restless legs syndrome

Summary

Summary: A disorder characterized by aching or burning sensations in the lower and rarely the upper extremities that occur prior to sleep or may awaken the patient from sleep.

Top Publications

  1. Bayard M, Bailey B, Acharya D, Ambreen F, Duggal S, Kaur T, et al. Bupropion and restless legs syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Board Fam Med. 2011;24:422-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder affecting 10% of the population. Most antidepressants exacerbate symptoms; however, correlational studies have noted symptom improvement with bupropion...
  2. Salas R, Kwan A. The real burden of restless legs syndrome: clinical and economic outcomes. Am J Manag Care. 2012;18:S207-12 pubmed
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a highly prevalent and substantially underdiagnosed sensorimotor disorder...
  3. Schürks M, Winter A, Berger K, Buring J, Kurth T. Migraine and restless legs syndrome in women. Cephalalgia. 2012;32:382-9 pubmed publisher
    Few clinic-based studies report an association between migraine and restless legs syndrome (RLS); however, population-based data are unavailable. Cohort study among 31,370 women participating in the Women's Health Study...
  4. Cavalcante A, de Bruin P, de Bruin V, Pereira E, Cavalcante M, Nunes D, et al. Restless legs syndrome, sleep impairment, and fatigue in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sleep Med. 2012;13:842-7 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the frequency of factors associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  5. Giannaki C, Zigoulis P, Karatzaferi C, Hadjigeorgiou G, George K, Gourgoulianis K, et al. Periodic limb movements in sleep contribute to further cardiac structure abnormalities in hemodialysis patients with restless legs syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med. 2013;9:147-53 pubmed publisher
    In hemodialysis (HD) patients, restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) constitute common sleep disorders...
  6. Hornyak M, Trenkwalder C, Kohnen R, Scholz H. Efficacy and safety of dopamine agonists in restless legs syndrome. Sleep Med. 2012;13:228-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder causing considerable impairment to daily living...
  7. Winkelmann J, Czamara D, Schormair B, Knauf F, Schulte E, Trenkwalder C, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies novel restless legs syndrome susceptibility loci on 2p14 and 16q12.1. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002171 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder with an age-dependent prevalence of up to 10% in the general population above 65 years of age...
  8. Yang Q, Li L, Yang R, Shen G, Chen Q, Foldvary Schaefer N, et al. Family-based and population-based association studies validate PTPRD as a risk factor for restless legs syndrome. Mov Disord. 2011;26:516-9 pubmed publisher
    We previously mapped a genetic locus for restless legs syndrome (RLS) to chromosome 9p22-24 (RLS3) and a later genome-wide association study (GWAS) implicated the PTPRD gene at the RLS3 locus as a susceptibility gene for RLS...
  9. Gemignani F, Vitetta F, Brindani F, Contini M, Negrotti A. Painful polyneuropathy associated with restless legs syndrome. Clinical features and sensory profile. Sleep Med. 2013;14:79-84 pubmed publisher
    The association of restless legs syndrome (RLS) with polyneuropathy, and its prevalence, have been evaluated differently throughout various studies...

More Information

Publications79

  1. Cirillo D, Wallace R. Restless legs syndrome and functional limitations among American elders in the Health and Retirement Study. BMC Geriatr. 2012;12:39 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common condition associated with decreased quality of life in older adults. This study estimates the prevalence, risk factors, and functional correlates of among U.S. elders...
  2. Plazzi G, Ferri R, Franceschini C, Vandi S, Detto S, Pizza F, et al. Periodic leg movements during sleep in narcoleptic patients with or without restless legs syndrome. J Sleep Res. 2012;21:155-62 pubmed publisher
    ..movements during sleep and polysomnography in patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) with or without restless legs syndrome (RLS) with matched idiopathic RLS (iRLS) and control subjects...
  3. Hening W, Allen R, Ondo W, Walters A, Winkelman J, Becker P, et al. Rotigotine improves restless legs syndrome: a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in the United States. Mov Disord. 2010;25:1675-83 pubmed publisher
    ..assessed efficacy and safety of the dopamine agonist rotigotine in the treatment of idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS) over a 6-month maintenance period...
