narcolepsy

Summary

Summary: A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)

Top Publications

  1. Fujiki N, Cheng T, Yoshino F, Nishino S. Specificity of direct transition from wake to REM sleep in orexin/ataxin-3 transgenic narcoleptic mice. Exp Neurol. 2009;217:46-54 pubmed publisher
    ..9%) and sensitivity (66.0%). By definition, DREM in dark-period is 100% specific to narcolepsy and was 95.9% specific overall...
  2. Sansa G, Iranzo A, Santamaria J. Obstructive sleep apnea in narcolepsy. Sleep Med. 2010;11:93-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are two conditions associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS)...
  3. Dhondt K, Verhelst H, Pevernagie D, Slap F, Van Coster R. Childhood narcolepsy with partial facial cataplexy: a diagnostic dilemma. Sleep Med. 2009;10:797-8 pubmed publisher
    Sixteen percent of adults ultimately diagnosed with having narcolepsy/cataplexy experienced symptoms before the age of ten years, 4.5% even before the age of five years...
  4. Plazzi G, Ferri R, Antelmi E, Bayard S, Franceschini C, Cosentino F, et al. Restless legs syndrome is frequent in narcolepsy with cataplexy patients. Sleep. 2010;33:689-94 pubmed
    To investigate the occurrence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC).
  5. Partinen M, Saarenpää Heikkilä O, Ilveskoski I, Hublin C, Linna M, Olsen P, et al. Increased incidence and clinical picture of childhood narcolepsy following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccination campaign in Finland. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33723 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy is a rare neurological sleep disorder especially in children who are younger than 10 years...
  6. Watson N, Ton T, Koepsell T, Gersuk V, Longstreth W. Does narcolepsy symptom severity vary according to HLA-DQB1*0602 allele status?. Sleep. 2010;33:29-35 pubmed
    To investigate associations between HLA-DQB1*0602 allele status and measures of narcolepsy symptom severity. Cross-sectional study of population-based narcolepsy patients. King County, Washington...
  7. Tsai T, Crucitti A, Nacci P, Nicolay U, Della Cioppa G, Ferguson J, et al. Explorations of clinical trials and pharmacovigilance databases of MF59®-adjuvanted influenza vaccines for associated cases of narcolepsy. Scand J Infect Dis. 2011;43:702-6 pubmed publisher
    A potential association between the new onset of narcolepsy accompanied by cataplexy - a putative autoimmune disorder, and vaccination with an AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic influenza vaccine is under investigation...
  8. Thannickal T, Nienhuis R, Siegel J. Localized loss of hypocretin (orexin) cells in narcolepsy without cataplexy. Sleep. 2009;32:993-8 pubmed
    b>Narcolepsy with cataplexy is characterized by a loss of approximately 90% of hypocretin (Hcrt) neurons...
  9. Nevsimalova S. Narcolepsy in childhood. Sleep Med Rev. 2009;13:169-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy is a chronic disease commonly diagnosed in middle adulthood. However, the first symptoms often appear in childhood and/or adolescence...

More Information

Publications91

  1. Aran A, Einen M, Lin L, Plazzi G, Nishino S, Mignot E. Clinical and therapeutic aspects of childhood narcolepsy-cataplexy: a retrospective study of 51 children. Sleep. 2010;33:1457-64 pubmed
    to report on symptoms and therapies used in childhood narcolepsy-cataplexy. retrospective series of 51 children who completed the Stanford Sleep Inventory...
  2. Kawashima M, Lin L, Tanaka S, Jennum P, Knudsen S, Nevsimalova S, et al. Anti-Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) autoantibodies in narcolepsy are associated with recent onset of cataplexy. Sleep. 2010;33:869-74 pubmed
    Recent studies have found increased autoantibodies against Tribbles homolog 2 (anti-TRIB2) and anti-streptolysin O (ASO) in narcolepsy. In this study, we replicated this finding with a primary focus on recent onset cases.
  3. Tanaka S, Honda M. IgG abnormality in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9555 pubmed publisher
    A close association between narcolepsy and the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-DQB1*0602 allele suggests the involvement of the immune system, or possibly an autoimmune process. We investigated serum IgG levels in narcolepsy...
  4. Bayard S, Abril B, Yu H, Scholz S, Carlander B, Dauvilliers Y. Decision making in narcolepsy with cataplexy. Sleep. 2011;34:99-104 pubmed
    To investigate decision-making and addictive behaviors in narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC). NC is caused by the loss of hypothalamic neurons that produce hypocretins...
