olfaction disorders

Summary

Summary: Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.

Top Publications

  1. Siderowf A, Jennings D, Eberly S, Oakes D, Hawkins K, Ascherio A, et al. Impaired olfaction and other prodromal features in the Parkinson At-Risk Syndrome Study. Mov Disord. 2012;27:406-12 pubmed publisher
  2. Rahayel S, Frasnelli J, Joubert S. The effect of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease on olfaction: a meta-analysis. Behav Brain Res. 2012;231:60-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In parallel, detection thresholds should be included in such a battery for subclinical PD patients...
  3. Meusel T, Westermann B, Fuhr P, Hummel T, Welge Lüssen A. The course of olfactory deficits in patients with Parkinson's disease--a study based on psychophysical and electrophysiological measures. Neurosci Lett. 2010;486:166-70 pubmed publisher
    ..While psychophysical olfactory function in PD patients can improve over time, the course of OERPs in PD has not yet been investigated...
  4. Soudry Y, Lemogne C, Malinvaud D, Consoli S, Bonfils P. Olfactory system and emotion: common substrates. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 2011;128:18-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The present review focuses on such structures: amygdala, hippocampus, insula, anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. The physiology and anatomy of each of these systems is described and discussed...
  5. Wilson R, Yu L, Schneider J, Arnold S, Buchman A, Bennett D. Lewy bodies and olfactory dysfunction in old age. Chem Senses. 2011;36:367-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings indicate that Lewy body disease impairs late life olfactory function even in otherwise asymptomatic individuals...
  6. Makowska I, Kloszewska I, Grabowska A, Szatkowska I, Rymarczyk K. Olfactory deficits in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease in the polish elderly population. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2011;26:270-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It may be concluded that deficits in olfactory identification occur in AD and may be valuable as an indicator of this condition...
  7. Doty R, Petersen I, Mensah N, Christensen K. Genetic and environmental influences on odor identification ability in the very old. Psychol Aging. 2011;26:864-71 pubmed publisher
    ..001). This study, along with data from other studies, suggests that indices of heritability for odor identification decline with age, likely reflecting adverse environmental influences on the smell system...
  8. Yang L, Wei Y, Zhang W, Yu D, Ren Y, Li K, et al. Examination of chemosensory functions in patients with dysosmia. Med Sci Monit. 2012;18:CR154-9 pubmed
    ..To examine changes of chemical sensory functions in patients with dysosmia...
  9. Rudmik L, Smith T. Olfactory improvement after endoscopic sinus surgery. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;20:29-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Olfactory dysfunction is a common complaint in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The purpose of this article is to review the current evidence on the impact of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) on CRS-related olfactory dysfunction...

More Information

Publications97

  1. Morley J, Weintraub D, Mamikonyan E, Moberg P, Siderowf A, Duda J. Olfactory dysfunction is associated with neuropsychiatric manifestations in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2011;26:2051-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Future prospective studies are warranted to assess whether hyposmia, a very early feature of Parkinson's disease, might be used to predict the appearance of other common nonmotor symptoms...
  2. Lojkowska W, Sawicka B, Gugala M, Sienkiewicz Jarosz H, Bochynska A, Scinska A, et al. Follow-up study of olfactory deficits, cognitive functions, and volume loss of medial temporal lobe structures in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2011;8:689-98 pubmed
    ..The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether investigations of odor deficits in MCI combined with neuropsychological tests and MRI examinations can improve prediction of the development of dementia...
  3. Nakayama H, Ishikawa T, Yamashita S, Fukui I, Mutoh T, Hikichi K, et al. [CSF leakage and anosmia in aneurysm clipping of anterior communicating artery by basal interhemispheric approach]. No Shinkei Geka. 2011;39:263-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, BIH is an appropriate procedure for infection risk control in Acom aneurysm surgery. It is difficult to avoid olfactory dysfunction completely, even if olfactory nerves are preserved in form...
  4. Boesveldt S, Lindau S, McClintock M, Hummel T, Lundström J, Lindstrom J. Gustatory and olfactory dysfunction in older adults: a national probability study. Rhinology. 2011;49:324-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, their relationships to sociodemographic characteristics, as well as physical and mental health, were studied in a large national probability sample using brief validated tests of chemosensory function...
