rem sleep behavior disorder

Summary

Summary: A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)

Top Publications

  1. Postuma R, Gagnon J, Rompré S, Montplaisir J. Severity of REM atonia loss in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder predicts Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2010;74:239-44 pubmed publisher
    Over 50% of persons with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) will develop Parkinson disease (PD) or dementia. At present, there is no way to predict who will develop disease...
  2. Frauscher B, Gschliesser V, Brandauer E, Marti I, Furtner M, Ulmer H, et al. REM sleep behavior disorder in 703 sleep-disorder patients: the importance of eliciting a comprehensive sleep history. Sleep Med. 2010;11:167-71 pubmed publisher
    The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in a mixed sleep laboratory population and to assess potential associations...
  3. Xi Z, Luning W. REM sleep behavior disorder in a patient with pontine stroke. Sleep Med. 2009;10:143-6 pubmed publisher
    ..25mg nightly resulted in the disappearance of nocturnal events. This case with right pontine tegmental ischemic lesion provides evidence that the unilateral pontine lesion by itself is sufficient to cause RBD. ..
  4. Poryazova R, Oberholzer M, Baumann C, Bassetti C. REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson's disease: a questionnaire-based survey. J Clin Sleep Med. 2013;9:55-9A pubmed publisher
    b>REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is reported in up to 50% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Only a few systematic, large-scale studies have addressed the characteristics of RBD in PD...
  5. Iranzo A. Sleep-wake changes in the premotor stage of Parkinson disease. J Neurol Sci. 2011;310:283-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, two sleep disorders, namely excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) have been described to antedate the development of the classical motor signs and symptoms of PD...
  6. Lee J, Kim K, Shin H, Sohn Y. Factors related to clinically probable REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2010;16:105-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study support previous observations that PD with RBD may result from a different underlying pattern of neurodegeneration than PD without RBD. ..
  7. Kumru H, Santamaria J, Tolosa E, Iranzo A. Relation between subtype of Parkinson's disease and REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep Med. 2007;8:779-83 pubmed
    ..A different pattern of neurodegeneration in non-tremor-predominant PD may explain its preferential association with RBD. The neurodegeneration that causes PD might be insufficient to produce RBD before the sixth decade. ..
  8. Arnulf I. REM sleep behavior disorder: motor manifestations and pathophysiology. Mov Disord. 2012;27:677-89 pubmed publisher
    Patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) enact violent dreams during REM sleep in the absence of normal muscle atonia...
  9. Nomura T, Inoue Y, Kagimura T, Uemura Y, Nakashima K. Utility of the REM sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire (RBDSQ) in Parkinson's disease patients. Sleep Med. 2011;12:711-3 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the usefulness of the REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) screening questionnaire (RBDSQ) among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Forty-five patients with PD were evaluated (22 male and 23 female, 72.9±9.1 years old)...

More Information

Publications88

  1. Postuma R, Montplaisir J, Pelletier A, Dauvilliers Y, Oertel W, Iranzo A, et al. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder: a multicenter case-control study. Neurology. 2012;79:428-34 pubmed publisher
    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia...
  2. Boeve B, Molano J, Ferman T, Smith G, Lin S, Bieniek K, et al. Validation of the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire to screen for REM sleep behavior disorder in an aging and dementia cohort. Sleep Med. 2011;12:445-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that among aged subjects with cognitive impairment and/or parkinsonism, the MSQ has adequate SN and SP for the diagnosis of RBD. The utility of this scale in other patient populations will require further study. ..
  3. Peever J. Control of motoneuron function and muscle tone during REM sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder and cataplexy/narcolepsy. Arch Ital Biol. 2011;149:454-66 pubmed publisher
    ..REM sleep is important because breakdown in REM sleep motor control underlies sleep disorders such as REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and cataplexy/narcolepsy...
