Summary: A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.

Top Publications

  1. Nishio I, Williams B, Williams J. Diplopia: a complication of dural puncture. Anesthesiology. 2004;100:158-64 pubmed
  2. Kim H, Kim C, Song M, Yoon J. Diplopia secondary to endoscopic sinus surgery. Acta Otolaryngol. 2004;124:1237-9 pubmed
    b>Diplopia after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is rare but very serious. In this study, we investigated the characteristics, prognosis and treatment of diplopia occurring after ESS.
  3. Kaiserman I. Large subconjunctival emphysema causing diplopia and lagophthalmos. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2003;13:86-7 pubmed
    To describe a patient who developed diplopia, lagophthalmos and exposure keratopathy due to a large subconjunctival emphysema.
  4. Ceylan O, Uysal Y, Mutlu F, Tuncer K, Altinsoy H. Management of diplopia in patients with blowout fractures. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2011;59:461-4 pubmed publisher
    To report the management outcomes of diplopia in patients with blowout fracture.
  5. Tahiri Y, Lee J, Tahiri M, Sinno H, Williams B, Lessard L, et al. Preoperative diplopia: the most important prognostic factor for diplopia after surgical repair of pure orbital blowout fracture. J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21:1038-41 pubmed publisher
    No consensus exists in the literature regarding the risk factors associated with new or residual diplopia after pure orbital blowout fracture (BOF) repair.
  6. Guo S, Wagner R, Gewirtz M, Maxwell D, Pokorny K, Tutela A, et al. Diplopia and strabismus following ocular surgeries. Surv Ophthalmol. 2010;55:335-58 pubmed publisher
    Postoperative diplopia and strabismus may result from a variety of ocular surgical procedures...
  7. Kozakiewicz M, Elgalal M, Piotr L, Broniarczyk Loba A, Stefanczyk L. Treatment with individual orbital wall implants in humans - 1-Year ophthalmologic evaluation. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2011;39:30-6 pubmed publisher
    ..That study showed that it is financially viable to produce anatomical models and that this technology could be used in the repair of orbital floor fractures...
  8. Igari R, Iseki K, Abe S, Syoji M, Sato M, Shimomura K, et al. [Binocular diplopia and ptosis due to snakebite (Agkistrodon blomhoffi "mamushi")--a case report]. Brain Nerve. 2010;62:273-7 pubmed
    We treated a patient who developed binocular diplopia and ptosis after being bitten by an Agkistrodon blomhoffi (mamushi)...
  9. Kwok T, Watts P. Opaque intraocular lens for intractable diplopia-UK survey. Strabismus. 2009;17:167-70 pubmed publisher
    To assess the practice of the use of an opaque intraocular lens (IOL) for intractable diplopia in the UK.

More Information


  1. Scott J, Moxham B, Downie I. Upper lip blanching and diplopia associated with local anaesthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve. Br Dent J. 2007;202:32-3 pubmed
    ..The anatomy related to this case is considered together with suggestions for management of such patients. ..
  2. Nagy E, Toth J, Kaldi I, Damjanovich J, Mezosi E, Lenkey A, et al. Graves' ophthalmopathy: eye muscle involvement in patients with diplopia. Eur J Endocrinol. 2000;142:591-7 pubmed
    b>Diplopia identifies patients with eye muscle involvement in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO).
  3. Holland D, Amm M, de Decker W. Persisting diplopia after bilateral laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2000;26:1555-7 pubmed
    We present a case of persisting diplopia after bilateral laser in situ keratomileusis in a patient with high anisometropia and amblyopia. Treatment of this complication by ocular-muscle surgery was not possible because of missing fusion...
  4. Foroozan R, Bhatti M, Rhoton A. Transsphenoidal diplopia. Surv Ophthalmol. 2004;49:349-58 pubmed
    ..Postoperative ocular motor palsy is an uncommon complication of transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Neuro-imaging should be performed to exclude the presence of a new compressive lesion...