  5. Forster S, Vaitl A, Teipel S, Yakushev I, Mustafa M, la Fougere C, et al. Functional representation of olfactory impairment in early Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;22:581-91 pubmed publisher
  6. Bahar Fuchs A, Moss S, Rowe C, Savage G. Olfactory performance in AD, aMCI, and healthy ageing: a unirhinal approach. Chem Senses. 2010;35:855-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings support the hypothesis that unirhinal olfactory assessment may assist in differentiating between demented and nondemented individuals...
  7. Yuan B, Lee P, Lee Y, Lin S, Shu C. Investigation of the Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test in Taiwan and comparison with different continents. J Chin Med Assoc. 2010;73:483-6 pubmed publisher
  8. Schubert C, Cruickshanks K, Fischer M, Huang G, Klein B, Klein R, et al. Olfactory impairment in an adult population: the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Chem Senses. 2012;37:325-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence of olfactory impairment was low in this largely middle-aged cohort, and some factors associated with olfactory impairment are potentially modifiable...
  9. Damholdt M, Borghammer P, Larsen L, Ostergaard K. Odor identification deficits identify Parkinson's disease patients with poor cognitive performance. Mov Disord. 2011;26:2045-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate co-occurrence between reduced cognitive function and olfactory deficits in functionally anosmic patients with Parkinson's disease and support the notion of more severe cognitive deficits in this group...
  10. Shu C, Lee P, Lan M, Lee Y. Factors affecting the impact of olfactory loss on the quality of life and emotional coping ability. Rhinology. 2011;49:337-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated how factors like olfactory function, disease duration, etiology, age, and gender affect patients` quality of life and emotional ability to cope...
  11. Martin G, Junque C, Juncadella M, Gabarrós A, de Miquel M, Rubio F. Olfactory dysfunction after subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by ruptured aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2009;111:958-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Cerebral vasospasm and frontal lobe lesions are related to worse performance on an olfactory test in patients undergoing endovascular coil embolization. ..
  12. Gobba F. Olfactory toxicity: long-term effects of occupational exposures. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2006;79:322-31 pubmed
    ..Occupational-related olfactory impairment is usually sub-clinical, and can be only detected using adequate quantitative olfactory function testing procedures. Available data show the need for further good quality research in this field. ..
  13. Boesveldt S, Verbaan D, Knol D, Visser M, van Rooden S, Van Hilten J, et al. A comparative study of odor identification and odor discrimination deficits in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2008;23:1984-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Although an odor identification deficit is generally believed to be independent of disease progression, the impairment in odor discrimination appears to increase with disease duration. ..
  14. Haehner A, Boesveldt S, Berendse H, Mackay Sim A, Fleischmann J, Silburn P, et al. Prevalence of smell loss in Parkinson's disease--a multicenter study. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009;15:490-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This figure falls to 74.5%, however, when adjusted to age-related norms. Thus, olfactory dysfunction should be considered as a reliable marker of the disease. ..
  15. Silveira Moriyama L, Mathias C, Mason L, Best C, Quinn N, Lees A. Hyposmia in pure autonomic failure. Neurology. 2009;72:1677-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Hyposmia and olfactory pathway pathology are found in PD and MSA. We tested odor identification in 16 patients with PAF and compared the results with those found in patients with PD, patients with MSA, and control subjects...
  16. Hasan K, Reddy S, Barsony N. Taste perception in kallmann syndrome, a model of congenital anosmia. Endocr Pract. 2007;13:716-20 pubmed
    ..To investigate taste, a component of flavor perception, using electrogustometry (EG) in patients with congenital anosmia associated with Kallmann syndrome (KS)...
  17. Goldstein D, Sewell L. Olfactory dysfunction in pure autonomic failure: Implications for the pathogenesis of Lewy body diseases. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009;15:516-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In synucleinopathies, olfactory dysfunction is related to Lewy body pathology and cardiac sympathetic denervation, independently of parkinsonism or striatal dopamine deficiency. ..
  18. Verbaan D, Boesveldt S, van Rooden S, Visser M, Marinus J, Macedo M, et al. Is olfactory impairment in Parkinson disease related to phenotypic or genotypic characteristics?. Neurology. 2008;71:1877-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The APOE genotype (APOE epsilon2 or APOE epsilon4 alleles) and SNCA-REP1 polymorphism do not seem to influence olfaction in PD. ..