  4. Luppi P, Clement O, Sapin E, Gervasoni D, Peyron C, Leger L, et al. The neuronal network responsible for paradoxical sleep and its dysfunctions causing narcolepsy and rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder. Sleep Med Rev. 2011;15:153-63 pubmed publisher
  5. Iwanami M, Miyamoto T, Miyamoto M, Hirata K, Takada E. Relevance of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and reduced odor identification in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep Med. 2010;11:361-5 pubmed publisher
    ..common findings in Parkinson disease (PD), which may reveal a prodromal synucleinopathy in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD)...
  6. Sixel Döring F, Trautmann E, Mollenhauer B, Trenkwalder C. Associated factors for REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2011;77:1048-54 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the frequency, phenomenology, and associated risk factors of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in Parkinson disease (PD)...
  7. Ellmore T, Hood A, Castriotta R, Stimming E, Bick R, Schiess M. Reduced volume of the putamen in REM sleep behavior disorder patients. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2010;16:645-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients, at risk for developing PD, will demonstrate a pattern of neuronal degeneration ..
  8. Postuma R, Gagnon J, Vendette M, Charland K, Montplaisir J. Manifestations of Parkinson disease differ in association with REM sleep behavior disorder. Mov Disord. 2008;23:1665-72 pubmed publisher
    b>REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is commonly associated with Parkinson disease (PD), but it is unclear whether this association has implications for disease manifestations...
  9. Nihei Y, Takahashi K, Koto A, Mihara B, Morita Y, Isozumi K, et al. REM sleep behavior disorder in Japanese patients with Parkinson's disease: a multicenter study using the REM sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire. J Neurol. 2012;259:1606-12 pubmed publisher
    b>REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is known to be observed more frequently in patients with an ?-synucleinopathy such as Parkinson's disease (PD) than in the general population...
  10. Claassen D, Josephs K, Ahlskog J, Silber M, Tippmann Peikert M, Boeve B. REM sleep behavior disorder preceding other aspects of synucleinopathies by up to half a century. Neurology. 2010;75:494-9 pubmed publisher
    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) may be the initial manifestation of synucleinopathies (Parkinson disease [PD], multiple system atrophy [MSA], or dementia with Lewy bodies [DLB])...
  11. Stiasny Kolster K, Mayer G, Schäfer S, Moller J, Heinzel Gutenbrunner M, Oertel W. The REM sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire--a new diagnostic instrument. Mov Disord. 2007;22:2386-93 pubmed
    Many patients with assumed idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) may actually represent an early clinical manifestation of an evolving neurodegenerative disorder, such as the alpha-synucleinopathies, Parkinson's disease or ..
  12. Gagnon J, Vendette M, Postuma R, Desjardins C, Massicotte Marquez J, Panisset M, et al. Mild cognitive impairment in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 2009;66:39-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Except for visuoconstructional and visuoperceptual problems, RBD may be an important determinant of cognitive impairment in PD. Ann Neurol 2009;66:39-47. ..
  13. Cooper A, Josephs K. Photophobia, visual hallucinations, and REM sleep behavior disorder in progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration: a prospective study. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009;15:59-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study compared the frequency of photophobia, visual hallucinations, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in patients clinically diagnosed with PSP to those clinically suspected to have CBD...
  14. Miyamoto T, Miyamoto M, Iwanami M, Suzuki K, Inoue Y, Hirata K. Odor identification test as an indicator of idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Mov Disord. 2009;24:268-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that OSIT-J, which is a short and simple nonlexical olfactory identification test, can be useful as a clinical indicator for iRBD with Lewy body formation and is appropriate in the Japanese elderly population. ..
  15. Postuma R, Lang A, Gagnon J, Pelletier A, Montplaisir J. How does parkinsonism start? Prodromal parkinsonism motor changes in idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder. Brain. 2012;135:1860-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Simple quantitative motor measures may be capable of reliably detecting parkinsonism, even before a clinical diagnosis can be made by experienced movement disorders neurologists. ..
