nocturnal myoclonus syndrome


Summary: Excessive periodic leg movements during sleep that cause micro-arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. This condition induces a state of relative sleep deprivation which manifests as excessive daytime hypersomnolence. The movements are characterized by repetitive contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, extension of the toe, and intermittent flexion of the hip, knee and ankle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p387)

Top Publications

  1. Eisensehr I, Ehrenberg B, Noachtar S. Different sleep characteristics in restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder. Sleep Med. 2003;4:147-52 pubmed
    ..It is still unclear whether the sleep disorder of periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) is different from the sleep disorder in RLS...
  2. Kirk V, Bohn S. Periodic limb movements in children: prevalence in a referred population. Sleep. 2004;27:313-5 pubmed
    ..To determine the prevalence of periodic limb movements of sleep (PLMS) in children referred for evaluation of sleep disorders...
  3. Zucconi M, Ferri R, Allen R, Baier P, Bruni O, Chokroverty S, et al. The official World Association of Sleep Medicine (WASM) standards for recording and scoring periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS) and wakefulness (PLMW) developed in collaboration with a task force from the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study. Sleep Med. 2006;7:175-83 pubmed
  4. Martin B, Williamson B, Edwards N, Teng A. Parental symptom report and periodic limb movements of sleep in children. J Clin Sleep Med. 2008;4:57-61 pubmed
    ..To examine the prevalence of raised periodic limb movements of sleep (PLMS) index in children referred for polysomnography (PSG) and whether parental report of symptoms correlates with objective measurement during PSG...
  5. Gschliesser V, Frauscher B, Brandauer E, Kohnen R, Ulmer H, Poewe W, et al. PLM detection by actigraphy compared to polysomnography: a validation and comparison of two actigraphs. Sleep Med. 2009;10:306-11 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare periodic leg movement (PLM) counts obtained with polysomnography (PSG) to those obtained from actigraphy with two devices (Actiwatch and PAM-RL)...
  6. Walters A, Rye D. Review of the relationship of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep to hypertension, heart disease, and stroke. Sleep. 2009;32:589-97 pubmed
    ..We cannot exclude the possibility that peripheral vascular, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular disease may also contribute to RLS/PLMS, and mechanisms for these possibilities are also discussed...
  7. Allena M, Campus C, Morrone E, De Carli F, Garbarino S, Manfredi C, et al. Periodic limb movements both in non-REM and REM sleep: relationships between cerebral and autonomic activities. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009;120:1282-90 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the temporal relationship between cerebral and autonomic activities before and during periodic limb movements in NREM and REM sleep (PLMS)...
  8. Walter L, Foster A, Patterson R, Anderson V, Davey M, Nixon G, et al. Cardiovascular variability during periodic leg movements in sleep in children. Sleep. 2009;32:1093-9 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to quantify the effect of PLMS episodes during NREM2 sleep on heart rate variability (HRV) measures of sympathovagal balance in children...
  9. Khatwa U, Kothare S. Restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements disorder in the pediatric population. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2010;16:559-67 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications103 found, 100 shown here

  1. Ferri R, Manconi M, Arico D, Punjabi N, Zucconi M. Experimentally induced arousals do not elicit periodic leg motor activity during sleep in normal subjects. Sleep Med. 2013;14:85-90 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate whether eliciting repetitive cortical and autonomic arousals during sleep is able to induce the occurrence of periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS)...
  2. Sforza E, Jouny C, Ibanez V. Time course of arousal response during periodic leg movements in patients with periodic leg movements and restless legs syndrome. Clin Neurophysiol. 2003;114:1116-24 pubmed
    ..We studied the nocturnal evolution of PLM associated or not with microarousal (MA) and associated with slow wave activity (PLM with slow wave activity) in 23 patients with PLM and/or restless legs syndrome (RLS)...
  3. Simakajornboon N, Gozal D, Vlasic V, Mack C, Sharon D, McGinley B. Periodic limb movements in sleep and iron status in children. Sleep. 2003;26:735-8 pubmed
    ..To assess potential relationships between serum iron and ferritin levels and the severity of periodic limb movement in sleep (PLMS) in a pediatric population, and to evaluate the response to supplemental iron therapy...
