photophobia

Summary

Summary: Abnormal sensitivity to light. This may occur as a manifestation of EYE DISEASES; MIGRAINE; SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE; MENINGITIS; and other disorders. Photophobia may also occur in association with DEPRESSION and other MENTAL DISORDERS.

Top Publications

  1. Bibas Bonet H, Fauze R, Boente M, Coronel A, Asial R. IFAP syndrome "plus" seizures, mental retardation, and callosal hypoplasia. Pediatr Neurol. 2001;24:228-31 pubmed
    Ichthyosis follicularis, congenital alopecia, and photophobia are typical features of a rare X-linked recessive disorder termed ichthyosis follicularis with atrichia and photophobia syndrome...
  2. Kawasaki A, Purvin V. Photophobia as the presenting visual symptom of chiasmal compression. J Neuroophthalmol. 2002;22:3-8 pubmed
    Five patients with a chief visual complaint of photophobia were subsequently found to have compressive lesions of the optic chiasm. Visual acuity and visual field deficits were often subtle...
  3. Rai V, Shenoi S. Ichthyosis follicularis with alopecia and photophobia (IFAP) syndrome. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2006;72:136-8 pubmed
    A 12-year-old boy born of a nonconsanguineous marriage presented with dry rough skin and photophobia since birth...
  4. Oeffner F, Fischer G, Happle R, König A, Betz R, Bornholdt D, et al. IFAP syndrome is caused by deficiency in MBTPS2, an intramembrane zinc metalloprotease essential for cholesterol homeostasis and ER stress response. Am J Hum Genet. 2009;84:459-67 pubmed publisher
    Ichthyosis follicularis with atrichia and photophobia (IFAP syndrome) is a rare X-linked, oculocutaneous human disorder. Here, we assign the IFAP locus to the 5.4 Mb region between DXS989 and DXS8019 on Xp22.11-p22...
  5. Colin J, Paquette B. Comparison of the analgesic efficacy and safety of nepafenac ophthalmic suspension compared with diclofenac ophthalmic solution for ocular pain and photophobia after excimer laser surgery: a phase II, randomized, double-masked trial. Clin Ther. 2006;28:527-36 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nepafenac ophthalmic suspension 0.03% and 0.1% for the treatment of postoperative pain and photophobia in patients undergoing excimer photoreactive keratectomy (PRK).
  6. Maleki N, Becerra L, Upadhyay J, Burstein R, Borsook D. Direct optic nerve pulvinar connections defined by diffusion MR tractography in humans: implications for photophobia. Hum Brain Mapp. 2012;33:75-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with physiological and anatomical studies in rats, the data provide an anatomical substrate for exacerbation of migraine headache by light in the human...
  7. Boulloche N, Denuelle M, Payoux P, Fabre N, Trotter Y, Geraud G. Photophobia in migraine: an interictal PET study of cortical hyperexcitability and its modulation by pain. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010;81:978-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Photophobia is an abnormal sensitivity to light experienced by migraineurs and is perhaps caused by cortical hyperexcitability...
  8. Saeed M, Henderson G, Dutton G. Hyoscine skin patches for drooling dilate pupils and impair accommodation: spectacle correction for photophobia and blurred vision may be warranted. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007;49:426-8 pubmed
    ..Tinted lenses were provided for photophobia. Visual assessment was repeated 6 months later. All children had dilated pupils with a mean diameter of 7...
  9. Khandpur S, Bhat R, Ramam M. Ichthyosis follicularis, alopecia and photophobia (IFAP) syndrome treated with acitretin. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2005;19:759-62 pubmed
    We describe a 3-year-old male patient with the ichthyosis follicularis, alopecia and photophobia (IFAP) syndrome, who developed cutaneous and ocular involvement in infancy...

More Information

Publications85

  1. Herz N, Yen M. Modulation of sensory photophobia in essential blepharospasm with chromatic lenses. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:2208-11 pubmed
    To determine the effect of photochromatic modulation with tinted lenses on the sensory symptoms of photophobia in blepharospasm patients.