  5. Dulou L, Dagain A, Leduc C, Blondet E, Dulou R. Isolated distant diplopia revealing bilateral chronic subdural hematoma. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54:550-1 pubmed
  6. Matteini C, Renzi G, Becelli R, Belli E, Iannetti G. Surgical timing in orbital fracture treatment: experience with 108 consecutive cases. J Craniofac Surg. 2004;15:145-50 pubmed
    ..Early surgery was necessary within 3 days in children with diplopia (type IIIb) and mainly within 7 days in adults with double vision (type IIIa)...
  7. Hamada S, Devys J, Xuan T, Ganem S, Sahel J, Heran F, et al. Role of hyaluronidase in diplopia after peribulbar anesthesia for cataract surgery. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:879-82 pubmed
    To determine the protective action of hyaluronidase on peribulbar anesthesia-related diplopia in patients undergoing cataract surgery.
  8. Ben Simon G, Wang L, McCann J, Goldberg R. Primary-gaze diplopia in patients with thyroid-related orbitopathy undergoing deep lateral orbital decompression with intraconal fat debulking: a retrospective analysis of treatment outcome. Thyroid. 2004;14:379-83 pubmed
    Our goal was to investigate the incidence of postoperative primary gaze diplopia in patients with thyroid-related orbitopathy (TRO) undergoing deep lateral wall orbital decompression surgery with intraconal fat debulking in the Jules ..
  9. Medina Flores R, Germanwala A, Molina J, Meltzer C, Wiley C. October 2003: a 59-year-old woman with sudden onset of diplopia. Listerial rhombencephalitis. Brain Pathol. 2004;14:225-6 pubmed
  10. Merino P, Muñoz Sanz N, Gómez de Liaño P, Gutiérrez Partida B, Seijas Leal O. [Diplopia after sub-Tenon's anesthesia for cataract surgery]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2006;81:141-6 pubmed
    ..To study the clinical signs, treatment and prognosis of strabismus after sub-Tenon's anesthesia for cataract surgery...
  11. Barrière J, Thariat J, Vandenbos F, Bondiau P, Peyrottes I, Peyrade F. Diplopia as the first symptom of an aggressive metastatic rectal stromal tumor. Onkologie. 2009;32:345-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Most common metastatic sites are the liver, the lungs, and the peritoneum. Bony metastases are uncommon and of unknown prognosis...
  12. Melamud A, Chalita M, Krueger R, Lee M. Comatic aberration as a cause of monocular diplopia. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2006;32:529-32 pubmed
    Three patients (5 eyes) presented with complaints of monocular diplopia and no history of ocular trauma or surgery...
  13. Hosal B, Beatty R. Diplopia and enophthalmos after surgical repair of blowout fracture. Orbit. 2002;21:27-33 pubmed
    To evaluate the incidence of residual diplopia and enophthalmos and the possible risk factors leading to their occurrence in patients who had orbital blowout fracture repair.
  14. Fraunfelder F, Fraunfelder F. Diplopia and fluoroquinolones. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:1814-7 pubmed publisher
    To report a possible association between fluoroquinolones and diplopia.
  15. Rosales M, Smith T, Safran M. Hemorrhagic Rathke's cleft cyst presenting as diplopia. Endocr Pract. 2004;10:129-34 pubmed
    To report a case of uncommon presentation of hemorrhagic Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) extending into the cavernous sinus, causing diplopia.
  16. Burnstine M. Clinical recommendations for repair of isolated orbital floor fractures: an evidence-based analysis. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:1207-10; discussion 1210-1; quiz 1212-3 pubmed
    ..To assess the quality of information in the literature and suggest guidelines for repair of isolated orbital floor fractures...
  17. Blitshteyn S, Hentschel K, Czervionke L, Eidelman B. Transient vertical diplopia and nystagmus associated with acute thalamic infarction. Clin Imaging. 2006;30:54-6 pubmed
    We describe a patient who presented with a 1-h history of vertical diplopia and nystagmus and was found to have acute left ventrolateral thalamic infarction on the diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI MRI)...