  5. Perriol M, Cartigny M, Lamblin M, Poirot I, Weill J, Derambure P, et al. Childhood-onset narcolepsy, obesity and puberty in four consecutive children: a close temporal link. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2010;23:257-65 pubmed
    b>Narcolepsy is a rare but disabling condition that causes excessive daytime sleepiness. Interestingly, weight gain is frequent in patients with narcolepsy and it has sometimes been described very early in the course of the disease...
  6. Ahmed I, Thorpy M. Clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of narcolepsy. Clin Chest Med. 2010;31:371-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic/hypnapompic hallucinations...
  7. Szakács A, Darin N, Hallbook T. Increased childhood incidence of narcolepsy in western Sweden after H1N1 influenza vaccination. Neurology. 2013;80:1315-21 pubmed publisher
    To assess the incidence of narcolepsy between January 2000 and December 2010 in children in western Sweden and its relationship to the Pandemrix vaccination, and to compare the clinical and laboratory features of these children...
  8. Ludvikova E, Nishino S, Sakai N, Jahn P. Familial narcolepsy in the Lipizzaner horse: a report of three fillies born to the same sire. Vet Q. 2012;32:99-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the demographic and clinical data together with the responses to the physostigmine challenges, the diagnosis of familial equine narcolepsy was made.
  9. Sakurai T, Mieda M. Connectomics of orexin-producing neurons: interface of systems of emotion, energy homeostasis and arousal. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2011;32:451-62 pubmed publisher
    ..about the possibility of novel therapies targeting the orexin system for sleep disorders, including insomnia and narcolepsy-cataplexy, as well as other pathological conditions such as obesity and drug addiction [1]...
  10. Poryazova R, Tartarotti S, Khatami R, Baumann C, Valko P, Kallweit U, et al. Sodium oxybate in narcolepsy with cataplexy: Zurich sleep center experience. Eur Neurol. 2011;65:175-82 pubmed publisher
    Sodium oxybate (SO; Xyrem®) has been approved in most countries for treatment of narcolepsy and cataplexy...
  11. Winkelmann J, Lin L, Schormair B, Kornum B, Faraco J, Plazzi G, et al. Mutations in DNMT1 cause autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:2205-10 pubmed publisher
    Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN) is characterized by late onset (30-40 years old) cerebellar ataxia, sensory neuronal deafness, narcolepsy-cataplexy and dementia...
  12. Ferri R, Franceschini C, Zucconi M, Vandi S, Poli F, Bruni O, et al. Searching for a marker of REM sleep behavior disorder: submentalis muscle EMG amplitude analysis during sleep in patients with narcolepsy/cataplexy. Sleep. 2008;31:1409-17 pubmed
    To evaluate the amplitude of submentalis muscle EMG activity during sleep in patients with narcolepsy/cataplexy with or without REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD).
  13. Inocente C, Arnulf I, Bastuji H, Thibault Stoll A, Raoux A, Reimao R, et al. Pitolisant, an inverse agonist of the histamine H3 receptor: an alternative stimulant for narcolepsy-cataplexy in teenagers with refractory sleepiness. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2012;35:55-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy is a rare disabling sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle tone)...
  14. Arias Carrión O, Murillo Rodriguez E. Cell transplantation: a future therapy for narcolepsy?. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2009;8:309-14 pubmed
    b>Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep periods...
  15. Scammell T, Willie J, Guilleminault C, Siegel J. A consensus definition of cataplexy in mouse models of narcolepsy. Sleep. 2009;32:111-6 pubmed
    People with narcolepsy often have episodes of cataplexy, brief periods of muscle weakness triggered by strong emotions...
  16. Fontana A, Gast H, Reith W, Recher M, Birchler T, Bassetti C. Narcolepsy: autoimmunity, effector T cell activation due to infection, or T cell independent, major histocompatibility complex class II induced neuronal loss?. Brain. 2010;133:1300-11 pubmed publisher
    Human narcolepsy with cataplexy is a neurological disorder, which develops due to a deficiency in hypocretin producing neurons in the hypothalamus. There is a strong association with human leucocyte antigens HLA-DR2 and HLA-DQB1*0602...
