cataplexy

Summary

Summary: A condition characterized by transient weakness or paralysis of somatic musculature triggered by an emotional stimulus or physical exertion. Cataplexy is frequently associated with NARCOLEPSY. During a cataplectic attack, there is a marked reduction in muscle tone similar to the normal physiologic hypotonia that accompanies rapid eye movement sleep (SLEEP, REM). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p396)

Top Publications

  1. Burgess C, Tse G, Gillis L, Peever J. Dopaminergic regulation of sleep and cataplexy in a murine model of narcolepsy. Sleep. 2010;33:1295-304 pubmed
    To determine if the dopaminergic system modulates cataplexy, sleep attacks and sleep-wake behavior in narcoleptic mice.
  2. Poryazova R, Tartarotti S, Khatami R, Baumann C, Valko P, Kallweit U, et al. Sodium oxybate in narcolepsy with cataplexy: Zurich sleep center experience. Eur Neurol. 2011;65:175-82 pubmed publisher
    Sodium oxybate (SO; Xyrem®) has been approved in most countries for treatment of narcolepsy and cataplexy. In this study, we present a single-center experience of a series of 18 patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy (18/18 DQB1*0602 ..
  3. Donadio V, Plazzi G, Vandi S, Franceschini C, Karlsson T, Montagna P, et al. Sympathetic and cardiovascular activity during cataplexy in narcolepsy. J Sleep Res. 2008;17:458-63 pubmed publisher
    Autonomic nervous system activity changes have been described during cataplexy as playing a role in triggering it...
  4. Aran A, Lin L, Nevsimalova S, Plazzi G, Hong S, Weiner K, et al. Elevated anti-streptococcal antibodies in patients with recent narcolepsy onset. Sleep. 2009;32:979-83 pubmed
    Narcolepsy-cataplexy has long been thought to have an autoimmune origin...
  5. Tanaka S, Honda Y, Honda M. MX2 gene expression tends to be downregulated in subjects with HLA-DQB1*0602. Sleep. 2008;31:749-51 pubmed
    ..The expression levels of the MX2 gene in 3 groups (24 narcolepsy with cataplexy patients; 24 age-, sex-, and HLA-DQB1 genotype-matched controls; and 24 age- and sex-matched controls without ..
  6. Schwartz S, Ponz A, Poryazova R, Werth E, Boesiger P, Khatami R, et al. Abnormal activity in hypothalamus and amygdala during humour processing in human narcolepsy with cataplexy. Brain. 2008;131:514-22 pubmed
    Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) is a complex sleep-wake disorder, which was recently found to be associated with a reduction or loss of hypocretin (HCRT, also called orexin)...
  7. Grimaldi D, Calandra Buonaura G, Provini F, Agati P, Pierangeli G, Franceschini C, et al. Abnormal sleep-cardiovascular system interaction in narcolepsy with cataplexy: effects of hypocretin deficiency in humans. Sleep. 2012;35:519-28 pubmed publisher
    Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) is associated with loss of hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus involved in the circadian timing of sleep and wakefulness, and many biologic functions including autonomic control...
  8. Inocente C, Arnulf I, Bastuji H, Thibault Stoll A, Raoux A, Reimao R, et al. Pitolisant, an inverse agonist of the histamine H3 receptor: an alternative stimulant for narcolepsy-cataplexy in teenagers with refractory sleepiness. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2012;35:55-60 pubmed publisher
    Narcolepsy is a rare disabling sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle tone)...
  9. Grimaldi D, Pierangeli G, Barletta G, Terlizzi R, Plazzi G, Cevoli S, et al. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability reveals an enhanced sympathetic activity in narcolepsy with cataplexy. Clin Neurophysiol. 2010;121:1142-7 pubmed publisher
    ..reflexes and heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and during orthostatic stress in narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC)...

More Information

Publications81

  1. Krahn L, Pankratz V, Oliver L, Boeve B, Silber M. Hypocretin (orexin) levels in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with narcolepsy: relationship to cataplexy and HLA DQB1*0602 status. Sleep. 2002;25:733-6 pubmed
    Hypocretin (orexin) deficiency (< 40 pg/ml) is highly associated with narcolepsy with cataplexy (89.5%) and more specifically with patients with cataplexy who are HLA DQB1*0602 positive (95.7%)...