  4. Freeman A, Pranski E, Miller R, Radmard S, Bernhard D, Jinnah H, et al. Sleep fragmentation and motor restlessness in a Drosophila model of Restless Legs Syndrome. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1142-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), first chronicled by Willis in 1672 and described in more detail by Ekbom in 1945, is a prevalent sensorimotor neurological disorder (5%-10% in the population) with a circadian predilection for the evening and ..
  5. Roux F. Restless legs syndrome: impact on sleep-related breathing disorders. Respirology. 2013;18:238-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common chronic sensory-motor neurological disorder that remains a clinical diagnosis...
  6. Sarberg M, Josefsson A, Wiréhn A, Svanborg E. Restless legs syndrome during and after pregnancy and its relation to snoring. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012;91:850-5 pubmed publisher
    To study development of restless legs syndrome (RLS) during and after pregnancy, and whether RLS is related to snoring or other pregnancy-related symptoms.
  7. Cosentino F, Arico D, Lanuzza B, Raggi A, Sciortino G, Tripodi M, et al. Absence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in restless legs syndrome. Acta Neurol Scand. 2012;125:319-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) might represent a condition at risk of cardiovascular (and cerebrovascular) disease; the role of sleep periodic leg movements, sleep deprivation, and presence of common risk factors for heart disease in these ..
  8. Salman S. Restless legs syndrome in patients on hemodialysis. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2011;22:368-72 pubmed
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is common among dialysis patients, with a reported prevalence of 6-60%. The prevalence of RLS in Syrian patients on hemodialysis (HD) is not known...
  9. Aurora R, Kristo D, Bista S, Rowley J, Zak R, Casey K, et al. The treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in adults--an update for 2012: practice parameters with an evidence-based systematic review and meta-analyses: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Clinical Practice Guideli. Sleep. 2012;35:1039-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, therapies for PLMD are reviewed. However, it should be mentioned that because PLMD therapy typically mimics RLS therapy, the primary focus of this review is therapy for idiopathic RLS...
  10. Oexle K, Schormair B, Ried J, Czamara D, Heim K, Frauscher B, et al. Dilution of candidates: the case of iron-related genes in restless legs syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 2013;21:410-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common multifactorial disease. Some genetic risk factors have been identified. RLS susceptibility also has been related to iron...
  11. Connor J, Ponnuru P, Lee B, Podskalny G, Alam S, Allen R, et al. Postmortem and imaging based analyses reveal CNS decreased myelination in restless legs syndrome. Sleep Med. 2011;12:614-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by a strong urge to move the legs and has been shown in many studies with abnormally low brain iron...
  12. Ohayon M, O HARA R, Vitiello M. Epidemiology of restless legs syndrome: a synthesis of the literature. Sleep Med Rev. 2012;16:283-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) has gained considerable attention in the recent years: nearly 50 community-based studies have been published in the last decade around the world...
  13. Winkelman J, Bogan R, Schmidt M, Hudson J, DeRossett S, Hill Zabala C. Randomized polysomnography study of gabapentin enacarbil in subjects with restless legs syndrome. Mov Disord. 2011;26:2065-72 pubmed publisher
    ..the efficacy and tolerability of gabapentin enacarbil in the treatment of moderate to severe primary restless legs syndrome and associated sleep disturbance...
  14. Allen R, Adler C, Du W, Butcher A, Bregman D, Earley C. Clinical efficacy and safety of IV ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) treatment of RLS: a multi-centred, placebo-controlled preliminary clinical trial. Sleep Med. 2011;12:906-13 pubmed publisher
    Intravenous (IV) iron has been used as a treatment to reduce Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) symptoms, but two double-blinded trials of a frequently prescribed IV iron formulation, iron sucrose, failed to show lasting efficacy...