  2. Martin V, Penzien D, Houle T, Andrew M, Lofland K. The predictive value of abbreviated migraine diagnostic criteria. Headache. 2005;45:1102-12 pubmed
    ..To determine the operating characteristics and predictive value of abbreviated criteria for the diagnosis of migraine headache...
  3. Boente M, Bibas Bonet H, Coronel A, Asial R. Atrichia, ichthyosis, follicular hyperkeratosis, chronic candidiasis, keratitis, seizures, mental retardation and inguinal hernia: a severe manifestation of IFAP syndrome?. Eur J Dermatol. 2000;10:98-102 pubmed
    ..it represents a new case of a rare X-linked recessive syndrome known as ichthyosis follicularis, alopecia, photophobia syndrome (IFAP). The differential diagnosis from keratitis ichthyosis deafness is discussed...
  4. Drummond P. Motion sickness and migraine: optokinetic stimulation increases scalp tenderness, pain sensitivity in the fingers and photophobia. Cephalalgia. 2002;22:117-24 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to determine whether scalp tenderness and photophobia, two well-recognized symptoms of migraine, develop during the motion sickness induced by optokinetic stimulation...
  5. Cambiaghi S, Barbareschi M, Tadini G. Ichthyosis follicularis with atrichia and photophobia (IFAP) syndrome in two unrelated female patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;46:S156-8 pubmed
    The IFAP syndrome is characterized by the congenital onset of ichthyosis follicularis, absence of hair, and photophobia. A limited number of patients with the disorder have been described, and X-linked recessive inheritance has been ..
  6. Tsolia M, Aroni K, Konstantopoulou I, Karpathios T, Tsoukatou T, Paraskevakou H, et al. Ichthyosis follicularis with alopecia and photophobia in a girl with cataract: histological and electron microscopy findings. Acta Derm Venereol. 2005;85:51-5 pubmed
    A rare congenital ectodermal disorder characterized by ichthyosis follicularis, alopecia and photophobia has been designated the acronym IFAP...
  7. Denuelle M, Boulloche N, Payoux P, Fabre N, Trotter Y, Geraud G. A PET study of photophobia during spontaneous migraine attacks. Neurology. 2011;76:213-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Photophobia is an abnormal sensitivity to light experienced by migraineurs during attacks. The pathophysiology of photophobia is poorly understood...
  8. Ghanizadeh A, Aghakhani K. Photophobia and methylphenidate. Psychopharmacol Bull. 2008;41:171-3 pubmed
    ..of the case of a 7-year-old boy with attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), who developed bilateral photophobia when taking methylphenidate (MPH)...
  9. Drummond P. Tryptophan depletion increases nausea, headache and photophobia in migraine sufferers. Cephalalgia. 2006;26:1225-33 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that a reduction in brain synthesis of serotonin intensifies photophobia and other migrainous symptoms and thus might contribute to the pathogenesis of migraine.
  10. Nakayama J, Iwasaki N, Shin K, Sato H, Kamo M, Ohyama M, et al. A Japanese case of ichthyosis follicularis with atrichia and photophobia syndrome with an MBTPS2 mutation. J Hum Genet. 2011;56:250-2 pubmed publisher
    Ichthyosis follicularis with atrichia and photophobia (IFAP) syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the triad of ichthyosis follicularis, alopecia and photophobia...
  11. Sher N, Golben M, Bond W, Trattler W, Tauber S, Voirin T. Topical bromfenac 0.09% vs. ketorolac 0.4% for the control of pain, photophobia, and discomfort following PRK. J Refract Surg. 2009;25:214-20 pubmed
    ..the efficacy of two topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with regards to the control of pain, burning, photophobia, foreign body sensation, and epithelial healing rates in patients who underwent photorefractive keratectomy (..
  12. Stringham J, Fuld K, Wenzel A. Action spectrum for photophobia. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2003;20:1852-8 pubmed
    Thresholds for photophobia (light-induced discomfort) were determined at wavelengths from 440 to 640 nm for three subjects. Photophobia was assessed by means of electromyography, which was used to measure subjects' level of squinting...
  13. Park W, Sunness J. Red contact lenses for alleviation of photophobia in patients with cone disorders. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137:774-5 pubmed
    To describe the use of red contact lenses to alleviate photophobia in patients with cone disorders.