  19. Lombion Pouthier S, Vandel P, Nezelof S, Haffen E, Millot J. Odor perception in patients with mood disorders. J Affect Disord. 2006;90:187-91 pubmed
  20. Iannilli E, Gerber J, Frasnelli J, Hummel T. Intranasal trigeminal function in subjects with and without an intact sense of smell. Brain Res. 2007;1139:235-44 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the processing of the trigeminally mediated information is different in the presence or absence of an intact sense of smell, pointing towards the intimate connection between the two chemosensory systems. ..
  21. Falardeau J, Chung W, Beenken A, Raivio T, Plummer L, Sidis Y, et al. Decreased FGF8 signaling causes deficiency of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in humans and mice. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2822-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we identified FGF8 as a gene implicated in GnRH deficiency in both humans and mice and demonstrated an exquisite sensitivity of GnRH neuron development to reductions in FGF8 signaling...
  22. Landis B, Scheibe M, Weber C, Berger R, Brämerson A, Bende M, et al. Chemosensory interaction: acquired olfactory impairment is associated with decreased taste function. J Neurol. 2010;257:1303-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings seem to extend previously described mutual chemosensory interactions also to smell and taste. It further raises the question whether chemical senses in general decrease mutually after acquired damage...
  23. Saunders Pullman R, Hagenah J, Dhawan V, Stanley K, Pastores G, Sathe S, et al. Gaucher disease ascertained through a Parkinson's center: imaging and clinical characterization. Mov Disord. 2010;25:1364-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The imaging, neuropsychological and olfactory markers suggest the GD phenotype includes PD with and without features of DLB, marked olfactory loss, nigral hyperechogenicity on TCS, and F-dopa and FDG PET abnormalities...
  24. Atanasova B, Graux J, El Hage W, Hommet C, Camus V, Belzung C. Olfaction: a potential cognitive marker of psychiatric disorders. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2008;32:1315-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that olfactory abnormalities might be a marker of psychiatric conditions, with a specific pattern for each disease. ..
  25. Miyamoto T, Miyamoto M, Iwanami M, Suzuki K, Inoue Y, Hirata K. Odor identification test as an indicator of idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Mov Disord. 2009;24:268-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that OSIT-J, which is a short and simple nonlexical olfactory identification test, can be useful as a clinical indicator for iRBD with Lewy body formation and is appropriate in the Japanese elderly population. ..
  26. Djordjevic J, Jones Gotman M, De Sousa K, Chertkow H. Olfaction in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2008;29:693-706 pubmed
    ..High detection thresholds, together with impaired identification, may be useful as an early indicator of AD. ..
  27. Iijima M, Osawa M, Momose M, Kobayakawa T, Saito S, Iwata M, et al. Cardiac sympathetic degeneration correlates with olfactory function in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2010;25:1143-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that the cardiac sympathetic nervous system might degenerate in parallel with the olfactory system in patients with early PD, and that these two systems might degenerate at a different rate of speed in advanced PD. ..
  28. Balasubramanian R, Dwyer A, Seminara S, Pitteloud N, Kaiser U, Crowley W. Human GnRH deficiency: a unique disease model to unravel the ontogeny of GnRH neurons. Neuroendocrinology. 2010;92:81-99 pubmed publisher
    ..These insights now provide practicing clinicians with targeted genetic diagnostic strategies and also impact on clinical management. ..
  29. Trarbach E, Costa E, Versiani B, de Castro M, Baptista M, Garmes H, et al. Novel fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 mutations in patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with and without anosmia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:4006-12 pubmed
    ..To date, loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding anosmin-1 (KAL1) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) have been described in the X-linked and autosomal dominant forms of this syndrome, respectively...
  30. Doty R. The olfactory system and its disorders. Semin Neurol. 2009;29:74-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In this brief article, the author reviews the anatomy and physiology of this primary sensory system, means of assessing its function, and major diseases and disorders with which it is intimately associated. ..
  31. Lotsch J, Hummel T. The clinical significance of electrophysiological measures of olfactory function. Behav Brain Res. 2006;170:78-83 pubmed
    ..Presence of OERP clearly signifies presence of olfactory function while this is not always the other way around with absence of OERP. ..