  18. Ochi M, Kawajiri M, Uetani E, Igase M, Kohara K, Miki T. [Case of recurrent transverse myelitis and diplopia after meningomyeloradiculitis caused by Epstein-Barr virus]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2007;47:348-52 pubmed
    ..The symptoms improved after steroid pulse therapy, but relapses of transverse myelitis and diplopia due to disturbance of the bilateral abducent nerves and left trochlear nerve occurred 7, 12, 16, and 26 months ..
  19. Egawa J, Nakahashi K, Abe R, Nomura Y, Kitaguchi K, Furuya H. [Four cases of diplopia following spinal anesthesia]. Masui. 2005;54:767-71 pubmed
    Many complications after spinal anesthesia have been reported, but diplopia is rare. We had four cases of diplopia in 794 cases of spinal anesthesia in three years at Nara Medical University Hospital...
  20. Russo V, Querques G, Primavera V, Delle Noci N. Incidence and treatment of diplopia after three-wall orbital decompression in Graves' ophthalmopathy. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2004;41:219-25 pubmed
    To describe our experience treating diplopia after orbital decompression in patients with thyroid orbitopathy.
  21. Gómez Arnau J, Yanguela J, Gonzalez A, Andres Y, Garcia Del Valle S, Gili P, et al. Anaesthesia-related diplopia after cataract surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2003;90:189-93 pubmed
    We studied the incidence and clinical characteristics of persistent diplopia related to anaesthesia for cataract surgery in a general hospital.
  22. Wong Y, Goh K, Choo C, Seah L, Rootman J. An unusual cause of acquired horizontal diplopia in a young adult. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005;89:390-1 pubmed
  23. Khan A. Persistent diplopia following secondary intraocular lens placement in patients with sensory strabismus from uncorrected monocular aphakia. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:51-3 pubmed
    To evaluate the incidence of persistent diplopia after secondary posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) implantation in patients with prolonged uncorrected monocular aphakia with associated sensory strabismus.
  24. Krieger F, Lambert A, Alves T, Arruda M. [Opaque intraocular lens in intractable diplopia: case report]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2006;69:597-600 pubmed
    Intractable diplopia has been described in many situations but poor results are the rule with standard treatment modalities...
  25. Dorell K, Cohen M, Huprikar S, Gorman J, Jones M. Citalopram-induced diplopia. Psychosomatics. 2005;46:91-3 pubmed
  26. Fujikado T, Shimojyo H, Hosohata J, Hirohara Y, Mihashi T, Maeda N, et al. Wavefront analysis of eye with monocular diplopia and cortical cataract. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;141:1138-1140 pubmed
    To determine whether higher-order aberrations can explain the monocular diplopia reported by a patient.
  27. Kushner B, Kowal L. Diplopia after refractive surgery: occurrence and prevention. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121:315-21 pubmed
    To report the occurrence of persistent diplopia manifesting after refractive surgery, to describe the different causes of this complication, to provide risk stratification for its occurrence, and to outline minimal screening techniques ..
  28. Wang Z, Dell Osso L, Tomsak R, Jacobs J. Combining recessions (nystagmus and strabismus) with tenotomy improved visual function and decreased oscillopsia and diplopia in acquired downbeat nystagmus and in horizontal infantile nystagmus syndrome. J AAPOS. 2007;11:135-41 pubmed
    ..To investigate the effects of combined tenotomy and recession procedures on both acquired downbeat nystagmus and horizontal infantile nystagmus...
  29. San Juan O, Martínez Herrera J, García J, González Aragón M, Del Castillo Calcáneo J, Perez Neri I. Miller fisher syndrome: 10 years' experience in a third-level center. Eur Neurol. 2009;62:149-54 pubmed publisher
    ..There are few studies regarding the clinical characteristics of Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) in the Latin-American population...
  30. Takagi H, Mori Y, Umeda Y, Fukumoto Y, Yoshida K, Shimokawa K, et al. Proximal left subclavian artery aneurysm presenting hemoptysis, hoarseness, and diplopia: repair through partial cardiopulmonary bypass and perfusion of the left common carotid artery. Ann Vasc Surg. 2003;17:461-3 pubmed
    ..of a 67-year-old man with proximal left subclavian artery aneurysm presenting with hemoptysis, hoarseness, and diplopia. These symptoms suggested that the aneurysm ruptured, that the left recurrent laryngeal nerve was compressed by ..