  14. Megarbane H, Zablit C, Waked N, Lefranc G, Tomb R, Megarbane A. Ichthyosis follicularis, alopecia, and photophobia (IFAP) syndrome: report of a new family with additional features and review. Am J Med Genet A. 2004;124A:323-7 pubmed
    Two brothers with ichthyosis follicularis, noncicatricial universal alopecia, photophobia, hyerkeratotic psoriasis-like lesions, nails dystrophy, inguineal herniae, cryptorchidism, short stature, seizures, and psychomotor developmental ..
  15. Cooper A, Josephs K. Photophobia, visual hallucinations, and REM sleep behavior disorder in progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration: a prospective study. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009;15:59-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study compared the frequency of photophobia, visual hallucinations, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in patients clinically diagnosed with PSP to ..
  16. Mulleners W, Aurora S, Chronicle E, Stewart R, Gopal S, Koehler P. Self-reported photophobic symptoms in migraineurs and controls are reliable and predict diagnostic category accurately. Headache. 2001;41:31-9 pubmed
    To assess the reliability of self-reported photophobia across different patient populations and to examine how visual stress thresholds and photophobic symptoms may be predictive of diagnosis.
  17. Emoto H, Suzuki Y, Wakakura M, Horie C, Kiyosawa M, Mochizuki M, et al. Photophobia in essential blepharospasm--a positron emission tomographic study. Mov Disord. 2010;25:433-9 pubmed publisher
    To localize regional alterations in cerebral glucose metabolism in essential blepharospasm (EB) patients with photophobia. We have studied 22 EB patients by performing positron emission tomography and [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose analysis...
  18. Kamo M, Ohyama M, Kosaki K, Amagai M, Ebihara T, Nakayama J, et al. Ichthyosis follicularis, alopecia, and photophobia syndrome: a case report and a pathological insight into pilosebaceous anomaly. Am J Dermatopathol. 2011;33:403-6 pubmed publisher
    Ichthyosis follicularis, alopecia, and photophobia (IFAP) syndrome (OMIM 308205) is an extremely rare X-linked oculocutaneous genetic disorder characterized by follicular keratotic papules, total to subtotal alopecia, and photophobia...
  19. Evans R, Seifert T, Kailasam J, Mathew N. The use of questions to determine the presence of photophobia and phonophobia during migraine. Headache. 2008;48:395-7 pubmed
    ..To investigate whether the use of more detailed close-ended questions as part of the routine headache history is helpful when patients initially deny that they are sensitive to light and noise during migraine headaches...
  20. Tang L, Liang J, Wang W, Yu L, Yao Z. A novel mutation in MBTPS2 causes a broad phenotypic spectrum of ichthyosis follicularis, atrichia, and photophobia syndrome in a large Chinese family. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;64:716-22 pubmed publisher
    Ichthyosis follicularis, atrichia, and photophobia (IFAP) syndrome is a rare congenital disorder...
  21. Ming A, Happle R, Grzeschik K, Fischer G. Ichthyosis follicularis, alopecia, and photophobia (IFAP) syndrome due to mutation of the gene MBTPS2 in a large Australian kindred. Pediatr Dermatol. 2009;26:427-31 pubmed publisher
    Ichthyosis follicularis, alopecia and photophobia (IFAP) is a rare genodermatosis. Most patients have been men without significant family history...
  22. Noseda R, Burstein R. Advances in understanding the mechanisms of migraine-type photophobia. Curr Opin Neurol. 2011;24:197-202 pubmed publisher
    Historically, photophobia was studied in patients and attempts to explain the underlying mechanisms have been speculative...
  23. Durlach J, Pages N, Bac P, Bara M, Guiet Bara A. Importance of magnesium depletion with hypofunction of the biological clock in the pathophysiology of headhaches with photophobia, sudden infant death and some clinical forms of multiple sclerosis. Magnes Res. 2004;17:314-26 pubmed
    ..of BC [Suprachiasmatic Nuclei (SCN) and pineal gland (PG)] or Secondary with homeostatic response [reactive Photophobia (Pphi] to light neurostimulating effects [Nervous Hyper Excitability (NHE)]...