  32. Goker Alpan O, Lopez G, Vithayathil J, Davis J, Hallett M, Sidransky E. The spectrum of parkinsonian manifestations associated with glucocerebrosidase mutations. Arch Neurol. 2008;65:1353-7 pubmed publisher
  33. Kivity S, Ortega Hernandez O, Shoenfeld Y. Olfaction--a window to the mind. Isr Med Assoc J. 2009;11:238-43 pubmed
  34. Velayudhan L, Lovestone S. Smell identification test as a treatment response marker in patients with Alzheimer disease receiving donepezil. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2009;29:387-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Smell identification function could be useful as a clinical measure to assess treatment response with donepezil in AD. This is a nonblind uncontrolled study, and the outcome indicates the need for a controlled study. ..
  35. Luzzi S, Snowden J, Neary D, Coccia M, Provinciali L, Lambon Ralph M. Distinct patterns of olfactory impairment in Alzheimer's disease, semantic dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and corticobasal degeneration. Neuropsychologia. 2007;45:1823-31 pubmed
    ..The findings add further insights into the nature of the semantic deficit in SD by exploring a hitherto neglected modality and may have relevance in explaining the altered eating habits commonly associated with SD. ..
  36. Park J, Lee S, Kang D, Kim J. Olfactory dysfunction after ipsilateral and contralateral pterional approaches for cerebral aneurysms. Neurosurgery. 2009;65:727-32; discussion 732 pubmed publisher
    ..A higher incidence of olfactory dysfunction was found in those patients in whom a contralateral pterional approach and a pterional approach for an AComA aneurysm were used. Another major risk factor was an age of 55 years and older. ..
  37. Bianco S, Kaiser U. The genetic and molecular basis of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2009;5:569-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This Review discusses genes associated with hypogonadotropic disorders and the molecular mechanisms by which mutations in these genes may result in IHH. ..
  38. Brewer W, Wood S, Pantelis C, Berger G, Copolov D, McGorry P. Olfactory sensitivity through the course of psychosis: Relationships to olfactory identification, symptomatology and the schizophrenia odour. Psychiatry Res. 2007;149:97-104 pubmed
    ..This may be linked to olfactory habituation effects, abnormal chemical processing or a genetic predisposition. ..
  39. Li W, Lopez L, Osher J, Howard J, Parrish T, Gottfried J. Right orbitofrontal cortex mediates conscious olfactory perception. Psychol Sci. 2010;21:1454-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These data highlight the right OFC's critical role in subserving human olfactory consciousness. ..
  40. Hummel T, Pfetzing U, Lotsch J. A short olfactory test based on the identification of three odors. J Neurol. 2010;257:1316-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering the test's portability, ease of administration, longevity, and possibility to be used over and over again, it can be expected to find its way into the clinician's routine or screening diagnostic armamentarium. ..
  41. de Roux N. Isolated gonadotropic deficiency with and without anosmia: a developmental defect or a neuroendocrine regulation abnormality of the gonadotropic axis. Horm Res. 2005;64 Suppl 2:48-55 pubmed
    ..In vivo studies and genotype-phenotype correlations indicate that gonadotropic axis regulation by GPR54 occurs mainly at the level of the hypothalamus...
  42. Katotomichelakis M, Balatsouras D, Tripsianis G, Tsaroucha A, Homsioglou E, Danielides V. Normative values of olfactory function testing using the 'sniffin' sticks'. Laryngoscope. 2007;117:114-20 pubmed
    ..Mean values of olfactory tests obtained were better in comparison with data from settings located in central and northern Europe. ..
  43. Haehner A, Hummel T, Reichmann H. Olfactory dysfunction as a diagnostic marker for Parkinson's disease. Expert Rev Neurother. 2009;9:1773-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the available information about olfactory function in PD, indicating the advantageous use of olfactory probes in early and differential diagnosis. ..
  44. Hoffman H, Cruickshanks K, Davis B. Perspectives on population-based epidemiological studies of olfactory and taste impairment. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1170:514-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Through this symposium, we hope to advance the nascent field of olfactory and taste epidemiology. ..
  45. Clepce M, Gossler A, Reich K, Kornhuber J, Thuerauf N. The relation between depression, anhedonia and olfactory hedonic estimates--a pilot study in major depression. Neurosci Lett. 2010;471:139-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate the need for (1) confirmatory studies in severe melancholic depression and (2) investigation of the impact of anhedonia on olfactory hedonics in psychiatric diseases other than major depression. ..