  17. Kalogiannis M, Grupke S, Potter P, Edwards J, Chemelli R, Kisanuki Y, et al. Narcoleptic orexin receptor knockout mice express enhanced cholinergic properties in laterodorsal tegmental neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;32:130-42 pubmed publisher
    ..As disruption of orexin (hypocretin) signaling is a primary defect in narcolepsy with cataplexy, we investigated whether markers of cholinergic synaptic transmission might be altered in mice ..
  18. Ton T, Longstreth W, Koepsell T. Active and passive smoking and risk of narcolepsy in people with HLA DQB1*0602: a population-based case-control study. Neuroepidemiology. 2009;32:114-21 pubmed publisher
    We examined the risk of narcolepsy associated with active and passive smoking among genetically susceptible individuals. We conducted a population-based case-control study in King County, Wash., USA...
  19. Black J, Pardi D, Hornfeldt C, Inhaber N. The nightly use of sodium oxybate is associated with a reduction in nocturnal sleep disruption: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients with narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med. 2010;6:596-602 pubmed
    To further explore the effects of sodium oxybate (SXB) administration on nocturnal sleep in narcolepsy patients during a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study conducted with 228 adult patients with narcolepsy/cataplexy in ..
  20. George C, Feldman N, Inhaber N, Steininger T, Grzeschik S, Lai C, et al. A safety trial of sodium oxybate in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: Acute effects on sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep Med. 2010;11:38-42 pubmed publisher
    Sodium oxybate (SXB) is an approved drug for the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and cataplexy in narcolepsy. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a condition that frequently co-occurs with narcolepsy...
  21. Shimada M, Miyagawa T, Kawashima M, Tanaka S, Honda Y, Honda M, et al. An approach based on a genome-wide association study reveals candidate loci for narcolepsy. Hum Genet. 2010;128:433-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, and a pathological manifestation of rapid eye movement during sleep. Narcoleptic pathogenesis is triggered by both genetic and environmental factors...
  22. Peever J. Control of motoneuron function and muscle tone during REM sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder and cataplexy/narcolepsy. Arch Ital Biol. 2011;149:454-66 pubmed publisher
    ..in REM sleep motor control underlies sleep disorders such as REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and cataplexy/narcolepsy. For example, RBD is characterized by dramatic REM motor activation resulting in dream enactment and subsequent ..
  23. Nevsimalova S, Jara C, Prihodova I, Kemlink D, Sonka K, Skibova J. Clinical features of childhood narcolepsy. Can cataplexy be foretold?. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2011;15:320-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy is a life-long disease characterized by abnormal regulation of the sleep-wake cycle and increased penetration of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In children, narcolepsy without cataplexy is more frequently seen than in adults...
  24. Persson I, Granath F, Askling J, Ludvigsson J, Olsson T, Feltelius N. Risks of neurological and immune-related diseases, including narcolepsy, after vaccination with Pandemrix: a population- and registry-based cohort study with over 2 years of follow-up. J Intern Med. 2014;275:172-90 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the association between vaccination with Pandemrix and risk of selected neurological and immune-related diseases including narcolepsy.
  25. Coelho F, Pradella Hallinan M, Pedrazzoli M, Soares C, Fernandes G, Murray B, et al. Low CD40L levels and relative lymphopenia in narcoleptic patients. Hum Immunol. 2011;72:817-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy has been studied as a possible autoimmune disease for many years, and recent findings lend more credence to this belief...
  26. Akins B, Miranda E, Lacy J, Logan B. A multi-drug intoxication fatality involving Xyrem (GHB). J Forensic Sci. 2009;54:495-6 pubmed publisher
    ..as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem) used for the treatment of daytime sleepiness or cataplexy associated with narcolepsy. This is a report of a case of a 53-year-old woman undergoing treatment with Xyrem for narcolepsy...
  27. Ponz A, Khatami R, Poryazova R, Werth E, Boesiger P, Bassetti C, et al. Abnormal activity in reward brain circuits in human narcolepsy with cataplexy. Ann Neurol. 2010;67:190-200 pubmed publisher
    ..In humans, the loss of hypocretin-containing neurons results in a major sleep-wake disorder called narcolepsy-cataplexy, which is associated with emotional disturbances...
  28. Bayard S, Croisier Langenier M, Dauvilliers Y. Facial expression recognition and emotional regulation in narcolepsy with cataplexy. J Sleep Res. 2013;22:170-7 pubmed publisher
    Cataplexy is pathognomonic of narcolepsy with cataplexy, and defined by a transient loss of muscle tone triggered by strong emotions. Recent researches suggest abnormal amygdala function in narcolepsy with cataplexy...