  24. Irimia P, Cittadini E, Paemeleire K, Cohen A, Goadsby P. Unilateral photophobia or phonophobia in migraine compared with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. Cephalalgia. 2008;28:626-30 pubmed publisher
    Our objective was to compare the presence of self-reported unilateral photophobia or phonophobia, or both, during headache attacks comparing patients with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs)--including cluster headache, short-..
  25. Dolgonos S, Ayyala H, Evinger C. Light-induced trigeminal sensitization without central visual pathways: another mechanism for photophobia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:7852-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors investigated whether trigeminal sensitization occurs in response to bright light with the retina disconnected from the rest of the central nervous system by optic nerve section...
  26. Moulton E, Becerra L, Borsook D. An fMRI case report of photophobia: activation of the trigeminal nociceptive pathway. Pain. 2009;145:358-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Photophobia, or painful oversensitivity to light, occurs in a number of clinical conditions, which range from superficial eye irritation to meningitis...
  27. Stringham J, Fuld K, Wenzel A. Spatial properties of photophobia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:3838-48 pubmed
    To determine the spatial properties of stimuli that elicit photophobia (PP) in normal subjects: Does PP exhibit spatial summation? Are different parafoveal quadrants (superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal) of the retina differentially ..
  28. Thiels E, Hoffman E, Gorin M. A reliable behavioral assay for the assessment of sustained photophobia in mice. Curr Eye Res. 2008;33:483-91 pubmed publisher
    To develop a mouse behavioral assay that can assess differential nocioceptive sensitivity to light (photophobia).
  29. Traboulsi E, Waked N, Megarbane H, Megarbane A. Ocular findings in ichthyosis follicularis-alopecia-photophobia (IFAP) syndrome. Ophthalmic Genet. 2004;25:153-6 pubmed
    ..To report the ocular findings in two siblings with IFAP and their mother and to review the natural course of the keratopathy of this disease...
  30. Tyler C, Likova L. Studying the Retinal Source of Photophobia by Facial Electroretinography. Optom Vis Sci. 2017;94:511-518 pubmed publisher
    b>Photophobia is a debilitating clinical condition that disrupts the ability to use vision for everyday tasks in bright lighting conditions...
  31. Isbister G. Acute conjunctival inflammation following contact with squashed spider contents. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136:563-4 pubmed
    ..He had conjunctival edema and periorbital swelling of the eye and severe photophobia, but his vision was normal...
  32. de la Cruz Merino L, Di Guardo L, Grob J, Venosa A, Larkin J, McArthur G, et al. Clinical features of serous retinopathy observed with cobimetinib in patients with BRAF-mutated melanoma treated in the randomized coBRIM study. J Transl Med. 2017;15:146 pubmed publisher
    ..had no symptoms or had mild symptoms, among them reduced visual acuity, blurred vision, dyschromatopsia, and photophobia. Serous retinopathy usually occurred early during cobimetinib and vemurafenib treatment; median time to onset ..
  33. Pang M, Fujimoto D, Wilkens L. Pain, photophobia, and retinal and optic nerve function after phacoemulsification with intracameral lidocaine. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:2018-25 pubmed
    To evaluate differences in pain, photophobia, retinal and optic nerve function in test eyes given intracameral lidocaine compared with control eyes given intracameral saline after phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia...
  34. Altiparmak U, Oflu Y, Kocaoglu F, Katircioglu Y, Duman S. Ocular complications in 2 cases with porphyria. Cornea. 2008;27:1093-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Both patients presented with ocular pain and photophobia in both eyes...
  35. Langwińska Wośko E, Szulborski K, Broniek Kowalik K. Late onset cone dystrophy. Doc Ophthalmol. 2010;120:215-8 pubmed publisher
    ..They lead to reduced visual acuity, colour vision impairment and photophobia. Full-field electroretinogram (ERG) reveals severe cone function impairment, with normal rod responses or ..
  36. Joag M, Sise A, Murillo J, Sayed Ahmed I, Wong J, Mercado C, et al. Topical 5-Fluorouracil 1% as Primary Treatment for Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia. Ophthalmology. 2016;123:1442-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common side effect was pain (n = 17; 39%), followed by tearing (n = 10; 23%), photophobia (n = 6; 14%), itching (n = 4; 9%), swelling (n = 2; 5%), and infection (n = 1; 2%)...