  46. Frasnelli J, Schuster B, Hummel T. Olfactory dysfunction affects thresholds to trigeminal chemosensory sensations. Neurosci Lett. 2010;468:259-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This was most evident in patients with postviral OD. In conclusion, factors such as age, olfactory status and etiology of olfactory disorder can affect responsiveness to perithreshold trigeminal chemosensory stimuli...
  47. Turetsky B, Hahn C, Arnold S, Moberg P. Olfactory receptor neuron dysfunction in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:767-74 pubmed publisher
    ..It unambiguously demonstrates that neurophysiological disturbances in schizophrenia are not limited to cortical and subcortical structures, but rather include even the most peripheral sensory neurons...
  48. Iijima M, Kobayakawa T, Saito S, Osawa M, Tsutsumi Y, Hashimoto S, et al. Smell identification in Japanese Parkinson's disease patients: using the odor stick identification test for Japanese subjects. Intern Med. 2008;47:1887-92 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the present study was to clarify the olfactory functions of Japanese patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) using the odor stick identification test for Japanese (OSIT-J)...
  49. Silveira Moriyama L, Hughes G, Church A, Ayling H, Williams D, Petrie A, et al. Hyposmia in progressive supranuclear palsy. Mov Disord. 2010;25:570-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Further prospective studies including patients with early PSP and PSP-P with postmortem confirmation might help clarify if smell tests could be useful when the differential diagnosis lies between PD and PSP...
  50. Savica R, Rocca W, Ahlskog J. When does Parkinson disease start?. Arch Neurol. 2010;67:798-801 pubmed publisher
    ..Recognition of a nonmotor preclinical phase spanning 20 or more years should guide the search for predictive biomarkers and the identification of risk or protective factors for Parkinson disease...
  51. Gudziol V, Wolff Stephan S, Aschenbrenner K, Joraschky P, Hummel T. Depression resulting from olfactory dysfunction is associated with reduced sexual appetite--a cross-sectional cohort study. J Sex Med. 2009;6:1924-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate the sexual appetite and the subject's depression in regard to olfactory function...
  52. Foster J, Sohrabi H, Verdile G, Martins R. Research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: genetic risk factors, blood biomarkers and olfactory dysfunction. Int Psychogeriatr. 2008;20:853-5 pubmed publisher
  53. Turetsky B, Moberg P. An odor-specific threshold deficit implicates abnormal intracellular cyclic AMP signaling in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2009;166:226-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to test this hypothesis by determining odor detection threshold sensitivities to two odorants that differ in their relative activations of this intracellular cAMP signaling cascade...
  54. Rombaux P, Mouraux A, Bertrand B, Nicolas G, Duprez T, Hummel T. Olfactory function and olfactory bulb volume in patients with postinfectious olfactory loss. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:436-9 pubmed
    ..The study aimed to investigate whether the degree of postinfectious olfactory loss is reflected in volume of the olfactory bulb (OB)...
  55. Eibenstein A, Fioretti A, Lena C, Rosati N, Amabile G, Fusetti M. Modern psychophysical tests to assess olfactory function. Neurol Sci. 2005;26:147-55 pubmed
    ..Olfactory screening tests are also available. In this work we strongly recommend the importance of an ENT evaluation before the test administration and dissuade from a self-administration of an olfactory test...
  56. Wilson R, Arnold S, Tang Y, Bennett D. Odor identification and decline in different cognitive domains in old age. Neuroepidemiology. 2006;26:61-7 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that impaired odor identification in old age is associated with impaired global cognition and more rapid decline in perceptual processing speed and episodic memory...
  57. Albers M, Tabert M, Devanand D. Olfactory dysfunction as a predictor of neurodegenerative disease. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2006;6:379-86 pubmed
  58. Pade J, Hummel T. Olfactory function following nasal surgery. Laryngoscope. 2008;118:1260-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This prospective study aimed to investigate predictors of nasal surgery in terms of olfactory function...
  59. Negoias S, Croy I, Gerber J, Puschmann S, Petrowski K, Joraschky P, et al. Reduced olfactory bulb volume and olfactory sensitivity in patients with acute major depression. Neuroscience. 2010;169:415-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results might be related to reduced neurogenesis in major depression that could be reflected also at the level of the olfactory bulb...