  2. Alaez C, Lin L, Flores A H, Vazquez M, Munguia A, Mignot E, et al. Association of narcolepsy-cataplexy with HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 in Mexican patients: a relationship between HLA and gender is suggested. BMC Med Genet. 2008;9:79 pubmed publisher
    Narcolepsy-cataplexy is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness with recurrent episodes of irresistible sleep, cataplexy, hallucinations and sleep paralysis...
  3. Clark E, Baumann C, Cano G, Scammell T, Mochizuki T. Feeding-elicited cataplexy in orexin knockout mice. Neuroscience. 2009;161:970-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These events strongly resemble cataplexy, episodes of sudden muscle weakness triggered by strong positive emotions in people with narcolepsy, but it ..
  4. Roh E, Park M, Park H, Park D, Choi J, Kim S, et al. Association of HLA-DR and -DQ genes with narcolepsy in Koreans: comparison with two control groups, randomly selected subjects and DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602--positive subjects. Hum Immunol. 2006;67:749-55 pubmed
    ..this study was to investigate the association of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles with narcolepsy-cataplexy susceptibility in Koreans...
  5. Han F, Chen E, Wei H, Dong X, He Q, Ding D, et al. Childhood narcolepsy in North China. Sleep. 2001;24:321-4 pubmed
    ..N/A. N/A. N/A. 29 (21 male, 8 female) children were identified with sleepiness and cataplexy. There was no evidence for brain functional or structural disease or for drug use...
  6. Oka Y, Inoue Y, Kanbayashi T, Kuroda K, Miyamoto M, Miyamoto T, et al. Narcolepsy without cataplexy: 2 subtypes based on CSF hypocretin-1/orexin-A findings. Sleep. 2006;29:1439-43 pubmed
    ..fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 levels and their relationship with the clinical characteristics of narcolepsy without cataplexy have not been well elucidated...
  7. Black J, Silber M, Krahn L, Avula R, Walker D, Pankratz V, et al. Studies of humoral immunity to preprohypocretin in human leukocyte antigen DQB1*0602-positive narcoleptic subjects with cataplexy. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;58:504-9 pubmed
    ..Human narcolepsy with cataplexy is associated with human leukocyte antigen DQB1*0602 and reduced hypocretin levels in cerebrospinal fluid, ..
  8. Jeong J, Hong S, Shin Y, Han J, Lee S. HLA-DQB1 allele and hypocretin in Korean narcoleptics with cataplexy. J Korean Med Sci. 2007;22:127-31 pubmed
    b>Cataplexy is one of the most pathognomonic symptoms in narcolepsy...
  9. Watson N, Ton T, Koepsell T, Gersuk V, Longstreth W. Does narcolepsy symptom severity vary according to HLA-DQB1*0602 allele status?. Sleep. 2010;33:29-35 pubmed
    ..N/A. Narcolepsy diagnosis was based on cataplexy status, diagnostic sleep study results, and chart review...
  10. . Further evidence supporting the use of sodium oxybate for the treatment of cataplexy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 228 patients. Sleep Med. 2005;6:415-21 pubmed
    To measure the effect of the nocturnal administration of sodium oxybate on cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy.
  11. Shelton J, Nishino S, Vaught J, Dement W, Mignot E. Comparative effects of modafinil and amphetamine on daytime sleepiness and cataplexy of narcoleptic dogs. Sleep. 1995;18:817-26 pubmed
    The effects of modafinil and amphetamine on daytime sleep (polysomnographic recordings) and cataplexy (the food-elicited cataplexy test) were compared using the narcoleptic canine model...
  12. Arnulf I, Mignot E. Sodium oxybate for excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy-cataplexy. Sleep. 2004;27:1242-3 pubmed
  13. Grimaldi D, Agati P, Pierangeli G, Franceschini C, Guaraldi P, Barletta G, et al. Hypocretin deficiency in narcolepsy with cataplexy is associated with a normal body core temperature modulation. Chronobiol Int. 2010;27:1596-608 pubmed publisher
    Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) is a sleep disorder caused by the loss of the hypothalamic neurons producing hypocretin...