  4. Wells R, Day R, Carney R, Freedland K, Duntley S. Depression predicts self-reported sleep quality in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Psychosom Med. 2004;66:692-7 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to examine whether depression is independently associated with lower self-reported sleep quality in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), after controlling for polysomnographic measures of sleep...
  5. Lesage S, Hening W. The restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder: a review of management. Semin Neurol. 2004;24:249-59 pubmed
    ..Treatment of PLMD relies on many of the same medications, but is generally more straightforward and places a greater reliance on levodopa compounds and sedative-hypnotics...
  6. Guggisberg A, Hess C, Mathis J. The significance of the sympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology of periodic leg movements in sleep. Sleep. 2007;30:755-66 pubmed
    ..Periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS) are frequently accompanied by arousals and autonomic activation, but the pathophysiologic significance of these manifestations is unclear...
  7. Manconi M, Ferri R, Zucconi M, Fantini M, Plazzi G, Ferini Strambi L. Time structure analysis of leg movements during sleep in REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep. 2007;30:1779-85 pubmed
    ..To compare the time structure of leg movements (LM) during sleep of patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) with that of patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) or control subjects...
  8. Ferrillo F, Beelke M, Canovaro P, Watanabe T, Arico D, Rizzo P, et al. Changes in cerebral and autonomic activity heralding periodic limb movements in sleep. Sleep Med. 2004;5:407-12 pubmed
    ..Previous studies showed that cardiac and cerebral changes occur in association with periodic limb movements (PLMs), and that a combining increase in delta activity and in heart rate (HR) occurs before the onset of PLMs...
  9. Bestue Cardiel M, Sanmarti F, Artigas J. [Periodic movements of the limbs during sleep in childhood]. Rev Neurol. 2002;34:244-8 pubmed
    ..Although this condition is uncommon in childhood, it should always be borne in mind in cases of children with sleep disorders, since early diagnosis will prevent major behavior and learning problems. ..
  10. Kutukcu Y, Dogruer E, Yetkin S, Ozgen F, Vural O, Aydin H. Evaluation of periodic leg movements and associated transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters in restless legs syndrome. Muscle Nerve. 2006;33:133-7 pubmed
    ..It may be speculated that PLMs and the CSP are due to different inhibitory mechanisms and they may be used separately as diagnostic and monitoring tools in patients with primary RLS. ..
  11. Poryazova R, Bassetti C. [Sleep and movement disorders]. Ther Umsch. 2007;64:63-72 pubmed
    ..g. RLS, bruxism), parasomnias (e.g. sleepwalking, RBD), sleep-related epilepsies, and on sleep-associated manifestations of movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy)...
  12. Mayer G, Wilde Frenz J, Kurella B. Sleep related rhythmic movement disorder revisited. J Sleep Res. 2007;16:110-6 pubmed
    ..In the adult patients it is not associated with mental pathologies and can be triggered by sleep apnea. ..
  13. Lopes C, Esteves A, Frussa Filho R, Tufik S, de Mello M. Evaluation of periodic limb movements in a putative animal model of restless leg syndrome. Mov Disord. 2012;27:413-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These alterations were reversed by the acute administration of the dopaminergic agonist pramipexole. This animal model strengthens the notion that 6-OHDA-induced A11 lesions can be a valid animal model for RLS and PLM. ..
  14. Hening W, Allen R, Earley C, Kushida C, Picchietti D, Silber M. The treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Review. Sleep. 1999;22:970-99 pubmed
    ..The review concludes with comments on possible future directions for therapeutic investigation based on the current state of the literature. ..
  15. Schenck C. Restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements of sleep: global therapeutic considerations. Sleep Med Rev. 2002;6:247-51 pubmed
  16. Poewe W, Hogl B. Akathisia, restless legs and periodic limb movements in sleep in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 2004;63:S12-6 pubmed
    ..Long-term prospective studies of RLS cohorts will clarify whether or not RLS is associated with an increased risk for development of PD...
  17. Salas R, Rasquinha R, Gamaldo C. All the wrong moves: a clinical review of restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements of sleep and wake, and periodic limb movement disorder. Clin Chest Med. 2010;31:383-95 pubmed publisher
    ..It is imperative that health care providers are able to recognize these conditions to accurately diagnose, manage, and appropriately refer patients. ..