  60. Miyamoto T, Miyamoto M, Iwanami M, Hirata K, Kobayashi M, Nakamura M, et al. Olfactory dysfunction in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep Med. 2010;11:458-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Olfactory dysfunction is frequently observed in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) such as Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy bodies...
  61. Vennemann M, Hummel T, Berger K. The association between smoking and smell and taste impairment in the general population. J Neurol. 2008;255:1121-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of smoking on taste and smell impairment in a large population- based study...
  62. Corcoran C, Whitaker A, Coleman E, Fried J, Feldman J, Goudsmit N, et al. Olfactory deficits, cognition and negative symptoms in early onset psychosis. Schizophr Res. 2005;80:283-93 pubmed
    ..However, smell identification has not been examined in adolescents with early onset psychosis, wherein diagnosis is often obscure, and there are few prognostic predictors...
  63. Duda J. Olfactory system pathology as a model of Lewy neurodegenerative disease. J Neurol Sci. 2010;289:49-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, the known neuropathology of the olfactory system in PD will be reviewed and the advantages of investigating degeneration of the olfactory bulb as a model of Lewy neurodegeneration will be discussed...
  64. Wilson R, Arnold S, Schneider J, Tang Y, Bennett D. The relationship between cerebral Alzheimer's disease pathology and odour identification in old age. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78:30-5 pubmed
    ..Olfactory dysfunction is common in old age, but its basis is uncertain...
  65. Landis B, Hummel T. New evidence for high occurrence of olfactory dysfunctions within the population. Am J Med. 2006;119:91-2 pubmed
  66. Williams S, Williams J, Combrinck M, Christie S, Smith A, McShane R. Olfactory impairment is more marked in patients with mild dementia with Lewy bodies than those with mild Alzheimer disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80:667-70 pubmed publisher
    ..It is not known whether, in patients with mild dementia (MMSE score over 20), olfactory function is more impaired in Alzheimer disease (AD) than dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)...
  67. Rupp C, Fleischhacker W, Drexler A, Hausmann A, Hinterhuber H, Kurz M. Executive function and memory in relation to olfactory deficits in alcohol-dependent patients. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006;30:1355-62 pubmed
  68. Gudziol V, Hummel T. The influence of distractors on odor identification. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;135:143-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the impact of the use of more contrasted distractors on correct odor identification in patients with olfactory loss...
  69. Ross G, Abbott R, Petrovitch H, Tanner C, Davis D, Nelson J, et al. Association of olfactory dysfunction with incidental Lewy bodies. Mov Disord. 2006;21:2062-7 pubmed
    ..0 (P = 0.02). Olfactory dysfunction is associated with ILB. If incidental Lewy bodies represent presymptomatic stage of PD, olfactory testing may be a useful screening tool to identify those at high risk for developing PD...
  70. Konstantinidis I, Printza A, Genetzaki S, Mamali K, Kekes G, Constantinidis J. Cultural adaptation of an olfactory identification test: the Greek version of Sniffin' Sticks. Rhinology. 2008;46:292-6 pubmed
    ..Sniffin sticks battery is a well-validated olfactory test in German speaking population. However adaptation of this test in the cultural background of a country is mandatory before use...
  71. Lehrner J, Pusswald G, Gleiss A, Auff E, Dal Bianco P. Odor identification and self-reported olfactory functioning in patients with subtypes of mild cognitive impairment. Clin Neuropsychol. 2009;23:818-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with cognitive testing, olfactory testing may more accurately help predict whether or not a patient with MCI will convert to AD in the near future...
  72. Holbrook E, Leopold D, Schwob J. Abnormalities of axon growth in human olfactory mucosa. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:2144-54 pubmed
    ..However, detailed analysis of the subepithelial tissue with specific attention to the fascicles of the olfactory nerve and abnormalities of axonal growth may improve the correlation of histopathology with sensory function...
  73. Olofsson J, Nordin S, Wiens S, Hedner M, Nilsson L, Larsson M. Odor identification impairment in carriers of ApoE-varepsilon4 is independent of clinical dementia. Neurobiol Aging. 2010;31:567-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results suggest that the ApoE gene plays a role in olfactory functioning that is independent of dementia conversion within 5 years...