  31. Velten I, Gusek Schneider G, Tomandl B. [Diplopia as first symptom of a bronchogenic carcinoma]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2000;217:52-4 pubmed
    ..Less than 5% of orbital metastases are located in extraocular muscles. We report on a patient with diplopia caused by diminished abduction of the left eye as first symptom of a bronchogenic carcinoma.
  32. Nayak H, Kersey J, Oystreck D, Cline R, Lyons C. Diplopia following cataract surgery: a review of 150 patients. Eye (Lond). 2008;22:1057-64 pubmed
    ..To study the motility pattern, underlying mechanism, and management of patients who complained of double vision after cataract surgery...
  33. Taylor G, Devys J, Heran F, Plaud B. Early exploration of diplopia with magnetic resonance imaging after peribulbar anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth. 2004;92:899-901 pubmed
    We report the cases of five patients who have experienced postoperative diplopia after cataract surgery under peribulbar anaesthesia and in whom orbital Magnetic Resonance Imaging was performed immediately after the diagnosis...
  34. Fraunfelder F, Richards A. Diplopia, blepharoptosis, and ophthalmoplegia and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor use. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:2282-5 pubmed publisher
    To report the association between 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) and diplopia, blepharoptosis (ptosis), and ophthalmoplegia.
  35. Büchel P, Rahal A, Seto I, Iizuka T. Reconstruction of orbital floor fracture with polyglactin 910/polydioxanon patch (ethisorb): a retrospective study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;63:646-50 pubmed
    ..We sought to evaluate the effectiveness and the complications related to the use of Ethisorb (resorbable alloplastic material) in the reconstruction of orbital floor fractures...
  36. Hwang J, Lim H. Acquired simulated brown syndrome following surgical repair of medial orbital wall fracture. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2005;19:80-3 pubmed
    ..He suffered from diplopia in primary gaze, associated with hypotropia of the affected eye...
  37. Vairaktaris E, Moschos M, Vassiliou S, Kalimeras E, Avgoustidis D, Moschos M. Delayed appearance of diplopia due to orbital emphysema after repair of orbital fractures. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;106:e8-e10 pubmed publisher
    A 38-year-old caucasian male, after continuous nose blowing caused by common flu, developed left diplopia, especially in downward gaze, and complained of orbital dull pain during the preceding 48 hours...
  38. Jeong S, Oh Y, Hwang J, Kim J. Emergence of diplopia and oscillopsia due to Heimann-Bielschowsky phenomenon after cataract surgery. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:1402 pubmed publisher
    ..However, visual impairments due to diplopia or oscillopsia from HBP after cataract surgery have received little attention...
  39. Biswas J, Krishnakumar S, Raghavendran R, Mahesh L. Lid swelling and diplopia as presenting features of orbital sarcoid. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2000;48:231-3 pubmed
    ..In the eye, the common sites of involvement are the skin of eyelid, conjunctiva, uveal tract, retina, optic nerve and lacrimal gland...
  40. Paridaens D, Lie A, Grootendorst R, van den Bosch W. Efficacy and side effects of 'swinging eyelid' orbital decompression in Graves' orbitopathy: a proposal for standardized evaluation of diplopia. Eye (Lond). 2006;20:154-62 pubmed
    ..To calculate the incidence of postoperative new-onset diplopia (NOD) using a newly proposed scoring system for diplopia.
  41. Adenis J, Camezind P, Robert P. [Is incidence of diplopia after Fat Removal Orbital Decompression a predictive factor of choice of surgical technique for Graves' ophthalmopathy?]. Bull Acad Natl Med. 2003;187:1649-58; discussion 1659-60 pubmed
    ..Recently a new technique has been described by Olivari: Fat Removal Orbital Decompression (FROD). The purpose is to evaluate the incidence of diplopia after FROD and improve surgical indications for Graves' ophthalmopathy.
  42. Chatzistefanou K, Kouris T, Iliakis E, Piaditis G, Tagaris G, Katsikeris N, et al. The ice pack test in the differential diagnosis of myasthenic diplopia. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:2236-43 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the diagnostic value and to establish threshold criteria for the ice pack test as an office preliminary test in the differential diagnosis of myasthenic diplopia in comparison with blepharoptosis.