  14. Plazzi G, Montagna P, Provini F, Albani F, Riva R. Treatment of narcolepsy with cataplexy. Lancet. 2007;369:1081 pubmed
  15. Sasai T, Inoue Y, Komada Y, Sugiura T, Matsushima E. Comparison of clinical characteristics among narcolepsy with and without cataplexy and idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time, focusing on HLA-DRB1( *)1501/DQB1( *)0602 finding. Sleep Med. 2009;10:961-6 pubmed publisher
    Clinical characteristics of narcolepsy without cataplexy (NA w/o CA) and its relation to positivity of HLA-DRB1( *)1501/DQB1( *)0602 remain unclarified...
  16. Nevsimalova S, Mignot E, Sonka K, Arrigoni J. Familial aspects of narcolepsy-cataplexy in the Czech Republic. Sleep. 1997;20:1021-6 pubmed
    ..In 15 cases (9.8%), at least one additional family member suffered from narcolepsy-cataplexy; only EDS was present in the remaining 23 cases (15.0%). One thousand eighty-two relatives were evaluated...
  17. Ferri R, Miano S, Bruni O, Vankova J, Nevsimalova S, Vandi S, et al. NREM sleep alterations in narcolepsy/cataplexy. Clin Neurophysiol. 2005;116:2675-84 pubmed
    NREM sleep patterns of narcoleptic patients with cataplexy were studied, focusing on their sleep 'microstructure', by analyzing the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP).
  18. Plazzi G, Parmeggiani A, Mignot E, Lin L, Scano M, Posar A, et al. Narcolepsy-cataplexy associated with precocious puberty. Neurology. 2006;66:1577-9 pubmed
    In children, narcolepsy may be the symptom of a brain lesion or genetic disease. The authors report two cases with severe narcolepsy-cataplexy emerging in childhood in close temporal association with obesity and precocious puberty.
  19. Hong S, Tae W, Joo E. Cerebral perfusion changes during cataplexy in narcolepsy patients. Neurology. 2006;66:1747-9 pubmed
    To localize cerebral perfusion differences during cataplexy, brain SPECT subtraction was performed between cataplexy and baseline awake period or REM sleep in patients with narcolepsy...
  20. Cipolli C, Campana G, Campi C, Mattarozzi K, Mazzetti M, Tuozzi G, et al. Sleep and time course of consolidation of visual discrimination skills in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. J Sleep Res. 2009;18:209-20 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this prediction in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC), who usually have a more fragmented organization of sleep than normals, we compared the initial, ..
  21. Haba Rubio J, Rossetti A, Tafti M, Heinzer R. [Narcolepsy with cataplexy associated with H1N1 vaccination]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2011;167:563-6 pubmed publisher
    It has been suggested that the H1N1 vaccine may be a trigger for the onset of narcolepsy-cataplexy, a rare disease whose autoimmune origin is suspected.
  22. Gulyani S, Wu M, Nienhuis R, John J, Siegel J. Cataplexy-related neurons in the amygdala of the narcoleptic dog. Neuroscience. 2002;112:355-65 pubmed
    ..b>Cataplexy, a symptom of narcolepsy, is a loss of muscle tone usually triggered by sudden, strong emotions...
  23. Martinez Rodriguez J, Iranzo A, Casamitjana R, Graus F, Santamaria J. [Comparative analysis of patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy, narcolepsy without cataplexy and idiopathic hypersomnia]. Med Clin (Barc). 2007;128:361-4 pubmed
    ..and their relationship with the CSF hypocretin-1 levels, in patients with central hypersomnias diagnosed as narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC), narcolepsy without cataplexy (NnC) and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) based on the ICSD-2 criteria.
  24. Mignot E, Lin L, Rogers W, Honda Y, Qiu X, Lin X, et al. Complex HLA-DR and -DQ interactions confer risk of narcolepsy-cataplexy in three ethnic groups. Am J Hum Genet. 2001;68:686-99 pubmed
    Human narcolepsy-cataplexy, a sleep disorder associated with a centrally mediated hypocretin (orexin) deficiency, is tightly associated with HLA-DQB1*0602...