  37. Bjørk M, Stovner L, Nilsen B, Stjern M, Hagen K, Sand T. The occipital alpha rhythm related to the "migraine cycle" and headache burden: a blinded, controlled longitudinal study. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009;120:464-71 pubmed publisher
    ..between alpha rhythm parameters and disease duration, attack duration, attack frequency, pain intensity and photophobia. Peak frequency reduction correlated with increasing disease- and attack duration...
  38. Derry S, Moore R, McQuay H. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) with or without an antiemetic for acute migraine headaches in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;:CD008040 pubmed publisher
    ..Nausea, photophobia and phonophobia were reduced more with paracetamol than with placebo at 2 hours (NNTs of 7 to 11); more ..
  39. Noseda R, Bernstein C, Nir R, Lee A, Fulton A, Bertisch S, et al. Migraine photophobia originating in cone-driven retinal pathways. Brain. 2016;139:1971-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that patients' experience with colour and migraine photophobia could originate in cone-driven retinal pathways, fine-tuned in relay thalamic neurons outside the main visual ..
  40. Price M, Price F, Chang D, Kelley K, Olson M, Miller K. Ophtec iris reconstruction lens United States clinical trial phase I. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:1847-52 pubmed
    ..of the Ophtec model 311 iris reconstruction lens for treatment of visual disturbances, such as glare or photophobia, related to partial or total absence of the human iris...
  41. Rawson R. The site-2 protease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1828:2801-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, Drosophila melanogaster lacking S2P are viable and fertile. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Intramembrane Proteases. ..
  42. Boeker T. Ziprasidone and migraine headache. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:1435-6 pubmed
  43. Alio J, Rodriguez A, Toffaha B, Pinero D, Moreno L. Femtosecond-assisted keratopigmentation for functional and cosmetic restoration in essential iris atrophy. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2011;37:1744-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient presented with complaints of photophobia and monocular diplopia in the affected eye. Femtosecond-assisted KTP surgery was performed in this eye...
  44. Casero R, Mongi F, Laconte L, Rivero F, Sastre D, Teherán A, et al. Molecular and morphological characterization of Acanthamoeba isolated from corneal scrapes and contact lens wearers in Argentina. Infect Genet Evol. 2017;54:170-175 pubmed publisher
    ..The most frequent symptom associated with AK was red eye and photophobia. FLA from CS belonged to group II but 82% (9/11) and 18% (2/11) from CL belonged to group II and III ..
  45. Stringham J, Snodderly D. Enhancing performance while avoiding damage: a contribution of macular pigment. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:6298-306 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that MP interacts with nonimage-forming retinal input to achieve the dual outcomes of visual discomfort reduction and protection from light damage. ..
  46. Nikopoulos K, Avila Fernandez A, Corton M, Lopez Molina M, Perez Carro R, Bontadelli L, et al. Identification of two novel mutations in CDHR1 in consanguineous Spanish families with autosomal recessive retinal dystrophy. Sci Rep. 2015;5:13902 pubmed publisher
    ..members of the respective families exhibited an array of clinical features including reduced visual acuity, photophobia, defective color vision, reduced or absent ERG responses, macular atrophy and pigmentary deposits in the ..
  47. Won J, Hwang H, Chung S. A case of corneal cystinosis in a patient with rickets and chronic renal failure. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2015;63:785-7 pubmed publisher
    ..He presented with severe photophobia and decreased visual acuity. Ocular cystinosis was diagnosed on observing the typical crystals...
  48. Carod Artal F. Infectious diseases causing autonomic dysfunction. Clin Auton Res. 2018;28:67-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Hydrophobia, hypersalivation, dyspnea, photophobia, and piloerection are frequently observed in human rabies...
  49. Kim N, Lee E, Seong G, Kim J, An H, Kim C. Structure-function relationship and diagnostic value of macular ganglion cell complex measurement using Fourier-domain OCT in glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:4646-51 pubmed publisher
    ..330). A curvilinear function best described the relationship between VF sensitivity and GCC thickness. Macular GCC thickness and RNFL thickness showed similar diagnostic performance for detecting early, moderate, and severe glaucoma. ..