  29. David A, Constantino F, dos Santos J, Paiva T. Health-related quality of life in Portuguese patients with narcolepsy. Sleep Med. 2012;13:273-7 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the perception of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Portuguese patients with narcolepsy, and to compare the results to normative data.
  30. Yang C, Huang Y, Song Y. Clinical utility of the Chinese version of the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and narcolepsy. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2010;64:134-40 pubmed publisher
    ..properties of the Chinese version of the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS) and the utility of the PDSS as a screening tool for pathological daytime sleepiness in teenagers with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and narcolepsy.
  31. Baba T, Nakashima I, Kanbayashi T, Konno M, Takahashi T, Fujihara K, et al. Narcolepsy as an initial manifestation of neuromyelitis optica with anti-aquaporin-4 antibody. J Neurol. 2009;256:287-8 pubmed publisher
  32. Peacock J, Benca R. Narcolepsy: clinical features, co-morbidities & treatment. Indian J Med Res. 2010;131:338-49 pubmed
    b>Narcolepsy is a neurologic illness that typically begins in the second and third decades of life. It is chronic in nature and negatively impacts the quality of life of affected patients...
  33. Kanbayashi T, Shimohata T, Nakashima I, Yaguchi H, Yabe I, Nishizawa M, et al. Symptomatic narcolepsy in patients with neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis: new neurochemical and immunological implications. Arch Neurol. 2009;66:1563-6 pubmed publisher
    To characterize factors that contribute to symptomatic narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis.
  34. Plazzi G, Pizza F, Palaia V, Franceschini C, Poli F, Moghadam K, et al. Complex movement disorders at disease onset in childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy. Brain. 2011;134:3477-89 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy with cataplexy is characterized by daytime sleepiness, cataplexy (sudden loss of bilateral muscle tone triggered by emotions), sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations and disturbed nocturnal sleep...
  35. Grimaldi D, Agati P, Pierangeli G, Franceschini C, Guaraldi P, Barletta G, et al. Hypocretin deficiency in narcolepsy with cataplexy is associated with a normal body core temperature modulation. Chronobiol Int. 2010;27:1596-608 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) is a sleep disorder caused by the loss of the hypothalamic neurons producing hypocretin...
  36. Wijnans L, Lecomte C, de Vries C, Weibel D, Sammon C, Hviid A, et al. The incidence of narcolepsy in Europe: before, during, and after the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic and vaccination campaigns. Vaccine. 2013;31:1246-54 pubmed publisher
    ..of a possible association between exposure to AS03 adjuvanted pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine and occurrence of narcolepsy in children and adolescents emerged in Sweden and Finland...
  37. Overeem S, van Nues S, van der Zande W, Donjacour C, van Mierlo P, Lammers G. The clinical features of cataplexy: a questionnaire study in narcolepsy patients with and without hypocretin-1 deficiency. Sleep Med. 2011;12:12-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy is often not recognized or accurately diagnosed. This may be due to the fact that cataplexy, a core symptom which is virtually 100% specific, can-in practice-only be diagnosed based on the patient's history...
  38. Cipolli C, Franceschini C, Mattarozzi K, Mazzetti M, Plazzi G. Overnight distribution and motor characteristics of REM sleep behaviour disorder episodes in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. Sleep Med. 2011;12:635-40 pubmed publisher
    The study aimed to examine the temporal distribution of episodes of REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) over the night and their motor and polysomnographic (PSG) characteristics in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC).
  39. Koepsell T, Longstreth W, Ton T. Medical exposures in youth and the frequency of narcolepsy with cataplexy: a population-based case-control study in genetically predisposed people. J Sleep Res. 2010;19:80-6 pubmed publisher
    Epidemiological observations suggest that exposures in youth may trigger narcolepsy in genetically predisposed individuals...
  40. Husain A, Ristanovic R, Bogan R. Weight loss in narcolepsy patients treated with sodium oxybate. Sleep Med. 2009;10:661-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy is often associated with increased body weight. Sodium oxybate has efficacy in many narcolepsy symptoms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium oxybate on weight in patients with narcolepsy.
  41. Honda M, Eriksson K, Zhang S, Tanaka S, Lin L, Salehi A, et al. IGFBP3 colocalizes with and regulates hypocretin (orexin). PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4254 pubmed publisher
    The sleep disorder narcolepsy is caused by a vast reduction in neurons producing the hypocretin (orexin) neuropeptides...