  25. Lockrane B, Bhatia P, Gore R. Successful treatment of narcolepsy and cataplexy: a review. Can Respir J. 2005;12:225-7 pubmed
    A 25-year-old woman with narcolepsy and cataplexy was treated with well-recognized drugs for these conditions. Because she did not respond, a decision was made to treat her with sodium oxybate.
  26. Scammell T, Willie J, Guilleminault C, Siegel J. A consensus definition of cataplexy in mouse models of narcolepsy. Sleep. 2009;32:111-6 pubmed
    People with narcolepsy often have episodes of cataplexy, brief periods of muscle weakness triggered by strong emotions...
  27. Baier P, Weinhold S, Huth V, Gottwald B, Ferstl R, Hinze Selch D. Olfactory dysfunction in patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy is restored by intranasal Orexin A (Hypocretin-1). Brain. 2008;131:2734-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our data support that the pathophysiological mechanism underlying olfactory dysfunction in narcolepsy is the lack of CNS orexin...
  28. Fortuyn H, Swinkels S, Buitelaar J, Renier W, Furer J, Rijnders C, et al. High prevalence of eating disorders in narcolepsy with cataplexy: a case-control study. Sleep. 2008;31:335-41 pubmed
    ..To study the prevalence of and symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy...
  29. Ozaki A, Inoue Y, Nakajima T, Hayashida K, Honda M, Komada Y, et al. Health-related quality of life among drug-naïve patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy, narcolepsy without cataplexy, and idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time. J Clin Sleep Med. 2008;4:572-8 pubmed
    To evaluate the health-related quality life (HRQOL) of drug-naïve patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy (NAwith CA), narcolepsy without cataplexy (NA without CA) and idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time (IHS without LST), ..
  30. Poli F, Plazzi G, Di Dalmazi G, Ribichini D, Vicennati V, Pizza F, et al. Body mass index-independent metabolic alterations in narcolepsy with cataplexy. Sleep. 2009;32:1491-7 pubmed
    ..To contribute to the anthropometric and metabolic phenotyping of orexin-A-deficient narcoleptic patients, and to explore a possible risk of their developing a metabolic syndrome...
  31. Khatami R, Birkmann S, Bassetti C. Amygdala dysfunction in narcolepsy-cataplexy. J Sleep Res. 2007;16:226-9 pubmed
    ..Patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC) were found to have normal ASR, but they failed to exhibit startle potentiation during unpleasant stimuli...
  32. Takakusaki K, Takahashi K, Saitoh K, Harada H, Okumura T, Kayama Y, et al. Orexinergic projections to the cat midbrain mediate alternation of emotional behavioural states from locomotion to cataplexy. J Physiol. 2005;568:1003-20 pubmed
  33. Overeem S, Reijntjes R, Huyser W, Lammers G, van Dijk J. Corticospinal excitability during laughter: implications for cataplexy and the comparison with REM sleep atonia. J Sleep Res. 2004;13:257-64 pubmed
    b>Cataplexy is usually seen as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep atonia occurring at an inopportune moment. REM sleep atonia is the result of postsynaptic inhibition, i.e. inhibition of alpha motor neurones...
  34. Wu M, John J, Boehmer L, Yau D, Nguyen G, Siegel J. Activity of dorsal raphe cells across the sleep-waking cycle and during cataplexy in narcoleptic dogs. J Physiol. 2004;554:202-15 pubmed
    b>Cataplexy, a symptom associated with narcolepsy, represents a unique dissociation of behavioural states. During cataplectic attacks, awareness of the environment is maintained, as in waking, but muscle tone is lost, as in REM sleep...
  35. Lammers G, Overeem S, Tijssen M, van Dijk J. Effects of startle and laughter in cataplectic subjects: a neurophysiological study between attacks. Clin Neurophysiol. 2000;111:1276-81 pubmed
    b>Cataplexy, when unequivocally present together with excessive daytime sleepiness, is diagnostic for narcolepsy. Unfortunately, it is difficult to induce cataplexy during consultation...