  50. Fang J, Dagenais S, Erickson R, Arlt M, Glynn M, Gorski J, et al. Mutations in FOXC2 (MFH-1), a forkhead family transcription factor, are responsible for the hereditary lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2000;67:1382-8 pubmed
    ..Other complications may include cardiac defects, cleft palate, extradural cysts, and photophobia, suggesting a defect in a gene with pleiotrophic effects acting during development...
  51. Khan A, Latimer B. Successful use of topical cysteamine formulated from the oral preparation in a child with keratopathy secondary to cystinosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;138:674-5 pubmed
    ..report the successful use of topical cysteamine formulated from the oral preparation in the treatment of severe photophobia from corneal crystal deposition in cystinosis. Interventional case report. Retrospective chart review...
  52. Chu M, Im H, Chung C, Oh K. Interictal pattern-induced visual discomfort and ictal photophobia in episodic migraineurs: an association of interictal and ictal photophobia. Headache. 2011;51:1461-7 pubmed publisher
    Pattern-induced visual discomfort and photophobia are frequently observed symptoms in migraineurs. The presumed pathophysiologic mechanisms of pattern glare and photophobia seem to overlap anatomically within the central nervous system...
  53. Lin K, Jackowski A, Carrete H, de Araújo Filho G, Silva H, Guaranha M, et al. Voxel-based morphometry evaluation of patients with photosensitive juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2009;86:138-45 pubmed publisher
  54. Khaliq S, Hameed A, Ismail M, Anwar K, Leroy B, Mehdi S, et al. Novel locus for autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy CORD8 mapping to chromosome 1q12-Q24. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:3709-12 pubmed
    ..All affected individuals had night blindness, deterioration of central vision, photophobia, epiphora in bright light, and problems with color distinction...
  55. Capó Aponte J, Urosevich T, Temme L, Tarbett A, Sanghera N. Visual dysfunctions and symptoms during the subacute stage of blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury. Mil Med. 2012;177:804-13 pubmed
    ..A reading test should be included in all routine exams as a functional assessment of the integration of oculomotor functions...
  56. Bruehl S, Lofland K, Semenchuk E, Rokicki L, Penzien D. Use of cluster analysis to validate IHS diagnostic criteria for migraine and tension-type headache. Headache. 1999;39:181-9 pubmed
    ..001) clusters: (1) unilateral pulsating pain, pain aggravated by activity, and photophobia and phonophobia, and (2) bilateral pressing/tightening pain, mild to moderate intensity, and absence of nausea/..
  57. Gupta M, Jora R, Bhatia R, Pareek A. Keratomalacia in a neonate secondary to maternal vitamin A deficiency. Indian J Pediatr. 2005;72:881-2 pubmed
    ..Keratomalacia secondary to vitamin-A deficiency is rare in neonates, although in children it is reported form developing countries...
  58. Lapid Gortzak R, van der Meulen I, Nieuwendaal C, van den Berg T. Alleviating debilitating photophobia and secondary exotropia caused by increased straylight by widening a small posterior capsulotomy. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2011;37:413-4 pubmed publisher
    In a patient with complaints of photophobia and an ocular deviation, straylight was found to be increased to 1.61 (log[s]), which is 5 times the normal value...
  59. Bossini L, Martinucci M, Paolini K, Castrogiovanni P. Panic-agoraphobic spectrum and light sensitivity in a general population sample in Italy. Can J Psychiatry. 2005;50:39-45 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to verify a possible correlation between panic symptoms and photosensitivity, not only in panic disorder (PD) but also in the panic-agoraphobic spectrum...
  60. Darlington J, Lee W, Schwab I. Corneal perforation during laser blepharoplasty. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2006;37:327-9 pubmed
    A 61-year-old woman presented with photophobia, pain, epiphora, and decreased vision as a result of two iatrogenic corneal perforations sustained during carbon dioxide laser blepharoplasty...
  61. Safarinejad M, Moosavi S, Montazeri B. Ocular injuries caused by mustard gas: diagnosis, treatment, and medical defense. Mil Med. 2001;166:67-70 pubmed
    ..The range of ocular damage was wide. The most common ocular effects were conjunctivitis and photophobia. Patients with significant corneal involvement are at risk for corneal ulceration and rarely for anterior ..