  15. Cikrikcioglu M, Hursitoglu M, Erkal H, Kınas B, Sztajzel J, Cakirca M, et al. Oxidative stress and autonomic nervous system functions in restless legs syndrome. Eur J Clin Invest. 2011;41:734-42 pubmed publisher
    Oxidative stress has been implicated in over 100 disorders in recent years; however, the situation in restless legs syndrome (RLS) has not been studied yet.
  16. Szentkiralyi A, Volzke H, Hoffmann W, Happe S, Berger K. A time sequence analysis of the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors, vascular diseases and restless legs syndrome in the general population. J Sleep Res. 2013;22:434-42 pubmed publisher
    Previous cross-sectional studies regarding the association of restless legs syndrome (RLS) with cardiovascular morbidity are controversial...
  17. Stiasny Kolster K, Pfau D, Oertel W, Treede R, Magerl W. Hyperalgesia and functional sensory loss in restless legs syndrome. Pain. 2013;154:1457-63 pubmed publisher
    Pain and other sensory signs in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) are still poorly understood, as most investigations focus on motor system dysfunctions...
  18. Park J, Han S, Baik J. Carotid intima-media thickness in patients with idiopathic restless legs syndrome. Eur Neurol. 2012;67:321-5 pubmed publisher
    There have been no studies of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in idiopathic restless legs syndrome (iRLS) patients...
  19. Giannaki C, Sakkas G, Karatzaferi C, Hadjigeorgiou G, Lavdas E, Liakopoulos V, et al. Evidence of increased muscle atrophy and impaired quality of life parameters in patients with uremic restless legs syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25180 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless Legs Syndrome is a very common disorder in hemodialysis patients...
  20. Innes K, Selfe T, Agarwal P. Restless legs syndrome and conditions associated with metabolic dysregulation, sympathoadrenal dysfunction, and cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review. Sleep Med Rev. 2012;16:309-39 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a distressing sleep and sensorimotor disorder that affects a large percentage of adults in the western industrialized world and is associated with profound reductions in quality of life...
  21. Benes H, Mattern W, Peglau I, Dreykluft T, Bergmann L, Hansen C, et al. Ropinirole improves depressive symptoms and restless legs syndrome severity in RLS patients: a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Neurol. 2011;258:1046-54 pubmed publisher
    Comorbid depressive symptoms in restless legs syndrome (RLS) remain a treatment challenge, as some antidepressants aggravate RLS symptoms. Preliminary data in depressive patients suggest antidepressant properties of ropinirole...
  22. Catoire H, Dion P, Xiong L, Amari M, Gaudet R, Girard S, et al. Restless legs syndrome-associated MEIS1 risk variant influences iron homeostasis. Ann Neurol. 2011;70:170-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a frequent sleep disorder that is linked to disturbed iron homeostasis...
  23. Thorpe A, Clair A, Hochman S, Clemens S. Possible sites of therapeutic action in restless legs syndrome: focus on dopamine and ?2? ligands. Eur Neurol. 2011;66:18-29 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor disorder characterized by abnormal sensations that occur primarily at rest or during sleep, which are alleviated by movement of the affected limb...
  24. Pedroso J, Bor Seng Shu E, Felicio A, Braga Neto P, Dutra L, de Aquino C, et al. Severity of restless legs syndrome is inversely correlated with echogenicity of the substantia nigra in different neurodegenerative movement disorders. a preliminary observation. J Neurol Sci. 2012;319:59-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, restless legs syndrome is a sleep disorder that is also frequently found in both diseases...
  25. Manconi M, Ferri R, Zucconi M, Bassetti C, Fulda S, Arico D, et al. Dissociation of periodic leg movements from arousals in restless legs syndrome. Ann Neurol. 2012;71:834-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to characterize the nature of the relation between periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) and cortical arousals to contribute to the debate on the clinical significance and treatment of PLMS...
  26. Weinstock L, Walters A. Restless legs syndrome is associated with irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Sleep Med. 2011;12:610-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is linked to gastrointestinal disorders. The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in RLS patients was determined.