  18. Ferri R, Bruni O, Novelli L, Picchietti M, Picchietti D. Time structure of leg movement activity during sleep in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and effects of levodopa. Sleep Med. 2013;14:359-66 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the leg movement (LM) time structure (periodicity and night distribution) during sleep in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their eventual changes after treatment with levodopa (L-DOPA)...
  19. Allen R, Earley C. Restless legs syndrome: a review of clinical and pathophysiologic features. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2001;18:128-47 pubmed
    ..Studies to date support the authors' recently advanced iron-dopamine model of RLS. ..
  20. Kunz D, Mahlberg R, Müller C, Tilmann A, Bes F. Melatonin in patients with reduced REM sleep duration: two randomized controlled trials. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:128-34 pubmed
    ..It may, therefore, have a strong impact on general health, especially in the elderly and in shift workers. ..
  21. Pennestri M, Whittom S, Adam B, Petit D, Carrier J, Montplaisir J. PLMS and PLMW in healthy subjects as a function of age: prevalence and interval distribution. Sleep. 2006;29:1183-7 pubmed
    ..These results illustrate that interval evaluation is an important feature of the calculation of periodic movements to discriminate spontaneous motor activity from PLMS or PLMW. ..
  22. Khan A, Ramar K, Auger R, Kushida C. Insomnia and sleep-related movement disorder. Sleep Med. 2008;9:325-8 pubmed
  23. Moore H, Winkelmann J, Lin L, Finn L, Peppard P, Mignot E. Periodic leg movements during sleep are associated with polymorphisms in BTBD9, TOX3/BC034767, MEIS1, MAP2K5/SKOR1, and PTPRD. Sleep. 2014;37:1535-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Single nucleotide polymorphisms demonstrated to increase risk of RLS are strongly linked to increased PLM as well, although some loci may have more effects on one versus the other phenotype. ..
  24. Olejniczak P, Fisch B. Sleep disorders. Med Clin North Am. 2003;87:803-33 pubmed
    ..Because all disease processes are adversely affected by insufficient sleep, it is essential that the practicing physician understand the causes and treatments of the common sleep disorders...
  25. Kim J, Lee S, Park S, Han S, Kim Y, Lee K. Periodic limb movement during sleep developed after pontine lesion. Mov Disord. 2003;18:1403-5 pubmed
  26. Whittom S, Dauvilliers Y, Pennestri M, Vercauteren F, Molinari N, Petit D, et al. Age-at-onset in restless legs syndrome: a clinical and polysomnographic study. Sleep Med. 2007;9:54-9 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that different pathological processes are involved in these two groups, the early-onset group being highly genetically determined. ..
  27. Parisi P, Miano S, Mei D, Paolino M, Castaldo R, Villa M. Diffuse subcortical band heterotopia, periodic limb movements during sleep and a novel "de novo" mutation in the DCX gene. Brain Dev. 2010;32:511-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Physiopathological links between PLMs and SBH are discussed. ..
  28. Garcia Jimenez M. [Movement disorders and motor activity during sleep]. Rev Neurol. 2001;32:574-80 pubmed
    ..We review diagnostic, clinical and neurophysiological criteria and aspects of physiopathology and treatment. ..
  29. Stoohs R, Blum H, Suh B, Guilleminault C. Misinterpretation of sleep-breathing disorder by periodic limb movement disorder. Sleep Breath. 2001;5:131-7 pubmed
    ..This case report highlights that recording and scoring of leg movements must be an integral part of polysomnographic evaluations. ..
  30. Haba Rubio J, Staner L, Krieger J, Macher J. What is the clinical significance of periodic limb movements during sleep?. Neurophysiol Clin. 2004;34:293-300 pubmed
    ..28; P < 0.05) and (5) (r = -0.36; P < 0.01). PLMS per se, or the sleep changes induced by them, seem to be associated with decreased physical and psychological fitness on awakening. ..
  31. Allen R, Dean T, Earley C. Effects of rest-duration, time-of-day and their interaction on periodic leg movements while awake in restless legs syndrome. Sleep Med. 2005;6:429-34 pubmed
    ..Rest and time-of-day effects and their interaction all increase RLS symptoms. PLMW increase with rest may provide a sensitive measure of symptom severity. ..