  16. Tippmann Peikert M, Boeve B, Keegan B. REM sleep behavior disorder initiated by acute brainstem multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2006;66:1277-9 pubmed
  17. Postuma R, Montplaisir J, Lanfranchi P, Blais H, Rompré S, Colombo R, et al. Cardiac autonomic denervation in Parkinson's disease is linked to REM sleep behavior disorder. Mov Disord. 2011;26:1529-33 pubmed publisher
    ..As with other clinical autonomic variables, cardiac autonomic denervation is predominantly associated not with Parkinson's disease itself, but with the presence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. ..
  18. Unger M, Belke M, Menzler K, Heverhagen J, Keil B, Stiasny Kolster K, et al. Diffusion tensor imaging in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder reveals microstructural changes in the brainstem, substantia nigra, olfactory region, and other brain regions. Sleep. 2010;33:767-73 pubmed
  19. Sasai T, Miyamoto T, Miyamoto M, Iwanami M, Abe T, Matsuura M, et al. Impaired decision-making in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep Med. 2012;13:301-6 pubmed publisher
    Patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) frequently develop Parkinson's disease (PD), which can impair decision-making ability...
  20. Anderson K, Shneerson J. Drug treatment of REM sleep behavior disorder: the use of drug therapies other than clonazepam. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009;5:235-9 pubmed
    b>REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by loss of the normal muscle atonia during REM sleep associated with disruptive motor activity related to the acting out of dreams...
  21. Li S, Wing Y, Lam S, Zhang J, Yu M, Ho C, et al. Validation of a new REM sleep behavior disorder questionnaire (RBDQ-HK). Sleep Med. 2010;11:43-8 pubmed publisher
    There are limited screening instruments for diagnosis of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and none for quantifying the severity of disease...
  22. Ferri R, Fulda S, Cosentino F, Pizza F, Plazzi G. A preliminary quantitative analysis of REM sleep chin EMG in Parkinson's disease with or without REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep Med. 2012;13:707-13 pubmed publisher
    To compare REM sleep chin EMG quantitative features between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with or without REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD).
  23. Postuma R, Gagnon J, Montplaisir J. REM sleep behavior disorder: from dreams to neurodegeneration. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;46:553-8 pubmed publisher
    b>REM sleep behavior disorder is a unique parasomnia characterized by dream enactment behavior during REM sleep...
  24. Bugalho P, da Silva J, Neto B. Clinical features associated with REM sleep behavior disorder symptoms in the early stages of Parkinson's disease. J Neurol. 2011;258:50-5 pubmed publisher
  25. Postuma R, Gagnon J, Vendette M, Desjardins C, Montplaisir J. Olfaction and color vision identify impending neurodegeneration in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Ann Neurol. 2011;69:811-8 pubmed publisher
  26. Stockner H, Iranzo A, Seppi K, Serradell M, Gschliesser V, Sojer M, et al. Midbrain hyperechogenicity in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Mov Disord. 2009;24:1906-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The prospective follow-up of this iRBD cohort is needed to establish if those with midbrain hyperechogenicity will go on to develop clinically defined PD or not...
  27. Miyamoto T, Miyamoto M, Iwanami M, Kobayashi M, Nakamura M, Inoue Y, et al. The REM sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire: validation study of a Japanese version. Sleep Med. 2009;10:1151-4 pubmed publisher
    b>REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by intermittent loss of normal skeletal muscle atonia during REM sleep and elaborate motor activity associated with dream mentation...
  28. Oudiette D, De Cock V, Lavault S, Leu S, Vidailhet M, Arnulf I. Nonviolent elaborate behaviors may also occur in REM sleep behavior disorder. Neurology. 2009;72:551-7 pubmed publisher
    To document unusual, nonviolent behaviors during REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and evaluate their frequency in Parkinson disease (PD).
  29. Manconi M, Ferri R, Zucconi M, Fantini M, Plazzi G, Ferini Strambi L. Time structure analysis of leg movements during sleep in REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep. 2007;30:1779-85 pubmed
    ..To compare the time structure of leg movements (LM) during sleep of patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) with that of patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) or control subjects...