  42. Kornum B, Kawashima M, Faraco J, Lin L, Rico T, Hesselson S, et al. Common variants in P2RY11 are associated with narcolepsy. Nat Genet. 2011;43:66-71 pubmed publisher
    Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that narcolepsy with cataplexy is an autoimmune disease...
  43. Weiner Lachmi K, Lin L, Kornum B, Rico T, Lo B, Aran A, et al. DQB1*06:02 allele-specific expression varies by allelic dosage, not narcolepsy status. Hum Immunol. 2012;73:405-10 pubmed publisher
    The association of narcolepsy-cataplexy, a sleep disorder caused by the loss of hypocretin/orexin neurons in the hypothalamus, with DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 is one of the tightest known single-allele human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ..
  44. Hallmayer J, Faraco J, Lin L, Hesselson S, Winkelmann J, Kawashima M, et al. Narcolepsy is strongly associated with the T-cell receptor alpha locus. Nat Genet. 2009;41:708-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy with cataplexy, characterized by sleepiness and rapid onset into REM sleep, affects 1 in 2,000 individuals. Narcolepsy was first shown to be tightly associated with HLA-DR2 (ref. 3) and later sublocalized to DQB1*0602 (ref. 4)...
  45. Melen K, Partinen M, Tynell J, Sillanpää M, Himanen S, Saarenpää Heikkilä O, et al. No serological evidence of influenza A H1N1pdm09 virus infection as a contributing factor in childhood narcolepsy after Pandemrix vaccination campaign in Finland. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68402 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy cataplexy syndrome, characterised by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, is strongly associated with a genetic marker, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQB1*06:02...
  46. Morrison I, Buskova J, Nevsimalova S, Douglas N, Riha R. Diagnosing narcolepsy with cataplexy on history alone: challenging the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) criteria. Eur J Neurol. 2011;18:1017-20 pubmed publisher
    The second version of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders suggests narcolepsy with cataplexy can be diagnosed on history alone.
  47. Han F, Lin L, Li J, Aran A, Dong S, An P, et al. TCRA, P2RY11, and CPT1B/CHKB associations in Chinese narcolepsy. Sleep Med. 2012;13:269-72 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms in the TCRA and P2RY11, two immune related genes, are associated with narcolepsy in Caucasians and Asians...
  48. Partinen M, Kornum B, Plazzi G, Jennum P, Julkunen I, Vaarala O. Narcolepsy as an autoimmune disease: the role of H1N1 infection and vaccination. Lancet Neurol. 2014;13:600-13 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterised by loss of hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) neurons. The prevalence of narcolepsy is about 30 per 100?000 people, and typical age at onset is 12-16 years...
  49. Lecendreux M, Poli F, Oudiette D, Benazzouz F, Donjacour C, Franceschini C, et al. Tolerance and efficacy of sodium oxybate in childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy: a retrospective study. Sleep. 2012;35:709-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, irresistible sleep episodes, and sudden loss of muscle tone (cataplexy) mostly triggered by emotions...
  50. Knudsen S, Mikkelsen J, Bang B, Gammeltoft S, Jennum P. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment and screening for hypocretin neuron-specific autoantibodies in recent onset childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy. Neuropediatrics. 2010;41:217-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) is caused by substantial loss of hypocretin neurons. NC patients carry the HLA-DQB1*0602 allele suggesting that hypocretin neuron loss is due to an autoimmune attack...
  51. Longstreth W, Ton T, Koepsell T, Gersuk V, Hendrickson A, Velde S. Prevalence of narcolepsy in King County, Washington, USA. Sleep Med. 2009;10:422-6 pubmed publisher
    Relatively few epidemiologic studies have focused on narcolepsy, a disabling sleep disorder with a strong association with HLA-DQB1 *0602.
  52. Knudsen S, Jennum P, Alving J, Sheikh S, Gammeltoft S. Validation of the ICSD-2 criteria for CSF hypocretin-1 measurements in the diagnosis of narcolepsy in the Danish population. Sleep. 2010;33:169-76 pubmed
    ..ICSD-2) criteria for low CSF hypocretin-1 levels (CSF hcrt-1) still need validation as a diagnostic tool for narcolepsy in different populations because inter-assay variability and different definitions of hypocretin deficiency ..