  62. Kinard K, Jarstad A, Olson R. Correlation of visual quality with satisfaction and function in a normal cohort of pseudophakic patients. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2013;39:590-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To select a normal post-cataract-surgery cohort, determine visual quality parameters, and compare these parameters with self-reported satisfaction and visual function...
  63. Benner J, Ahuja R, Butler J. Macular infarction after transpupillary thermotherapy for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;134:765-8 pubmed
    ..To report the complication of macular infarction after transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) for the treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD)...
  64. Yaphe J, Pandher K. The predictive value of the penlight test for photophobia for serious eye pathology in general practice. Fam Pract. 2003;20:425-7 pubmed
    b>Photophobia has been described as a useful sign in distinguishing severe from benign eye pathology.
  65. Vinayak P, Coupar J, Hughes S, Fozdar P, Kilby J, Garren E, et al. Exquisite light sensitivity of Drosophila melanogaster cryptochrome. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003615 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that CRY compensates for limited light sensitivity in vivo by photon integration over extraordinarily long times, and point to select circadian pacemaker neurons as having important roles. ..
  66. Rüther K, Janssen B, Kellner U, Janssen J, Bohne M, Reimann J, et al. [Clinical and genetic findings in a patient with fundus albipunctatus]. Ophthalmologe. 2004;101:177-85 pubmed
    ..She was screened for mutations in exons 2-5 and exon/intron boundaries of the 11- cis retinol dehydrogenase gene by direct sequencing...
  67. Ben Simon G, Abraham F, Melamed S. Pingelapese achromatopsia: correlation between paradoxical pupillary response and clinical features. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004;88:223-5 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the paradoxical pupillary constriction in darkness in patients with Pingelapese achromatopsia (PA), and to describe a connection between this phenomenon and the clinical features...
  68. Wimmersberger Y, Gervaix A, Baglivo E. VZV retinal vasculitis without systemic infection: diagnosis and monitoring with quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction. Int Ophthalmol. 2010;30:73-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Herpes viruses are involved in the pathogenesis of isolated retinal vasculitis. This case demonstrates that quantitative PCR is useful to detect viral DNA in AH and to monitor the viral activity and the therapeutic response...
  69. Kortmann R, Postma E, van den Herik J. Evolution of visual resolution constrained by a trade-off. Artif Life. 2001;7:125-45 pubmed
    ..A comparison of the experimental results with the resolution evolved in natural visual systems leads us to the conclusion that in natural systems the same factors are responsible for the observed trade-off...
  70. Michaelides M, Aligianis I, Holder G, Simunovic M, Mollon J, Maher E, et al. Cone dystrophy phenotype associated with a frameshift mutation (M280fsX291) in the alpha-subunit of cone specific transducin (GNAT2). Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87:1317-20 pubmed
    ..To describe the phenotype of a three generation consanguineous Pakistani family containing six individuals with autosomal recessive cone dystrophy caused by mutation in GNAT2...
  71. Mozayan A, Farah S. Acute anterior uveitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2013;44:25-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To report five cases of iritis after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab...
  72. Kahn D, Ferraro N, Benveniste R. 3 cases of primary intracranial hemorrhage associated with "Molly", a purified form of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). J Neurol Sci. 2012;323:257-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that even the purified form of MDMA can cause serious intracranial hemorrhagic complications and should not be thought of as a safe recreational drug...
  73. Alio J, Rodriguez A, Toffaha B, El Aswad A. Femtosecond-assisted keratopigmentation double tunnel technique in the management of a case of Urrets-Zavalia syndrome. Cornea. 2012;31:1071-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the successful use of a double intrastromal tunnel femtosecond-assisted keratopigmentation technique to manage a case of unilateral Urrets-Zavalia syndrome...
  74. Geweke L. Clinical pearls: can they be of more than anecdotal value?. Headache. 2005;45:763 pubmed
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    ..We discuss the perioperative care of a cystinotic patient with renal insufficiency, Fanconi's syndrome, and photophobia. Other organ systems affected by the cystinotic process are also discussed, with suggestions for the ..