  30. Sasai T, Matsuura M, Wing Y, Inoue Y. Validation of the Japanese version of the REM sleep behavior disorder questionnaire (RBDQ-JP). Sleep Med. 2012;13:913-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was conducted to validate the Japanese version of the questionnaire and to investigate its reliability, validity, and responsiveness...
  31. Kumru H, Iranzo A, Carrasco E, Valldeoriola F, Marti M, Santamaria J, et al. Lack of effects of pramipexole on REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. Sleep. 2008;31:1418-21 pubmed
    b>REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a common manifestation of Parkinson disease (PD) which is characterized by dream-enacting behaviors, unpleasant dreams, and loss of muscle atonia during REM sleep...
  32. Nomura T, Inoue Y, Kagimura T, Nakashima K. Clinical significance of REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson's disease. Sleep Med. 2013;14:131-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with PD and clinical RBD, subclinical RBD, or with normal REM sleep were examined in a cross sectional study and a longitudinal follow-up...
  33. Frenette E. REM sleep behavior disorder. Med Clin North Am. 2010;94:593-614 pubmed publisher
    b>REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), formally recognized in the 1980s, is an infrequent but spectacular parasomnia characterized by dream enactment, leading to aggressive or complex behaviors...
  34. Dugger B, Boeve B, Murray M, Parisi J, Fujishiro H, Dickson D, et al. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and subtypes in autopsy-confirmed dementia with Lewy bodies. Mov Disord. 2012;27:72-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is associated with distinct clinical and pathologic characteristics of dementia with Lewy bodies...
  35. Postuma R, Lang A, Massicotte Marquez J, Montplaisir J. Potential early markers of Parkinson disease in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Neurology. 2006;66:845-51 pubmed
    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by loss of atonia during REM sleep, resulting in motor activity during dreams...
  36. Lavault S, Leu Semenescu S, Tezenas du Montcel S, Cochen De Cock V, Vidailhet M, Arnulf I. Does clinical rapid eye movement behavior disorder predict worse outcomes in Parkinson's disease?. J Neurol. 2010;257:1154-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The fluctuation and disappearance of clinical RBD in some patients may be due to functional abnormalities rather than lesions...
  37. Iranzo A, Molinuevo J, Santamaria J, Serradell M, Marti M, Valldeoriola F, et al. Rapid-eye-movement sleep behaviour disorder as an early marker for a neurodegenerative disorder: a descriptive study. Lancet Neurol. 2006;5:572-7 pubmed
    ..We sought to determine the frequency and nature of neurological disorders developing in patients diagnosed with idiopathic RBD at our sleep centre...
  38. De Cock V, Vidailhet M, Leu S, Texeira A, Apartis E, Elbaz A, et al. Restoration of normal motor control in Parkinson's disease during REM sleep. Brain. 2007;130:450-6 pubmed
    ..These movements would eventually be transmitted to lower motor neurons because of brainstem lesions interrupting the pontomedullary pathways which mediate the REM sleep atonia...
  39. Massicotte Marquez J, Decary A, Gagnon J, Vendette M, Mathieu A, Postuma R, et al. Executive dysfunction and memory impairment in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Neurology. 2008;70:1250-7 pubmed publisher
    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) might be a stage in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, especially Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies...
  40. Mazza S, Soucy J, Gravel P, Michaud M, Postuma R, Massicotte Marquez J, et al. Assessing whole brain perfusion changes in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder. Neurology. 2006;67:1618-22 pubmed
    ..To investigate the regional cerebral perfusion in patients with idiopathic REM behavior disorder (RBD) in order to establish the topography of networks involved...
  41. Schmidt M, Koshal V, Schmidt H. Use of pramipexole in REM sleep behavior disorder: results from a case series. Sleep Med. 2006;7:418-23 pubmed
    ..We report on the efficacy of pramipexole, a dopaminergic D2-3 receptor agonist, in the treatment of RBD...
