
  51. Yeung C, Diao M, Sreedhar B. Cortical arousal in children with severe enuresis. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2414-5 pubmed publisher
  52. Ekstedt M, Akerstedt T, Söderström M. Microarousals during sleep are associated with increased levels of lipids, cortisol, and blood pressure. Psychosom Med. 2004;66:925-31 pubmed
    ..A second purpose was to relate the number of arousals to mood, stress, work characteristics, and other possible predictors in daily life...
  53. Iranzo A, Schenck C, Fonte J. REM sleep behavior disorder and other sleep disturbances in Disney animated films. Sleep Med. 2007;8:531-6 pubmed
    ..These sleep disorders were inserted as comic elements. The inclusion of a broad range of accurately depicted sleep disorders in these films indicates that the Disney screenwriters were astute observers of sleep and its disorders...
  54. Zucconi M, Ferini Strambi L. NREM parasomnias: arousal disorders and differentiation from nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Clin Neurophysiol. 2000;111 Suppl 2:S129-35 pubmed
    ..In any case the diagnosis of NFLE should be considered in children with nocturnal motor episodes or nocturnal motor agitation, when the attacks persist; this diagnosis is probably more frequent than expected...
  55. Parrino L, Smerieri A, Terzano M. Combined influence of cyclic arousability and EEG synchrony on generalized interictal discharges within the sleep cycle. Epilepsy Res. 2001;44:7-18 pubmed
    ..to analyze the activating role of cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) and EEG synchrony on generalized interictal paroxysms in the first part of the night, when all sleep patterns are represented...
  56. Kimble B, Bonitati A, Millman R. A review of the adult primary sleep parasomnias. Med Health R I. 2002;85:95-8 pubmed
  57. Mazza M, Faia V, Paciello N, Della Marca G, Mazza S. Sleep disorders in childhood: a review. Clin Ter. 2002;153:189-93 pubmed
  58. Neveus T. Enuretic sleep: deep, disturbed or just wet?. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008;23:1201-2 pubmed publisher
    ..It may be hypothesised that the sleep disturbance of enuretic children may lead not only to the wetting of the sheets but to disturbances of daytime psychological functioning as well...
  59. Worthington A, Melia Y. Rehabilitation is compromised by arousal and sleep disorders: results of a survey of rehabilitation centres. Brain Inj. 2006;20:327-32 pubmed
    ..To investigate the impact of disorders of arousal and sleep disturbance on everyday living and participation in rehabilitation...
  60. Barone J, Hanson C, DaJusta D, Gioia K, England S, Schneider D. Nocturnal enuresis and overweight are associated with obstructive sleep apnea. Pediatrics. 2009;124:e53-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), body weight (BMI percentage [BMI%]), and monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) in children...
  61. Sawaguchi T, Franco P, Kato I, Shimizu S, Kadhim H, Groswasser J, et al. Association between sleep apnea and reactive astrocytes in brainstems of victims of SIDS and in control infants. Forensic Sci Int. 2002;130 Suppl:S30-6 pubmed
  62. Bollen B, Bouslama M, Matrot B, Rotrou Y, Vardon G, Lofaso F, et al. Cold stimulates the behavioral response to hypoxia in newborn mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R1503-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The dissociation between ventilatory and behavioral responses to hypoxia suggests that deficits in the arousal response associated with sleep breathing disorders cannot be attributed to a depressed hypoxic response...
  63. Chesson A, Hartse K, Anderson W, Davila D, Johnson S, Littner M, et al. Practice parameters for the evaluation of chronic insomnia. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine report. Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Sleep. 2000;23:237-41 pubmed
  64. Gingras J, Mitchell E, Grattan K, Stewart A. Effects of maternal cigarette smoking and cocaine use in pregnancy on fetal response to vibroacoustic stimulation and habituation. Acta Paediatr. 2004;93:1479-85 pubmed
    ..Although the cause of SIDS is not known, one postulated mechanism involves abnormalities of arousal and arousal regulation. Cigarette smoking and cocaine use may cause deficits of arousal. Many believe arousal deficits occur prenatally...