  53. Schwartz J, Khan A, McCall W, Weintraub J, Tiller J. Tolerability and efficacy of armodafinil in naïve patients with excessive sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea, shift work disorder, or narcolepsy: a 12-month, open-label, flexible-dose study with an extension period. J Clin Sleep Med. 2010;6:450-7 pubmed
    ..flexible-dose study with an extension period evaluated the tolerability and efficacy of armodafinil in patients with excessive sleepiness associated with treated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), shift work disorder (SWD), or narcolepsy.
  54. Kornum B, Faraco J, Mignot E. Narcolepsy with hypocretin/orexin deficiency, infections and autoimmunity of the brain. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2011;21:897-903 pubmed publisher
    The loss of hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (hcrt) producing neurons causes narcolepsy with cataplexy. An autoimmune basis for the disease has long been suspected and recent results have greatly strengthened this hypothesis...
  55. Miller E, Andrews N, Stellitano L, Stowe J, Winstone A, Shneerson J, et al. Risk of narcolepsy in children and young people receiving AS03 adjuvanted pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza vaccine: retrospective analysis. BMJ. 2013;346:f794 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the risk of narcolepsy in children and adolescents in England targeted for vaccination with ASO3 adjuvanted pandemic A/H1N1 2009 vaccine (Pandemrix) from October 2009.
  56. Hor H, Kutalik Z, Dauvilliers Y, Valsesia A, Lammers G, Donjacour C, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies new HLA class II haplotypes strongly protective against narcolepsy. Nat Genet. 2010;42:786-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder with the strongest human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association ever reported...
  57. Gabran S, Zhang S, Salama M, Mansour R, George C. Real-time automated neural-network sleep classifier using single channel EEG recording for detection of narcolepsy episodes. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2008;2008:1136-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This method is optimized to run on portable processing platforms with limited processing capabilities...
  58. Zvosec D, Smith S, Hall B. Three deaths associated with use of Xyrem. Sleep Med. 2009;10:490-3 pubmed publisher
    ..with use of Xyrem (sodium oxybate), a pharmaceutical preparation of GHB initially approved for treatment of narcolepsy with cataplexy...
  59. Dauvilliers Y, Jaussent I, Krams B, Scholz S, Lado S, Levy P, et al. Non-dipping blood pressure profile in narcolepsy with cataplexy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38977 pubmed publisher
    Patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC) mostly exhibit undetectable hypocretin levels. Hypocretin system is one of the key players in the complex interaction between sleep and the cardiovascular system...
  60. Bayard S, Croisier Langenier M, Cochen De Cock V, Scholz S, Dauvilliers Y. Executive control of attention in narcolepsy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33525 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) is a disabling sleep disorder characterized by early loss of hypocretin neurons that project to areas involved in the attention network...
  61. Miyagawa T, Miyadera H, Tanaka S, Kawashima M, Shimada M, Honda Y, et al. Abnormally low serum acylcarnitine levels in narcolepsy patients. Sleep. 2011;34:349-53A pubmed
    b>Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, and REM sleep abnormalities...
  62. Ferri R, Franceschini C, Zucconi M, Drago V, Manconi M, Vandi S, et al. Sleep polygraphic study of children and adolescents with narcolepsy/cataplexy. Dev Neuropsychol. 2009;34:523-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate CAP and sleep LM activity in a group of children and adolescents with narcolepsy, to interpret the results under a developmental point of view and integrate this new information with data ..
  63. Møller L, Østergaard J. Treatment with venlafaxine in six cases of children with narcolepsy and with cataplexy and hypnagogic hallucinations. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2009;19:197-201 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder associated with inappropriate control of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep...
  64. Heier M, Gautvik K, Wannag E, Bronder K, Midtlyng E, Kamaleri Y, et al. Incidence of narcolepsy in Norwegian children and adolescents after vaccination against H1N1 influenza A. Sleep Med. 2013;14:867-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The vaccination coverage in this age cohort was approximately 50%...
  65. Knudsen S, Gammeltoft S, Jennum P. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with narcolepsy is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. Brain. 2010;133:568-79 pubmed publisher
    ..movement sleep behaviour disorder is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders, but also reported in narcolepsy with cataplexy...
  66. Huang Y, Guilleminault C. Narcolepsy: action of two gamma-aminobutyric acid type B agonists, baclofen and sodium oxybate. Pediatr Neurol. 2009;41:9-16 pubmed publisher
    ..two medications with gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptor agonist properties, on symptoms of narcolepsy in drug-naïve teenagers...