  42. Postuma R, Lanfranchi P, Blais H, Gagnon J, Montplaisir J. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Mov Disord. 2010;25:2304-10 pubmed publisher
    More than 50% of persons with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) will develop Parkinson's disease or Lewy body dementia...
  43. Boeve B. REM sleep behavior disorder: Updated review of the core features, the REM sleep behavior disorder-neurodegenerative disease association, evolving concepts, controversies, and future directions. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1184:15-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Planning for future therapies that impact patients with idiopathic RBD is reviewed in detail...
  44. Kashihara K, Imamura T, Shinya T. Cardiac 123I-MIBG uptake is reduced more markedly in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder than in those with early stage Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2010;16:252-5 pubmed publisher
    We investigated cardiac uptake of (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and compared the findings with those of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD)...
  45. Meral H, Aydemir T, Ozer F, Ozturk O, Ozben S, Erol C, et al. Relationship between visual hallucinations and REM sleep behavior disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2007;109:862-7 pubmed
    b>REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) has been documented to precede or to co-occur with Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkinson's disease is one of the most common neurological conditions associated with visual hallucinations...
  46. Sinforiani E, Zangaglia R, Manni R, Cristina S, Marchioni E, Nappi G, et al. REM sleep behavior disorder, hallucinations, and cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2006;21:462-6 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), hallucinations, and cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  47. Iranzo A, Santamaria J. Severe obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea mimicking REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep. 2005;28:203-6 pubmed
    To describe the clinical and video-polysomnographic (VPSG) features of a group of subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea (OSAH) mimicking the symptoms of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD).
  48. Chahine L, DALEY J, Horn S, Colcher A, Hurtig H, Cantor C, et al. Questionnaire-based diagnosis of REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2013;28:1146-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Definitive diagnosis requires a polysomnogram, but that is costly, time intensive, and not practical for large-scale studies. Therefore, we assessed using a questionnaire-based diagnostic approach...
  49. Fantini M, Farini E, Ortelli P, Zucconi M, Manconi M, Cappa S, et al. Longitudinal study of cognitive function in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep. 2011;34:619-25 pubmed
    To assess the longitudinal course of cognitive functions in a cohort of patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD).
  50. Scherfler C, Frauscher B, Schocke M, Iranzo A, Gschliesser V, Seppi K, et al. White and gray matter abnormalities in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a diffusion-tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study. Ann Neurol. 2011;69:400-7 pubmed publisher
  51. Sixel Döring F, Schweitzer M, Mollenhauer B, Trenkwalder C. Intraindividual variability of REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson's disease: a comparative assessment using a new REM sleep behavior disorder severity scale (RBDSS) for clinical routine. J Clin Sleep Med. 2011;7:75-80 pubmed
    To develop a polysomnographic video-based scale for rating the severity of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), to classify the severity of RBD and to determine the intraindividual variability of RBD in patients with Parkinson disease (PD).
  52. Fujishiro H, Iseki E, Murayama N, Yamamoto R, Higashi S, Kasanuki K, et al. Diffuse occipital hypometabolism on [18 F]-FDG PET scans in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder: prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies?. Psychogeriatrics. 2010;10:144-52 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the significance of particular patterns on [(18) F]-FDG PET scans in prodromal patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) remains unclear...
  53. Postuma R, Gagnon J, Vendette M, Montplaisir J. Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder in the transition to degenerative disease. Mov Disord. 2009;24:2225-32 pubmed publisher
    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) predicts Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia. However, the nature of the disease that emerges from RBD has not been fully characterized...
  54. Ferri R, Rundo F, Manconi M, Plazzi G, Bruni O, Oldani A, et al. Improved computation of the atonia index in normal controls and patients with REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep Med. 2010;11:947-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a simple method of noise reduction before the calculation of the REM sleep atonia index (AI) on a large number of recordings from different normal controls and patient groups...