  74. Nordin S, Brämerson A. Complaints of olfactory disorders: epidemiology, assessment and clinical implications. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;8:10-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of the present review is to characterize olfactory disorders and describe associated complaints, present recent insights into epidemiology, suggest procedures to assess these disorders, and discuss clinical implications...
  75. Holbrook E, Leopold D. An updated review of clinical olfaction. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;14:23-8 pubmed
    ..Disorders of the sense of smell can result through hundreds of different processes, but most commonly occur from upper-respiratory-tract infections, trauma, and chronic rhinosinusitis...
  76. Frasnelli J, Schuster B, Hummel T. Interactions between olfaction and the trigeminal system: what can be learned from olfactory loss. Cereb Cortex. 2007;17:2268-75 pubmed
  77. Mackay Sim A, Johnston A, Owen C, Burne T. Olfactory ability in the healthy population: reassessing presbyosmia. Chem Senses. 2006;31:763-71 pubmed
    ..The power of this approach is that it provides a normative data set against which many factors such as medication schedules and pathological conditions can be compared...
  78. Good K, Tibbo P, Milliken H, Whitehorn D, Alexiadis M, Robertson N, et al. An investigation of a possible relationship between olfactory identification deficits at first episode and four-year outcomes in patients with psychosis. Schizophr Res. 2010;124:60-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, we examined whether patients with first episode psychosis who have olfactory identification deficits (microsmic) have poorer functional outcome than those whose olfactory status is normal (normosmic)...
  79. Layman W, McEwen D, Beyer L, Lalani S, Fernbach S, Oh E, et al. Defects in neural stem cell proliferation and olfaction in Chd7 deficient mice indicate a mechanism for hyposmia in human CHARGE syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:1909-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide evidence that mammalian olfactory dysfunction due to Chd7 haploinsufficiency is linked to primary defects in olfactory neural stem cell proliferation and may influence olfactory bulb development. ..
  80. Kranick S, Duda J. Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. Neurosignals. 2008;16:35-40 pubmed
    ..Ongoing studies of olfactory dysfunction may also reveal potential for use as a medication-independent biomarker of disease progression in addition to use as a biomarker for the diagnosis of PD...
  81. Shu C, Yuan B, Lin S, Lin C. Cross-cultural application of the "Sniffin' Sticks" odor identification test. Am J Rhinol. 2007;21:570-3 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of the "Sniffin' Sticks" odor identification test in an area with a different culture compared with its place of origin...
  82. Stephenson R, Houghton D, Sundarararjan S, Doty R, Stern M, Xie S, et al. Odor identification deficits are associated with increased risk of neuropsychiatric complications in patients with Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2010;25:2099-104 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that severity of olfactory impairment early in the disease course may be a useful marker for the risk of neuropsychiatric complications of PD...
  83. Costanzo R, Miwa T. Posttraumatic olfactory loss. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;63:99-107 pubmed
  84. Brämerson A, Nordin S, Bende M. Clinical experience with patients with olfactory complaints, and their quality of life. Acta Otolaryngol. 2007;127:167-74 pubmed
    ..A special consulting team for patients with olfactory disorders would be able to verify, describe, and explain the characteristics of the disorders, also in cases where a patient experiences a disorder, but has a normal sense of smell...
  85. Ross G, Petrovitch H, Abbott R, Tanner C, Popper J, Masaki K, et al. Association of olfactory dysfunction with risk for future Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 2008;63:167-73 pubmed
    ..This study examines the association of olfactory dysfunction with future development of PD in Honolulu-Asia Aging Study cohort members..
  86. Raviv J, Kern R. Chronic rhinosinusitis and olfactory dysfunction. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;63:108-24 pubmed
    ..Although smell loss related to sinonasal disease is probably the most treatable form of olfactory dysfunction, most studies show that improved olfactory sensation in this setting is usually transient and incomplete...
  87. Oka H, Toyoda C, Yogo M, Mochio S. Olfactory dysfunction and cardiovascular dysautonomia in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol. 2010;257:969-76 pubmed publisher
    ..As non-motor symptoms of PD, olfactory dysfunction and autonomic network failure appear to be closely related in PD...
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    ..A long-term follow up might confirm the olfactory identification function as an early and reliable marker in the diagnosis of pre-clinical dementia...