  27. Jaber B, Schiller B, Burkart J, Daoui R, Kraus M, Lee Y, et al. Impact of short daily hemodialysis on restless legs symptoms and sleep disturbances. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;6:1049-56 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and sleep disturbances are common among in-center hemodialysis patients and are associated with increased morbidity/mortality.
  28. Sun Y, Hoang T, Neubauer J, Walters A. Opioids protect against substantia nigra cell degeneration under conditions of iron deprivation: a mechanism of possible relevance to the Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Sci. 2011;304:93-101 pubmed publisher
    Hypofunction of the endogenous opioid, dopamine and iron systems are implicated in the pathogenesis of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). Therefore, we probed the interrelationship of these 3 systems in an in vitro model...
  29. Garcia Borreguero D, Stillman P, Benes H, Buschmann H, Chaudhuri K, Gonzalez Rodríguez V, et al. Algorithms for the diagnosis and treatment of restless legs syndrome in primary care. BMC Neurol. 2011;11:28 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 3-10%. in European studies. However, the diagnosis of RLS in primary care remains low and mistreatment is common.
  30. Angriman M, Bruni O, Cortese S. Does Restless Legs Syndrome increase cardiovascular risk in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?. Med Hypotheses. 2013;80:39-42 pubmed publisher
    Preliminary evidence suggests a possible association between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Restless Legs Syndrome with or without Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep...
  31. Li Y, Wang W, Winkelman J, Malhotra A, Ma J, Gao X. Prospective study of restless legs syndrome and mortality among men. Neurology. 2013;81:52-9 pubmed publisher
    To prospectively examine whether men with restless legs syndrome (RLS) had an increased risk of mortality.
  32. Patton S, Ponnuru P, Snyder A, Podskalny G, Connor J. Hypoxia-inducible factor pathway activation in restless legs syndrome patients. Eur J Neurol. 2011;18:1329-35 pubmed publisher
    These studies tested the hypothesis that hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) pathway activation occurs in substantia nigra neurons and brain microvasculature in patients with restless legs syndrome.
  33. Li L, Chen H, Zhang L, Wang Z, Wang C. A community-based investigation on restless legs syndrome in a town in China. Sleep Med. 2012;13:342-5 pubmed publisher
    To assess the prevalence and severity of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a town in China and to explore potential factors correlated with the severity of the disease.
  34. England S, Picchietti D, Couvadelli B, Fisher B, Siddiqui F, Wagner M, et al. L-Dopa improves Restless Legs Syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep but not Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder in a double-blind trial in children. Sleep Med. 2011;12:471-7 pubmed publisher
    In a previous open-label study, dopaminergic agents improved Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep (PLMS), as well as Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with both disorders...
  35. Cannon P, Larner A. Migraine and restless legs syndrome: is there an association?. J Headache Pain. 2011;12:405-9 pubmed publisher
    Occasional clinical reports have suggested a link between migraine and restless legs syndrome. We undertook a systematic review of the evidence, which supports this association, and consider possible shared pathogenic mechanisms and the ..
  36. Pereira J, Silva Neto J, Pradella Hallinan M. Restless legs syndrome in subjects with a knee prosthesis: evidence that symptoms are generated in the periphery. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2011;66:1955-9 pubmed
    There are no data adressing the prevalence of restless legs syndrome in subjects who have knee prosthesis. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of subjects who underwent knee prosthesis surgery.
  37. Picchietti D, Bruni O, de Weerd A, Durmer J, Kotagal S, Owens J, et al. Pediatric restless legs syndrome diagnostic criteria: an update by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Sleep Med. 2013;14:1253-9 pubmed publisher
    Specific diagnostic criteria for pediatric restless legs syndrome (RLS) were published in 2003 following a workshop at the National Institutes of Health...
  38. Choi S, Kim B, Kweon S, Shin M, Park J, Song H, et al. Restless legs syndrome in people affected by leprosy. Lepr Rev. 2012;83:363-9 pubmed
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is one of the most commonly encountered sleep disorders. The prevalence of RLS and its association'with leprosy have not previously been elucidated...