  55. Iranzo A, Isetta V, Molinuevo J, Serradell M, Navajas D, Farre R, et al. Electroencephalographic slowing heralds mild cognitive impairment in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep Med. 2010;11:534-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that those IRBD patients who later developed MCI had pronounced cortical EEG slowing at presentation...
  56. Fantini M, Ferini Strambi L, Montplaisir J. Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder: toward a better nosologic definition. Neurology. 2005;64:780-6 pubmed
    b>REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by a lack of motor inhibition during REM sleep leading to potentially harmful dream-enacting behaviors...
  57. Miyamoto T, Miyamoto M, Iwanami M, Hirata K, Kobayashi M, Nakamura M, et al. Olfactory dysfunction in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep Med. 2010;11:458-61 pubmed publisher
    Olfactory dysfunction is frequently observed in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) such as Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy bodies.
  58. Mahowald M. Does "idiopathic" REM sleep behavior disorder exist?. Sleep. 2006;29:874-5 pubmed
  59. Manni R, Ratti P, Terzaghi M. Secondary ''incidental'' REM sleep behavior disorder: do we ever think of it?. Sleep Med. 2011;12 Suppl 2:S50-3 pubmed publisher
    Most secondary forms of REM sleep behavior disorder are associated with neurodegenerative diseases belonging to the ?-synucleinopathies or with narcolepsy...
  60. Frauscher B, Iranzo A, Hogl B, Casanova Molla J, Salamero M, Gschliesser V, et al. Quantification of electromyographic activity during REM sleep in multiple muscles in REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep. 2008;31:724-31 pubmed
    ..limb muscles, lower or upper limb muscles, or proximal or distal limb muscles) provides the highest rates of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep phasic electromyographic (EMG) activity seen in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD).
  61. Ferri R, Franceschini C, Zucconi M, Vandi S, Poli F, Bruni O, et al. Searching for a marker of REM sleep behavior disorder: submentalis muscle EMG amplitude analysis during sleep in patients with narcolepsy/cataplexy. Sleep. 2008;31:1409-17 pubmed
    To evaluate the amplitude of submentalis muscle EMG activity during sleep in patients with narcolepsy/cataplexy with or without REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD).
  62. Frauscher B, Iranzo A, Gaig C, Gschliesser V, Guaita M, Raffelseder V, et al. Normative EMG values during REM sleep for the diagnosis of REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep. 2012;35:835-47 pubmed publisher
  63. Boeve B, Silber M, Saper C, Ferman T, Dickson D, Parisi J, et al. Pathophysiology of REM sleep behaviour disorder and relevance to neurodegenerative disease. Brain. 2007;130:2770-88 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, longitudinal studies in patients with idiopathic RBD are warranted to characterize the natural history of such patients and prepare for future therapeutic trials...
  64. Aurora R, Zak R, Maganti R, Auerbach S, Casey K, Chowdhuri S, et al. Best practice guide for the treatment of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). J Clin Sleep Med. 2010;6:85-95 pubmed
    ..There are limited data regarding the efficacy of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, but they may be considered to treat RBD in patients with a concomitant synucleinopathy. Level C...
  65. Iranzo A, Valldeoriola F, Lomena F, Molinuevo J, Serradell M, Salamero M, et al. Serial dopamine transporter imaging of nigrostriatal function in patients with idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behaviour disorder: a prospective study. Lancet Neurol. 2011;10:797-805 pubmed publisher
  66. Iranzo A, Lomena F, Stockner H, Valldeoriola F, Vilaseca I, Salamero M, et al. Decreased striatal dopamine transporter uptake and substantia nigra hyperechogenicity as risk markers of synucleinopathy in patients with idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behaviour disorder: a prospective study [corrected]. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9:1070-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulated that these neuroimaging changes could occur in a proportion of IRBD individuals who might then be at increased risk for development of a neurodegenerative disorder associated with substantia nigra dysfunction...