  36. Dauvilliers Y, Jaussent I, Krams B, Scholz S, Lado S, Levy P, et al. Non-dipping blood pressure profile in narcolepsy with cataplexy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38977 pubmed publisher
    Patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC) mostly exhibit undetectable hypocretin levels. Hypocretin system is one of the key players in the complex interaction between sleep and the cardiovascular system...
  37. Dauvilliers Y, Comte F, Bayard S, Carlander B, Zanca M, Touchon J. A brain PET study in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010;81:344-8 pubmed publisher
    To investigate brain changes in both basal and cataplectic conditions in awake patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy.
  38. Vetrugno R, D Angelo R, Moghadam K, Vandi S, Franceschini C, Mignot E, et al. Behavioural and neurophysiological correlates of human cataplexy: a video-polygraphic study. Clin Neurophysiol. 2010;121:153-62 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the behavioural and neurophysiological pattern of cataplexy.
  39. Knudsen S, Jennum P, Alving J, Sheikh S, Gammeltoft S. Validation of the ICSD-2 criteria for CSF hypocretin-1 measurements in the diagnosis of narcolepsy in the Danish population. Sleep. 2010;33:169-76 pubmed
  40. Kawashima M, Lin L, Tanaka S, Jennum P, Knudsen S, Nevsimalova S, et al. Anti-Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) autoantibodies in narcolepsy are associated with recent onset of cataplexy. Sleep. 2010;33:869-74 pubmed
    ..Recent studies have found increased autoantibodies against Tribbles homolog 2 (anti-TRIB2) and anti-streptolysin O (ASO) in narcolepsy. In this study, we replicated this finding with a primary focus on recent onset cases...
  41. Luca G, Haba Rubio J, Dauvilliers Y, Lammers G, Overeem S, Donjacour C, et al. Clinical, polysomnographic and genome-wide association analyses of narcolepsy with cataplexy: a European Narcolepsy Network study. J Sleep Res. 2013;22:482-95 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and PSG characteristics of narcolepsy with cataplexy and their genetic predisposition by using the retrospective patient database of the European Narcolepsy Network (EU-NN)...
  42. D Cruz O, Vaughn B, Gold S, Greenwood R. Symptomatic cataplexy in pontomedullary lesions. Neurology. 1994;44:2189-91 pubmed
    b>Cataplexy is a cardinal manifestation of the narcolepsy syndrome. Although symptomatic narcolepsy is well described, isolated cataplexy is extremely rare...
  43. John J, Wu M, Boehmer L, Siegel J. Cataplexy-active neurons in the hypothalamus: implications for the role of histamine in sleep and waking behavior. Neuron. 2004;42:619-34 pubmed
    ..b>Cataplexy, a symptom associated with narcolepsy, is a waking state in which muscle tone is lost, as it is in REM sleep, ..
  44. Okura M, Fujiki N, Kita I, Honda K, Yoshida Y, Mignot E, et al. The roles of midbrain and diencephalic dopamine cell groups in the regulation of cataplexy in narcoleptic Dobermans. Neurobiol Dis. 2004;16:274-82 pubmed
    b>Cataplexy, an emotion-triggered sudden loss of muscle tone specific to narcolepsy, is tightly associated with hypocretin deficiency...
  45. Serra L, Montagna P, Mignot E, Lugaresi E, Plazzi G. Cataplexy features in childhood narcolepsy. Mov Disord. 2008;23:858-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Cataplexy, the hallmark of narcolepsy, has been well characterized in adults but not in children...
  46. Lodi R, Tonon C, Vignatelli L, Iotti S, Montagna P, Barbiroli B, et al. In vivo evidence of neuronal loss in the hypothalamus of narcoleptic patients. Neurology. 2004;63:1513-5 pubmed
    ..Hypothalamic NAA/creatine-phosphocreatine was reduced in narcoleptic patients compared with control subjects (p < 0.01). Hypothalamic neuronal loss/damage is a central pathogenetic feature in narcolepsy...