  39. Garcia Borreguero D, Ferini Strambi L, Kohnen R, O Keeffe S, Trenkwalder C, Hogl B, et al. European guidelines on management of restless legs syndrome: report of a joint task force by the European Federation of Neurological Societies, the European Neurological Society and the European Sleep Research Society. Eur J Neurol. 2012;19:1385-96 pubmed publisher
    ..of the first European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) guidelines in 2005 on the management of restless legs syndrome (RLS; also known as Willis-Ekbom disease), there have been major therapeutic advances in the field...
  40. Trotti L, Rye D, De Staercke C, Hooper W, Quyyumi A, Bliwise D. Elevated C-reactive protein is associated with severe periodic leg movements of sleep in patients with restless legs syndrome. Brain Behav Immun. 2012;26:1239-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sleep disorder in which urges to move the legs are felt during rest, are felt at night, and are improved by leg movement. RLS has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease...
  41. Balaban H, Yildiz O, Cil G, Sentürk I, Erselcan T, Bolayir E, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in restless legs syndrome patients. Sleep Med. 2012;13:953-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome is characterised by discomfort during rest and an urge to move the limbs that is accompanied by abnormal sensations. Studies on disease pathophysiology have focused on dopaminergic dysfunction...
  42. Lee D, Ziman R, Perkins A, Poceta J, Walters A, Barrett R. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of gabapentin enacarbil in subjects with restless legs syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med. 2011;7:282-92 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of gabapentin enacarbil (GEn) 1200 mg or 600 mg compared with placebo in subjects with moderate-to-severe primary restless legs syndrome (RLS).
  43. Innes K, Selfe T, Agarwal P. Prevalence of restless legs syndrome in North American and Western European populations: a systematic review. Sleep Med. 2011;12:623-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a potentially debilitating sleep disorder that affects a significant percentage of North American and European adults...
  44. Weinstock L, Walters A, Paueksakon P. Restless legs syndrome--theoretical roles of inflammatory and immune mechanisms. Sleep Med Rev. 2012;16:341-54 pubmed publisher
    Theories for restless legs syndrome (RLS) pathogenesis include iron deficiency, dopamine dysregulation and peripheral neuropathy...
  45. Aras G, Kadakal F, Purisa S, Kanmaz D, Aynaci A, Isik E. Are we aware of restless legs syndrome in COPD patients who are in an exacerbation period? Frequency and probable factors related to underlying mechanism. COPD. 2011;8:437-43 pubmed publisher
    ..1% to 36.8% frequency of restless legs syndrome (RLS)...
  46. Chahine L, Ahmed A, Sun Z. Effects of STN DBS for Parkinson's disease on restless legs syndrome and other sleep-related measures. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2011;17:208-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and other sleep abnormalities are common in Parkinson's Disease (PD). We prospectively examined sleep measures in PD patients undergoing subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS)...
  47. Eckeli A, Gitaí L, Dach F, Ceretta H, Sander H, Passos A, et al. Prevalence of restless legs syndrome in the rural town of Cassia dos Coqueiros in Brazil. Sleep Med. 2011;12:762-7 pubmed publisher
    To estimate the prevalence and evaluate the characteristics and severity of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in an urban Brazilian community.
  48. Margariti P, Astrakas L, Tsouli S, Hadjigeorgiou G, Konitsiotis S, Argyropoulou M. Investigation of unmedicated early onset restless legs syndrome by voxel-based morphometry, T2 relaxometry, and functional MR imaging during the night-time hours. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012;33:667-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The pathophysiology of eRLS has not yet been elucidated. The purpose of the study was to assess, in patients with eRLS, the volume, iron content, and activation of the brain during night-time episodes of SLD and PLMs...
  49. Puschmann A, Pfeiffer R, Stoessl A, Kuriakose R, Lash J, Searcy J, et al. A family with Parkinsonism, essential tremor, restless legs syndrome, and depression. Neurology. 2011;76:1623-30 pubmed publisher
    Previous epidemiologic and genetic studies have suggested a link between Parkinson disease (PD), essential tremor (ET), and restless legs syndrome (RLS).