  67. Vibha D, Shukla G, Goyal V, Singh S, Srivastava A, Behari M. RBD in Parkinson's disease: a clinical case control study from North India. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2011;113:472-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The study aimed to compare the characteristics of patients with PD with RBD versus those without RBD...
  68. McCarter S, Boswell C, St Louis E, Dueffert L, Slocumb N, Boeve B, et al. Treatment outcomes in REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep Med. 2013;14:237-42 pubmed publisher
    b>REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is usually characterized by potentially injurious dream enactment behaviors (DEB). RBD treatment aims to reduce DEBs and prevent injury, but outcomes require further elucidation...
  69. Postuma R, Gagnon J, Vendette M, Montplaisir J. Markers of neurodegeneration in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease. Brain. 2009;132:3298-307 pubmed publisher
  70. Yoritaka A, Ohizumi H, Tanaka S, Hattori N. Parkinson's disease with and without REM sleep behaviour disorder: are there any clinical differences?. Eur Neurol. 2009;61:164-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In the early stage, RBD and autonomic system dysfunction are important factors in the progression of PD...
  71. Ju Y, Larson Prior L, Duntley S. Changing demographics in REM sleep behavior disorder: possible effect of autoimmunity and antidepressants. Sleep Med. 2011;12:278-83 pubmed publisher
    ..But an increasing proportion of cases in recent reports and in clinical practice do not fit this description; thus we sought to describe a current RBD population and possibly identify new subgroups with RBD...
  72. Reynolds T, Roy A. Isolated cataplexy and REM sleep behavior disorder after pontine stroke. J Clin Sleep Med. 2011;7:211-3 pubmed
    ..b>REM sleep behavior disorder (RSBD) is characterized by the presence of REM sleep without atonia manifesting clinically as ..
  73. Postuma R, Gagnon J, Vendette M, Charland K, Montplaisir J. REM sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson's disease is associated with specific motor features. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79:1117-21 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is unclear whether the association of RBD in PD has implications for motor manifestations of the disease...
  74. Iranzo A, Tolosa E, Gelpi E, Molinuevo J, Valldeoriola F, Serradell M, et al. Neurodegenerative disease status and post-mortem pathology in idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behaviour disorder: an observational cohort study. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12:443-53 pubmed publisher
  75. Yeh S, Yeh P, Schenck C. Rivastigmine-induced REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in a 88-year-old man with Alzheimer's disease. J Clin Sleep Med. 2010;6:192-5 pubmed
    ..AD) of 8 years duration (emerging shortly after the de novo onset of sleeptalking) who developed REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) after increasing the nightly dose of rivastigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, from 1...
  76. Smith L, Schiess M, Coffey M, Klaver A, Loeffler D. ?-Synuclein and anti-?-synuclein antibodies in Parkinson's disease, atypical Parkinson syndromes, REM sleep behavior disorder, and healthy controls. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52285 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings are consistent with those previous studies which suggested that serum concentrations of ?-synuclein and its antibodies are not significantly altered in PD...
  77. Postuma R, Bertrand J, Montplaisir J, Desjardins C, Vendette M, Rios Romenets S, et al. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and risk of dementia in Parkinson's disease: a prospective study. Mov Disord. 2012;27:720-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this prospective study, RBD was associated with increased risk of dementia. This indicates that RBD may be a marker of a relatively diffuse, complex subtype of PD...
  78. Diederich N, Leurgans S, Fan W, Chmura T, Goetz C. Visual hallucinations and symptoms of REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinsonian tauopathies. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008;23:598-603 pubmed
    In Parkinsonism, visual hallucinations (VH) and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) have been thought to indicate underlying synucleinopathy.
  79. Pacchetti C, Manni R, Zangaglia R, Mancini F, Marchioni E, Tassorelli C, et al. Relationship between hallucinations, delusions, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2005;20:1439-48 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study is to clarify the relationship between psychotic symptoms and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in PD...