  47. Krahn L, Lymp J, Moore W, Slocumb N, Silber M. Characterizing the emotions that trigger cataplexy. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2005;17:45-50 pubmed
    b>Cataplexy is an intriguing example of how emotions can trigger muscle weakness by activating neural pathways. When associated with excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy is considered pathognomonic of narcolepsy...
  48. Thankachan S, Kaur S, Shiromani P. Activity of pontine neurons during sleep and cataplexy in hypocretin knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2009;29:1580-5 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cataplexy, which is a sudden loss of muscle tone during waking, is an important diagnostic symptom of narcolepsy...
  49. John J, Thannickal T, McGregor R, Ramanathan L, Ohtsu H, Nishino S, et al. Greatly increased numbers of histamine cells in human narcolepsy with cataplexy. Ann Neurol. 2013;74:786-93 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether histamine cells are altered in human narcolepsy with cataplexy and in animal models of this disease.
  50. Mignot E, Hayduk R, Black J, Grumet F, Guilleminault C. HLA DQB1*0602 is associated with cataplexy in 509 narcoleptic patients. Sleep. 1997;20:1012-20 pubmed
    ..typed 509 patients enrolled in a clinical trial for the drug modafinil and analyzed the results in relation to cataplexy, a symptom of narcolepsy characterized by muscle weakness triggered by emotions...
  51. Pelin Z, Bozluolcay M, Kaynak D, Kaynak H. Childhood onset of narcolepsy-cataplexy syndrome in Turkey: clinical and genetic study. Turk J Pediatr. 2002;44:321-5 pubmed
    ..by excessive daytime sleepiness and abnormal manifestations of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep including cataplexy, sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations...
  52. Sonka K, Kemlink D, Buskova J, Pretl M, Srutkova Z, Maurovich Horvat E, et al. Obesity accompanies narcolepsy with cataplexy but not narcolepsy without cataplexy. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2010;31:631-4 pubmed
    Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) differs from narcolepsy without cataplexy (NwoC) in the cerebrospinal fluid levels of hypocretin...
  53. Joo E, Hong S, Tae W, Kim J, Han S, Cho Y, et al. Cerebral perfusion abnormality in narcolepsy with cataplexy. Neuroimage. 2005;28:410-6 pubmed
    To investigate abnormal cerebral perfusion in narcoleptics with cataplexy, 25 narcoleptics with cataplexy and 25 normal controls were enrolled in this study...
  54. Longstreth W, Koepsell T, Ton T, Hendrickson A, van Belle G. The epidemiology of narcolepsy. Sleep. 2007;30:13-26 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of narcolepsy with cataplexy has been examined in many studies and falls between 25 and 50 per 100,000 people...
  55. Schenck C, Bassetti C, Arnulf I, Mignot E. English translations of the first clinical reports on narcolepsy and cataplexy by Westphal and Gélineau in the late 19th century, with commentary. J Clin Sleep Med. 2007;3:301-11 pubmed
    To publish the first English translations, with commentary, of the original reports describing narcolepsy and cataplexy by Westphal in German (1877) and by Gélineau in French (1880).
  56. Hong S, Lin L, Jeong J, Shin Y, Han J, Lee J, et al. A study of the diagnostic utility of HLA typing, CSF hypocretin-1 measurements, and MSLT testing for the diagnosis of narcolepsy in 163 Korean patients with unexplained excessive daytime sleepiness. Sleep. 2006;29:1429-38 pubmed
  57. Black S, Morairty S, Chen T, Leung A, Wisor J, Yamanaka A, et al. GABAB agonism promotes sleep and reduces cataplexy in murine narcolepsy. J Neurosci. 2014;34:6485-94 pubmed publisher
    Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an approved therapeutic for the excessive sleepiness and sudden loss of muscle tone (cataplexy) characteristic of narcolepsy...
  58. Oyama K, Takahashi T, Shoji Y, Oyamada M, Noguchi A, Tamura H, et al. Niemann-Pick disease type C: cataplexy and hypocretin in cerebrospinal fluid. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2006;209:263-7 pubmed
    ..Our patient characteristically started presenting with cataplexy at the age of 9 years...
  59. Thannickal T, Nienhuis R, Siegel J. Localized loss of hypocretin (orexin) cells in narcolepsy without cataplexy. Sleep. 2009;32:993-8 pubmed
    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is characterized by a loss of approximately 90% of hypocretin (Hcrt) neurons...