  67. Jennum P, Knudsen S, Kjellberg J. The economic consequences of narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009;5:240-5 pubmed
    b>Narcolepsy is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with a typical onset in childhood or early adulthood...
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    ..approved therapeutic for the excessive sleepiness and sudden loss of muscle tone (cataplexy) characteristic of narcolepsy. The mechanism of action for these therapeutic effects is hypothesized to be GABAB receptor dependent...
  69. Katzav A, Arango M, Kivity S, Tanaka S, Givaty G, Agmon Levin N, et al. Passive transfer of narcolepsy: anti-TRIB2 autoantibody positive patient IgG causes hypothalamic orexin neuron loss and sleep attacks in mice. J Autoimmun. 2013;45:24-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy (a sudden weakening of posture muscle tone usually triggered by emotion) caused by the loss of orexin neurons in the hypothalamus...
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    In Japanese, Koreans and Caucasians, narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency is tightly associated with the DRB1*15:01-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 haplotype...
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    To compare clinical, electrophysiologic, and biologic data in narcolepsy without cataplexy with low (? 110 pg/ml), intermediate (110-200 pg/ml), and normal (> 200 pg/ml) concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1.
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    b>Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and attacks of muscle atonia triggered by strong emotions (cataplexy)...
  73. Ton T, Longstreth W, Koepsell T. Environmental toxins and risk of narcolepsy among people with HLA DQB1*0602. Environ Res. 2010;110:565-70 pubmed publisher
    One etiologic model for narcolepsy suggests that some environmental toxin selectively and irreversibly destroys hypocretin-producing cells in individuals with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQB1(*)0602...
  74. Franceschini C, Ferri R, Pizza F, Ricotta L, Vandi S, Detto S, et al. Motor events during REM sleep in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy: a video-polysomnographic pilot study. Sleep Med. 2011;12 Suppl 2:S59-63 pubmed publisher
    We carried out a systematic video-polysomnographic analysis of the number and type of motor events during REM sleep in narcolepsy-cataplexy patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (NC + RBD) but not clinical RBD (NC-RBD).
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    ..the presence of >or= 2 sleep onset REM (SOREM) periods on multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) occur in both narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC) and behaviourally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BIISS)...
  76. Nishino S, Okuro M, Kotorii N, Anegawa E, Ishimaru Y, Matsumura M, et al. Hypocretin/orexin and narcolepsy: new basic and clinical insights. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2010;198:209-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder, characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy, sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations. Both sporadic (95%) and familial (5%) forms of narcolepsy exist in humans...
  77. Faraco J, Lin L, Kornum B, Kenny E, Trynka G, Einen M, et al. ImmunoChip study implicates antigen presentation to T cells in narcolepsy. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003270 pubmed publisher
    ..genes and environmental exposures provide broad support for a post-infectious autoimmune basis for narcolepsy/hypocretin (orexin) deficiency...
  78. Dauvilliers Y, Montplaisir J, Cochen V, Desautels A, Einen M, Lin L, et al. Post-H1N1 narcolepsy-cataplexy. Sleep. 2010;33:1428-30 pubmed
  79. Singh A, Mahlios J, Mignot E. Genetic association, seasonal infections and autoimmune basis of narcolepsy. J Autoimmun. 2013;43:26-31 pubmed publisher
    ..potential autoimmune disorders affecting neurons in the central nervous system have been identified, including narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness with irresistible sleep ..
  80. Sonka K, Kemlink D, Buskova J, Pretl M, Srutkova Z, Maurovich Horvat E, et al. Obesity accompanies narcolepsy with cataplexy but not narcolepsy without cataplexy. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2010;31:631-4 pubmed
    b>Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) differs from narcolepsy without cataplexy (NwoC) in the cerebrospinal fluid levels of hypocretin...
  81. Stepien A, Staszewski J, Domzał T, Tomczykiewicz K, Skrobowska E, Durka Kesy M. Degenerative pontine lesions in patients with familial narcolepsy. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2010;44:21-7 pubmed
    b>Narcolepsy is characterized by chronic excessive daytime sleepiness with episodic sleep attacks...
  82. Joo E, Hong S, Kim H, Lim Y, Koo D, Ji K, et al. The effect of modafinil on cortical excitability in patients with narcolepsy: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Sleep Med. 2010;11:862-9 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effect of modafinil on cortical excitability in patients with narcolepsy using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).