  50. de la Fuente Fernández R. The powerful pre-treatment effect: placebo responses in restless legs syndrome trials. Eur J Neurol. 2012;19:1305-10 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether dopaminergic pre-treatment alters placebo and dopamine agonist responses in restless legs syndrome (RLS)...
  51. Ellenbogen A, Thein S, Winslow D, Becker P, Tolson J, Lassauzet M, et al. A 52-week study of gabapentin enacarbil in restless legs syndrome. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2011;34:8-16 pubmed publisher
    This open-label, multicenter, 52-week extension study (NCT00333359) assessed the long-term safety and efficacy of gabapentin enacarbil in subjects with moderate-to-severe primary restless legs syndrome (RLS).
  52. Batool Anwar S, Malhotra A, Forman J, Winkelman J, Li Y, Gao X. Restless legs syndrome and hypertension in middle-aged women. Hypertension. 2011;58:791-6 pubmed publisher
    Limited research suggests a relationship between restless legs syndrome and hypertension. We, therefore, assessed the relationship between restless legs syndrome and hypertension among middle-aged women...
  53. Cippà M, Baumann C, Siccoli M, Bassetti C, Poryazova R, Werth E. Actigraphic assessment of periodic leg movements in patients with restless legs syndrome. J Sleep Res. 2013;22:589-92 pubmed publisher
    The diagnosis of restless legs syndrome (RLS) relies upon diagnostic criteria which are based on history only, and dopaminergic treatment is not normally the first choice of treatment for all patients...
  54. Giannaki C, Sakkas G, Hadjigeorgiou G, Karatzaferi C, Patramani G, Lavdas E, et al. Non-pharmacological management of periodic limb movements during hemodialysis session in patients with uremic restless legs syndrome. ASAIO J. 2010;56:538-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is very common in hemodialysis patients. RLS induces motor excitability and discomfort during rest periods, and those symptoms have also been observed during hemodialysis sessions...
  55. Jung K, Koo Y, Kim B, Ko D, Lee G, Kim K, et al. Electrophysiologic disturbances during daytime in patients with restless legs syndrome: further evidence of cognitive dysfunction?. Sleep Med. 2011;12:416-21 pubmed publisher
    It has been reported that patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) may have cognitive deficit...
  56. Cannavo S, Condurso R, Ragonese M, Ferrau F, Alibrandi A, Aricò I, et al. Increased prevalence of restless legs syndrome in patients with acromegaly and effects on quality of life assessed by Acro-QoL. Pituitary. 2011;14:328-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome (RLS), a neurological sensory-motor disorder characterized by a compelling urge to move the limbs during the night, is a sleep disturbance that impairs quality of life...
  57. DeJesus Hernandez M, Rayaprolu S, Soto Ortolaza A, Rutherford N, Heckman M, Traynor S, et al. Analysis of the C9orf72 repeat in Parkinson's disease, essential tremor and restless legs syndrome. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2013;19:198-201 pubmed publisher
    ..repeat length with susceptibility to Parkinson's disease and related disorders, essential tremor and restless legs syndrome. One restless legs syndrome patient was shown to harbor a repeat expansion, however on clinical follow-up ..
  58. Winter A, Schürks M, Glynn R, Buring J, Gaziano J, Berger K, et al. Vascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease, and restless legs syndrome in women. Am J Med. 2013;126:220-7, 227.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies evaluating the association of cardiovascular disease and vascular risk factors with restless legs syndrome showed inconsistent results, especially for the potential relation between various vascular risk factors and ..
  59. Rizzo G, Manners D, Vetrugno R, Tonon C, Malucelli E, Plazzi G, et al. Combined brain voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study in idiopathic restless legs syndrome patients. Eur J Neurol. 2012;19:1045-9 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of abnormalities in the brain of patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).