  60. Newman J, Broughton R. Pupillometric assessment of excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy-cataplexy. Sleep. 1991;14:121-9 pubmed
    Ten untreated patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy and age- and sex-matched normals between the ages of 20 and 71 years underwent pupillometric analyses immediately prior to each of five multiple sleep latency test sessions...
  61. Plazzi G, Poli F, Franceschini C, Parmeggiani A, Pirazzoli P, Bernardi F, et al. Intravenous high-dose immunoglobulin treatment in recent onset childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy. J Neurol. 2008;255:1549-54 pubmed publisher
    ..on the outcome of intravenous high-dose immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment in four children with narcolepsy and cataplexy, in whom the early diagnosis and the extreme disease severity were indications for this potentially efficacious ..
  62. Dauvilliers Y, Neidhart E, Lecendreux M, Billiard M, Tafti M. MAO-A and COMT polymorphisms and gene effects in narcolepsy. Mol Psychiatry. 2001;6:367-72 pubmed
    ..polymorphisms of MAO-A and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) in 97 Caucasians with well-defined narcolepsy-cataplexy and sought for genotypic effects on disease symptoms...
  63. Ferri R, Franceschini C, Zucconi M, Vandi S, Poli F, Bruni O, et al. Searching for a marker of REM sleep behavior disorder: submentalis muscle EMG amplitude analysis during sleep in patients with narcolepsy/cataplexy. Sleep. 2008;31:1409-17 pubmed
    To evaluate the amplitude of submentalis muscle EMG activity during sleep in patients with narcolepsy/cataplexy with or without REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD).
  64. Picchioni D, Hope C, Harsh J. A case-control study of the environmental risk factors for narcolepsy. Neuroepidemiology. 2007;29:185-92 pubmed
    ..This study sought to fill this gap in the literature and assess the risk of stressors and infectious diseases using a case-control study...
  65. Reiss A, Hoeft F, Tenforde A, Chen W, Mobbs D, Mignot E. Anomalous hypothalamic responses to humor in cataplexy. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2225 pubmed publisher
    b>Cataplexy is observed in a subset of patients with narcolepsy and affects approximately 1 in 2,000 persons...
  66. Wu M, Nienhuis R, Maidment N, Lam H, Siegel J. Role of the hypocretin (orexin) receptor 2 (Hcrt-r2) in the regulation of hypocretin level and cataplexy. J Neurosci. 2011;31:6305-10 pubmed publisher
    ..dogs exhibit all the major symptoms of human narcolepsy and respond to drugs that increase or decrease cataplexy as do narcoleptic humans; yet, unlike narcoleptic humans, the narcoleptic dogs have normal hypocretin levels...
  67. Scherfler C, Frauscher B, Schocke M, Nocker M, Gschliesser V, Ehrmann L, et al. White and gray matter abnormalities in narcolepsy with cataplexy. Sleep. 2012;35:345-51 pubmed publisher
    ..fractional anisotropy (FA), which is a parameter of neuronal fiber integrity, and voxel-based morphometry, which is a measure of gray and white matter volume, to detect brain tissue changes in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy.
  68. Reynolds T, Roy A. Isolated cataplexy and REM sleep behavior disorder after pontine stroke. J Clin Sleep Med. 2011;7:211-3 pubmed
    b>Cataplexy is a complex neurologic phenomenon during wakefulness probably resulting from impairment of pontine and hypothalamic control over muscle tone...
  69. Valko P, Khatami R, Baumann C, Bassetti C. No persistent effect of intravenous immunoglobulins in patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy. J Neurol. 2008;255:1900-3 pubmed publisher
    We report on four patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC), who were treated with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg)...
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    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder associated with inappropriate control of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep...
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    ..Thirteen young patients with narcolepsy/cataplexy were consecutively recruited for this study, together with 13 age- and sex-matched normal controls...
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    Investigation of Chinese-Taiwanese patients with excessive sleepiness, but no association with other sleep disorders, and with the presence or absence of cataplexy.