  32. Hachul H, Bittencourt L, Andersen M, Haidar M, Baracat E, Tufik S. Effects of hormone therapy with estrogen and/or progesterone on sleep pattern in postmenopausal women. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2008;103:207-12 pubmed publisher
    ..While not significantly affecting sleep quality, hormone therapy decreased the prevalence of arousal in both groups and that of PLM in the group treated with estrogen plus progesterone. ..
  33. Rye D. The two faces of Eve: dopamine's modulation of wakefulness and sleep. Neurology. 2004;63:S2-7 pubmed
    ..A diencephalospinal DA system may have an additional important role in mediating state-specific sensorimotor activity that is relevant to periodic limb movements and restless legs syndrome. ..
  34. Hirshkowitz M, Sharafkhaneh A. Clinical and technologic approaches to sleep evaluation. Neurol Clin. 2005;23:991-1005, v-vi pubmed
    ..Finally, the mechanisms governing sleep and wakefulness are reviewed and a model of normal sleep mechanisms going awry is outlined as an aid for understanding abnormal sleep associated with sleep disorders. ..
  35. Kowacs P, Teive H, Piovesan E, Zavala J, Werneck L. Botulinum-A toxin in the treatment of painful post-stroke nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia triggered by periodic limb movements of sleep: case report. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2006;64:1027-9 pubmed
    ..Sleep disorders presenting involuntary movements may be very annoying to patients, apart from their negative influence on sleep...
  36. Moszczynski A, Tandon A, Coelho F, Zinman L, Murray B. Mortality associated with periodic limb movements during sleep in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2012;10:428-32 pubmed
    ..The higher number of these movements in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients correlates with disease severity and may suggest poor survival. ..
  37. Mazza M, Della Marca G, De Risio S, Mennuni G, Mazza S. Sleep disorders in the elderly. Clin Ter. 2004;155:391-4 pubmed
    ..This review describes all these common sleep problems in the older population and their possible treatment...
  38. Schwartz D, Moxley P, Barker A, Longman M. On a characteristic of cortical arousals in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2005;1:35-40 pubmed
    ..This may result in an under-appreciation of both the frequency with which these prolonged arousals may occur, and the potential effect these arousals may have on the severity of the sleep fragmentation. ..
  39. Natarajan R. Review of periodic limb movement and restless leg syndrome. J Postgrad Med. 2010;56:157-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Detailed review on this subject should improve the awareness of these disorders, both among general physicians and specialists. Extensive review of journals in the past 20 years was made using Medline search. ..
  40. Gradinger F, Glässel A, Gugger M, Cieza A, Braun N, Khatami R, et al. Identification of problems in functioning of people with sleep disorders in a clinical setting using the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) Checklist. J Sleep Res. 2011;20:445-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The ICF has the potential to provide a comprehensive framework for the description of functional health in individuals with sleep disorders in a clinical setting. ..
  41. Santamaria J, Iranzo A, Tolosa E. Development of restless legs syndrome after dopaminergic treatment in a patient with periodic leg movements in sleep. Sleep Med. 2003;4:153-5 pubmed
    ..Discontinuation of dopaminergic drugs in patients with isolated PLMS who develop RLS during the course of the treatment would be a reasonable recommendation. ..
  42. Martinez S, Guilleminault C. Periodic leg movements in prepubertal children with sleep disturbance. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2004;46:765-70 pubmed
    ..Isolated treatment of SDB might help eliminate some, but not all, PLMs. ..
  43. Vetrugno R, Montagna P. Sleep-to-wake transition movement disorders. Sleep Med. 2011;12 Suppl 2:S11-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thereafter we will briefly discuss how the process of pre-dormitum and post-dormitum can lead to such disruption of motor control. ..
  44. O Brien L, Holbrook C, Mervis C, Klaus C, Bruner J, Raffield T, et al. Sleep and neurobehavioral characteristics of 5- to 7-year-old children with parentally reported symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics. 2003;111:554-63 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, SDB can lead to mild ADHD-like behaviors that can be readily misperceived and potentially delay the diagnosis and appropriate treatment. ..