  43. Gosse E, Ferguson A, Lymburn E, Gilmour C, Macewen C. Blow-out fractures: patterns of ocular motility and effect of surgical repair. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;48:40-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Entrapment of muscle or tissue is not the only cause of motility disturbance after blow-out fractures, and orbital surgery is only one aspect of management in those patients with persistent motility defects...
  44. Folkestad L, Westin T. Long-term sequelae after surgery for orbital floor fractures. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1999;120:914-21 pubmed
    ..A high frequency of diplopia (36%) was related to the reconstruction of the orbital floor with a temporary "supporting" antral ..
  45. Baldeschi L, MacAndie K, Hintschich C, Wakelkamp I, Prummel M, Wiersinga W. The removal of the deep lateral wall in orbital decompression: its contribution to exophthalmos reduction and influence on consecutive diplopia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140:642-7 pubmed
    To evaluate the contribution of maximal removal of the deep lateral wall of the orbit to exophthalmos reduction in Graves' orbitopathy and its influence on the onset of consecutive diplopia.
  46. Miller A, Liang I. Diplopia: a focal neurologic presentation of West Nile meningoencephalitis. Ann Emerg Med. 2003;42:413-6 pubmed
    ..The current knowledge of West Nile virus pathophysiology and clinical features are discussed. Although commonly associated with global and nonspecific syndromes, this patient presented with focal neurologic symptoms...
  47. Nishimura J, Rosenbaum A. The long-term torsion effect of the adjustable Harada-Ito procedure. J AAPOS. 2002;6:141-4 pubmed
    ..While previous studies have demonstrated its initial success, long-term data have not been readily available. The purpose of this study is to describe the long-term torsion effect of the adjustable Harada-Ito procedure...
  48. Ploder O, Oeckher M, Klug C, Voracek M, Wagner A, Burggasser G, et al. Follow-up study of treatment of orbital floor fractures: relation of clinical data and software-based CT-analysis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;32:257-62 pubmed
    ..b>Diplopia remained moderate in three patients with balloon catheter alone, and minimal in four patients in both surgical ..
  49. Ajtai B, Fine E, Lincoff N. Pupil-sparing, painless compression of the oculomotor nerve by expanding basilar artery aneurysm: a case of ocular pseudomyasthenia. Arch Neurol. 2004;61:1448-50 pubmed
    ..Oculomotor nerve paresis may have relatively benign but also life-threatening causes. Distinguishing between these is of great clinical importance...
  50. Hadid O, Wride N, Griffiths P, Strong N, Clarke M. Opaque intraocular lens for intractable diplopia: experience and patients' expectations and satisfaction. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:912-5 pubmed publisher
    To report the authors' experience with the use of opaque intraocular lenses (IOL) in diplopia unresponsive to traditional management strategies, and to assess patients' satisfaction and the visual function of patients following insertion ..
  51. Rozen T. Thunderclap headache with diplopia and anorexia. Neurology. 2002;59:461 pubmed
  52. Ohtsuka K, Maeda S, Oguri N. Accommodation and convergence palsy caused by lesions in the bilateral rostral superior colliculus. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;133:425-7 pubmed
    ..To report a patient who developed accommodation and convergence palsy caused by lesions in the bilateral rostral superior colliculus...
  53. Jin H, Lee H, Yeon J, Suh M. Residual diplopia after repair of pure orbital blowout fracture: the importance of extraocular muscle injury. Am J Rhinol. 2007;21:276-80 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of and possible risk factors for residual diplopia after surgical repair of pure blowout fracture (BOF) of the orbit.
  54. Coats D, Paysse E, Orenga Nania S. Acquired Pseudo-Brown's syndrome immediately following Ahmed valve glaucoma implant. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1999;30:396-7 pubmed
    A 76-year-old woman noted vertical and horizontal diplopia one day following placement of an Ahmed valve in the superonasal quadrant of her left eye. She was unable to elevate her left eye, especially in adduction...