  65. Davey M. Kids that go bump in the night. Aust Fam Physician. 2009;38:290-4 pubmed
    ..These nocturnal events are common in childhood but can be extremely concerning to parents and disruptive to families...
  66. Hidalgo M, Caumo W. Sleep disturbances associated with minor psychiatric disorders in medical students. Neurol Sci. 2002;23:35-9 pubmed
    ..56], and sleeping less than 7 hours per night [OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.11-3.67] were associated with minor psychiatric disorders. This group of variables determined a cumulative risk ratio of 5.47 [95% CI, 2.87-10.41] for the main outcome...
  67. Nobili L. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy and non-rapid eye movement sleep parasomnias: differences and similarities. Sleep Med Rev. 2007;11:251-4 pubmed
  68. Lamberg L. Dealing with pediatric sleep disorders can call for a wide range of expertise. JAMA. 2008;299:2497-8 pubmed publisher
  69. Splaingard M, Hayes J, Smith G. Impairment of reaction time among children awakened during stage 4 sleep. Sleep. 2007;30:104-8 pubmed
  70. Sawnani H, Jackson T, Murphy T, Beckerman R, Simakajornboon N. The effect of maternal smoking on respiratory and arousal patterns in preterm infants during sleep. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;169:733-8 pubmed
    ..These alterations in respiratory and arousal patterns in preterm infants born to smoking mothers may lead to significant vulnerability in this population...
  71. Kato I, Franco P, Groswasser J, Scaillet S, Kelmanson I, Togari H, et al. Incomplete arousal processes in infants who were victims of sudden death. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;168:1298-303 pubmed
    ..M. (p = 0.011). The present data are suggestive of incomplete arousal processes in infants who eventually died at a time they were presumed to have been asleep...
  72. Carno M, Hoffman L, Carcillo J, Sanders M. Developmental stages of sleep from birth to adolescence, common childhood sleep disorders: overview and nursing implications. J Pediatr Nurs. 2003;18:274-83 pubmed
    ..This article discusses normal developmental changes related to sleep, common sleep disorders experienced by children and how nurses can assist parents in coping with these changes and disorders...
  73. Carra M, Huynh N, Lavigne G. Sleep bruxism: a comprehensive overview for the dental clinician interested in sleep medicine. Dent Clin North Am. 2012;56:387-413 pubmed publisher
    ..This article provides a comprehensive review of the cause, pathophysiology, assessment, and management of SB...
  74. Sawaguchi T, Franco P, Groswasser J, Kahn A. Partial arousal deficiency in SIDS victims and noradrenergic neuronal plasticity. Early Hum Dev. 2003;75 Suppl:S61-4 pubmed
    ..Arousal deficiency in SIDS victims was partial. We could suggest the latent existence of inadequate noradrenergic neuronal plasticity as the background of this partial arousal deficiency of SIDS victims...
  75. Fahed G, Mehra R. A man with abnormal sleep behavior. J Clin Sleep Med. 2007;3:533-4 pubmed
  76. Attarian H, Zhu L. Treatment options for disorders of arousal: a case series. Int J Neurosci. 2013;123:623-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Non-rapid-eye-movement parasomnias or disorders of arousal (DOA) are more prevalent in children, but they do occur in adults. There are no practice parameters published for treatment of DOAs...
  77. Huynh N, Kato T, Rompré P, Okura K, Saber M, Lanfranchi P, et al. Sleep bruxism is associated to micro-arousals and an increase in cardiac sympathetic activity. J Sleep Res. 2006;15:339-46 pubmed
    ..03). In moderate to severe SB subjects, a clear increase in sympathetic activity precedes SB onset...
  78. Schredl M, Reinhard I. Gender differences in nightmare frequency: a meta-analysis. Sleep Med Rev. 2011;15:115-21 pubmed publisher