  45. Allen R, Becker P, Bogan R, Schmidt M, Kushida C, Fry J, et al. Ropinirole decreases periodic leg movements and improves sleep parameters in patients with restless legs syndrome. Sleep. 2004;27:907-14 pubmed
    ..0316). In contrast, the placebo group showed a greater increase in Stage 3/4 sleep (P < .01). No serious adverse events occurred in either group. Ropinirole is effective in the treatment of both the sleep and waking symptoms of RLS. ..
  46. Okahashi Y, Kataoka H, Kawahara M, Tamaru T, Ueno S. A carrier of human T-lymphotropic virus type I with periodic limb movements progressing to myelopathy. Neurology. 2005;65:965-6 pubmed
  47. Koo B, Blackwell T, Ancoli Israel S, Stone K, Stefanick M, Redline S. Association of incident cardiovascular disease with periodic limb movements during sleep in older men: outcomes of sleep disorders in older men (MrOS) study. Circulation. 2011;124:1223-31 pubmed publisher
    ..10). These findings provide evidence that PLMS frequency is associated with incident cardiovascular disease in community-dwelling elderly men. ..
  48. Babacan Yildiz G, Gursoy E, Kolukisa M, Karaköse F, Akkoyunlu E, Celebi A, et al. Clinical and polysomnographic features of a large Turkish pedigree with restless leg syndrome and periodic limb movements. Sleep Breath. 2013;17:741-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation of clinical, genetic, and biochemical similarities between PLMS and RLS may yield important clues, adding to our understanding of the pathophysiology of these common diseases. ..
  49. Gschliesser V, Brandauer E, Ulmer H, Poewe W, Hogl B. Periodic limb movement counting in polysomnography: effects of amplitude. Sleep Med. 2006;7:249-54 pubmed
    ..PLM counts without AC might be more useful to investigate the periodicity of PLM and possible changes with treatment. ..
  50. Haba Rubio J, Staner L, Krieger J, Macher J. Periodic limb movements and sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea patients. Sleep Med. 2005;6:225-9 pubmed
  51. Ohayon M. Interlacing sleep, pain, mental disorders and organic diseases. J Psychiatr Res. 2006;40:677-9 pubmed
  52. Pizza F, Ferri R, Poli F, Vandi S, Cosentino F, Plazzi G. Polysomnographic study of nocturnal sleep in idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time. J Sleep Res. 2013;22:185-96 pubmed publisher
    ..IH showed a delta power in between C and NC groups, whereas muscle tone and PLMS had normal characteristics. A peculiar profile of microstructural sleep abnormalities may contribute to sleep fragmentation and, possibly, EDS in IH...
  53. Bersagliere A, Achermann P, Lo Russo G, Proserpio P, Nobili L. Spindle frequency activity may provide lateralizing information in drug-resistant nocturnal mesial frontal lobe epilepsy: a pilot study on the contribution of sleep recordings. Seizure. 2013;22:719-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to find asymmetries in the ictal activity that could provide information on the lateralization of the epileptogenic zone...
  54. Cuellar N. The effects of periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) on cardiovascular disease. Heart Lung. 2013;42:353-60 pubmed publisher
  55. Sasai T, Matsuura M, Inoue Y. Change in heart rate variability precedes the occurrence of periodic leg movements during sleep: an observational study. BMC Neurol. 2013;13:139 pubmed publisher
    ..This study detected changes in heart rate variability (HRV) at the onset of the period with PLMS using complex demodulation method...
  56. Eliasson A, Andrada T, Taylor Y. On "Misinterpretation of sleep-breathing disorder by periodic limb movement disorder" (Sleep Breath 2001;5:131-138). Sleep Breath. 2002;6:151; author reply 152-4 pubmed
  57. Hanly P, Gabor J, Chan C, Pierratos A. Daytime sleepiness in patients with CRF: impact of nocturnal hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;41:403-10 pubmed
    ..The authors wished to determine the severity and pathogenesis of daytime sleepiness in patients with ESRD and evaluate the impact of NHD...