  60. Kim K, Jhoo J, Lee S, Lee S, Kim T, Kim S, et al. Increased striatal dopamine transporter density in moderately severe old restless legs syndrome patients. Eur J Neurol. 2012;19:1213-8 pubmed publisher
    Dopamine dysregulation in restless legs syndrome (RLS) may be varied by the severity of RLS, which could contribute to the conflicting results from previous functional neuroimaging studies on the central dopaminergic neurotransmission of ..
  61. Winter A, Schürks M, Berger K, Buring J, Gaziano J, Kurth T. Migraine and restless legs syndrome in men. Cephalalgia. 2013;33:130-5 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies suggest an association between migraine and restless legs syndrome (RLS). Population-based data, however, have been limited to women...
  62. Moreno López C, Santamaria J, Salamero M, Del Sorbo F, Albanese A, Pellecchia M, et al. Excessive daytime sleepiness in multiple system atrophy (SLEEMSA study). Arch Neurol. 2011;68:223-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Sleep disorders are common in multiple system atrophy (MSA), but the prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is not well known...
  63. Cho Y, Allen R, Earley C. Lower molecular weight intravenous iron dextran for restless legs syndrome. Sleep Med. 2013;14:274-7 pubmed publisher
    ..to assess brain iron concentrations have demonstrated the presence of low iron stores in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS)...
  64. Picchietti D, Arbuckle R, Abetz L, Durmer J, Ivanenko A, Owens J, et al. Pediatric restless legs syndrome: analysis of symptom descriptions and drawings. J Child Neurol. 2011;26:1365-76 pubmed publisher
    ..aims of this study were to collect and analyze detailed symptom descriptions from patients with pediatric restless legs syndrome, ages 6 to 17 years, as well as assess symptom impact and the usefulness of drawings...
  65. Manconi M, Ferri R, Zucconi M, Clemens S, Giarolli L, Bottasini V, et al. Preferential D2 or preferential D3 dopamine agonists in restless legs syndrome. Neurology. 2011;77:110-7 pubmed publisher
    ..and the D3 preferential agonist pramipexole was performed in order to understand which dopamine agonist receptor subtype plays the main role in the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS) with periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS).
  66. D Onofrio F, Cologno D, Petretta V, Finocchi C, Autunno M, Marsala G, et al. Restless legs syndrome is not associated with migraine with aura: a clinical study. Neurol Sci. 2011;32 Suppl 1:S153-6 pubmed publisher
    Based on recent data about the association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and migraine, we performed an observational study on the occurrence of RLS in patients affected by "pure" migraine with aura (pMA)...
  67. Oertel W, Trenkwalder C, Benes H, Ferini Strambi L, Hogl B, Poewe W, et al. Long-term safety and efficacy of rotigotine transdermal patch for moderate-to-severe idiopathic restless legs syndrome: a 5-year open-label extension study. Lancet Neurol. 2011;10:710-20 pubmed publisher
    Safety and efficacy of non-ergot dopamine agonists for the treatment of idiopathic restless legs syndrome have been shown in short-term trials...
  68. Quinn C, Uzbeck M, Saleem I, Cotter P, Ali J, O Malley G, et al. Iron status and chronic kidney disease predict restless legs syndrome in an older hospital population. Sleep Med. 2011;12:295-301 pubmed publisher
    Iron deficiency is important in the pathogenesis of restless legs syndrome (RLS), and serum ferritin measurement, using a cutoff of 45-50ng/ml, is widely recommended as the optimal screening test for iron deficiency in RLS...
  69. Connor J, Ponnuru P, Wang X, Patton S, Allen R, Earley C. Profile of altered brain iron acquisition in restless legs syndrome. Brain. 2011;134:959-68 pubmed publisher
    b>Restless legs syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by an urgency to move the legs during periods of rest...
  70. Mirza M, Shen W, Sofi A, Jahangir A, Mori N, Tajik A, et al. Frequent periodic leg movement during sleep is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2013;26:783-90 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the effect of restless legs syndrome, another common cause of fragmented sleep, on cardiac structure, function, and long-term outcomes is not ..