  58. Pittman S, MacDonald M, Fogel R, Malhotra A, Todros K, Levy B, et al. Assessment of automated scoring of polysomnographic recordings in a population with suspected sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep. 2004;27:1394-403 pubmed
    ..To assess the accuracy of an automated system (Morpheus I Sleep Scoring System) for analyzing and quantifying polysomnographic data from a population with sleep-disordered breathing...
  59. Varkevisser M, Kerkhof G. Chronic insomnia and performance in a 24-h constant routine study. J Sleep Res. 2005;14:49-59 pubmed
    ..Apparently, chronic insomnia has a negative impact upon performance as measured under strictly controlled, unmasked conditions...
  60. Wagner M, Torrez D. Interpretation of the polysomnogram in children. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2007;40:745-59 pubmed
    ..The scoring and interpretation of PSG differs in children and adults. The pediatric PSG should be interpreted by a pediatric professional knowledgeable in normal development and sleep disorders in children...
  61. Arnulf I, Nielsen J, Lohmann E, Schiefer J, Schieffer J, Wild E, et al. Rapid eye movement sleep disturbances in Huntington disease. Arch Neurol. 2008;65:482-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Sleep disorders including insomnia, movements during sleep, and daytime sleepiness are common but poorly studied in Huntington disease (HD)...
  62. Hayes D. Impact of inadequate sleep on unintentional injuries in adolescents. Adolesc Med State Art Rev. 2010;21:491-507, ix pubmed
    ..The end result is functional impairment in adolescents, which then places them at higher risk for unintentional injury...
  63. Roux F. Restless legs syndrome: impact on sleep-related breathing disorders. Respirology. 2013;18:238-45 pubmed publisher
    ..PLMS and RLS do not seem to contribute to the residual hypersomnia that can be observed in some sleep-disordered breathing patients despite adequate compliance and effective CPAP therapy...
  64. Neikrug A, Maglione J, Liu L, Natarajan L, Avanzino J, Corey Bloom J, et al. Effects of sleep disorders on the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson disease. J Clin Sleep Med. 2013;9:1119-29 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the impact of sleep disorders on non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson disease (PD)...
  65. Oliveira V, Teng A. The Clinical Usefulness of Sleep Studies in Children. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2016;17:53-6 pubmed publisher
    ..There is no evidence to support nap studies or ambulatory sleep studies in children [3]. With adequate staffing, expertise, and a child and family-friendly environment, children of any age can undergo a sleep study. ..
  66. Staedt J, Dewes D, Danos P, Stoppe G. Can chronic neuroleptic treatment promote sleep disturbances in elderly schizophrenic patients?. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2000;15:170-6 pubmed
    ..long-term treatment with neuroleptics can promote sleep disturbances by increasing the risk of a nocturnal myoclonus syndrome (NMS) (=periodic movements in sleep) related insomnia, we performed all-night polysomnography in 10 ..
  67. Manni R, Terzaghi M, Sartori I, Veggiotti P, Parrino L. Rhythmic movement disorder and cyclic alternating pattern during sleep: a video-polysomnographic study in a 9-year-old boy. Mov Disord. 2004;19:1186-90 pubmed
    ..We examine the complex interactions between arousal mechanisms and rhythmic movements occurring during sleep...
  68. Subramanya R, Ramachandran S. Severe hypersomnolence associated with periodic limb movements and central sleep apnea in a cocaine addicted HIV patient. Sleep Med. 2006;7:171-3 pubmed
    ..We describe a possible pathomechanism for cocaine depletion at the synapse, causing decreased synaptic activation and leading to sleepiness...
  69. Dominguez Ortega L, de Vicente Colomina A. [Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and sleep disorders]. Med Clin (Barc). 2006;126:500-6 pubmed
    ..Children undergoing evaluation for ADHD should be systematically assessed for sleep disturbances because treatment of sleep disorders is often associated with improved symptomatology and decreased need for stimulants...
  70. Boesch S, Frauscher B, Brandauer E, Wenning G, Hogl B, Poewe W. Disturbance of rapid eye movement sleep in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. Mov Disord. 2006;21:1751-4 pubmed
    ..Abnormal motor control during sleep with periodic leg movements and REM sleep without atonia occurs frequently in SCA2. This finding may reflect a dysfunction of dopaminergic and/or brainstem and cerebellar outflow pathways...
  71. Mattarozzi K, Bellucci C, Campi C, Cipolli C, Ferri R, Franceschini C, et al. Clinical, behavioural and polysomnographic correlates of cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy/cataplexy. Sleep Med. 2008;9:425-33 pubmed
  72. Anderson K, Kelly T, Griffiths T. Primary sleep disorders can cause long-term sleep disturbance in patients with autoimmune mediated limbic encephalitis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2013;115:1079-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This highlights the need to investigate sleep disturbance in this group of patients. Effective treatments may be available to improve quality of life and daytime function. ..
  73. Danker Hopfe H, Kunz D, Gruber G, Klosch G, Lorenzo J, Himanen S, et al. Interrater reliability between scorers from eight European sleep laboratories in subjects with different sleep disorders. J Sleep Res. 2004;13:63-9 pubmed
    ..These variations of IRR most probably reflect changes of the sleep electroencephalography (EEG) with age and gender...
  74. Hornyak M, Hundemer H, Quail D, Riemann D, Voderholzer U, Trenkwalder C. Relationship of periodic leg movements and severity of restless legs syndrome: a study in unmedicated and medicated patients. Clin Neurophysiol. 2007;118:1532-7 pubmed
  75. Aurora R, Kristo D, Bista S, Rowley J, Zak R, Casey K, et al. The treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in adults--an update for 2012: practice parameters with an evidence-based systematic review and meta-analyses: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Clinical Practice Guideli. Sleep. 2012;35:1039-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, therapies for PLMD are reviewed. However, it should be mentioned that because PLMD therapy typically mimics RLS therapy, the primary focus of this review is therapy for idiopathic RLS...
  76. Cassel W, Kesper K, Bauer A, Grieger F, Schollmayer E, Joeres L, et al. Significant association between systolic and diastolic blood pressure elevations and periodic limb movements in patients with idiopathic restless legs syndrome. Sleep Med. 2016;17:109-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data clearly indicate an interdependence between BP elevations and PLMs, and they have clinical relevance as BP variability is a potential cardiovascular risk factor. ..
  77. Ehrenberg B, Eisensehr I, Corbett K, Crowley P, Walters A. Valproate for sleep consolidation in periodic limb movement disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2000;20:574-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, these data indicate that VPA has a long-term beneficial effect on sleep consolidation in patients with PLMD...
  78. Plazzi G, Serra L, Ferri R. Nocturnal aspects of narcolepsy with cataplexy. Sleep Med Rev. 2008;12:109-28 pubmed publisher
  79. Freilich S, Goff E, Malaweera A, Twigg G, Simonds A, Mathias C, et al. Sleep architecture and attenuated heart rate response to arousal from sleep in patients with autonomic failure. Sleep Med. 2010;11:87-92 pubmed publisher
  80. Rogers V, Lewin D, Winnie G, Geiger Brown J. Polysomnographic characteristics of a referred sample of children with sickle cell disease. J Clin Sleep Med. 2010;6:374-81 pubmed
    ..To describe polysomnographic parameters and their clinical correlates in a referred sample of children with sickle cell disease (SCD)...
  81. Hartzell K, Avis K, Lozano D, Feig D. Obstructive sleep apnea and periodic limb movement disorder in a population of children with hypertension and/or nocturnal nondipping blood pressures. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2016;10:101-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Screening for sleep disorders and obtaining NPSG in children with HTN increase the identification of comorbid sleep disorders and reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease. ..
  82. Wichniak A, Wierzbicka A, Jernajczyk W. [Restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep: pathophysiology and treatment]. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2003;37:633-43 pubmed
    ..Favorable outcomes attained in the treatment of RLS with the opioid receptor agonists, anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, and adrenolytic agents are also reported...
  83. Sforza E, Johannes M, Claudio B. The PAM-RL ambulatory device for detection of periodic leg movements: a validation study. Sleep Med. 2005;6:407-13 pubmed
    ..In the current study we assessed the reliability of the PAM-RL, an ambulatory device measuring limb movements and PLM with a high-time resolution...
  84. Cooke J, Ancoli Israel S. Sleep and its disorders in older adults. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2006;29:1077-93; abstract x-xi pubmed
    ..Treatment should address the primary sleep problem and can result in significant improvement in quality of life and daytime functioning in older adults...
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