febrile seizures

Summary

Summary: Seizures that occur during a febrile episode. It is a common condition, affecting 2-5% of children aged 3 months to five years. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance has been identified in some families. The majority are simple febrile seizures (generally defined as generalized onset, single seizures with a duration of less than 30 minutes). Complex febrile seizures are characterized by focal onset, duration greater than 30 minutes, and/or more than one seizure in a 24 hour period. The likelihood of developing epilepsy (i.e., a nonfebrile seizure disorder) following simple febrile seizures is low. Complex febrile seizures are associated with a moderately increased incidence of epilepsy. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p784)

Top Publications

  1. Rose W, Kirubakaran C, Scott J. Intermittent clobazam therapy in febrile seizures. Indian J Pediatr. 2005;72:31-3 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy of intermittent clobazam therapy in preventing the recurrence of febrile seizures and to assess its safety...
  2. Abou Khalil B, Krei L, Lazenby B, Harris P, Haines J, Hedera P. Familial genetic predisposition, epilepsy localization and antecedent febrile seizures. Epilepsy Res. 2007;73:104-10 pubmed
    ..in epilepsy may vary in relation to epilepsy classification and localization and factors such as antecedent febrile seizures. We assessed this genetic influence in a large epilepsy population...
  3. Wimmer V, Reid C, Mitchell S, Richards K, Scaf B, Leaw B, et al. Axon initial segment dysfunction in a mouse model of genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:2661-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Febrile seizures are a common childhood seizure disorder and a defining feature of genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), a syndrome frequently associated with Na+ channel mutations...
  4. Weber Y, Jacob M, Weber G, Lerche H. A BFIS-like syndrome with late onset and febrile seizures: suggestive linkage to chromosome 16p11.2-16q12.1. Epilepsia. 2008;49:1959-64 pubmed publisher
    ..and 20 months of age with clusters of complex-partial or generalized tonic-clonic seizures and a high rate of febrile seizures, which have not been described for BFIS previously...
  5. Scantlebury M, Heida J. Febrile seizures and temporal lobe epileptogenesis. Epilepsy Res. 2010;89:27-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Febrile seizures (FS) are a common neurological disorder that affects children...
  6. Liao W, Shi Y, Long Y, Zeng Y, Li T, Yu M, et al. Partial epilepsy with antecedent febrile seizures and seizure aggravation by antiepileptic drugs: associated with loss of function of Na(v) 1.1. Epilepsia. 2010;51:1669-78 pubmed publisher
    Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) and severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (SMEI) are associated with sodium channel ?-subunit type-1 gene (SCN1A) mutations...
  7. Claes L, Audenaert D, Deprez L, Van Paesschen W, Depondt C, Goossens D, et al. Novel locus on chromosome 12q22-q23.3 responsible for familial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with febrile seizures. J Med Genet. 2004;41:710-4 pubmed
  8. Takanashi J, Oba H, Barkovich A, Tada H, Tanabe Y, Yamanouchi H, et al. Diffusion MRI abnormalities after prolonged febrile seizures with encephalopathy. Neurology. 2006;66:1304-9; discussion 1291 pubmed
    ..Although the pathophysiologic mechanism remains unknown, these patients seem to have a distinctive encephalopathy syndrome. MRI is helpful in establishing the diagnosis of this encephalopathy. ..
  9. Anninos P, Kotini A, Tsalkidis A, Dipla V, Chatzimichael A. Magnetoencephalography evaluation of febrile seizures in young children. J Child Neurol. 2010;25:61-6 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to assess any cerebral dysfunction in young children, who experienced febrile seizures, by means of magnetoencephalography...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Suenaga N, Ichiyama T, Kubota M, Isumi H, Tohyama J, Furukawa S. Roles of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 in acute encephalopathy following prolonged febrile seizures. J Neurol Sci. 2008;266:126-30 pubmed
    Prolonged febrile seizures may be followed by acute encephalopathy with neurological sequelae...
  2. van Zeijl J, Mullaart R, Borm G, Galama J. Recurrence of febrile seizures in the respiratory season is associated with influenza A. J Pediatr. 2004;145:800-5 pubmed
    To investigate the association of viral infections and febrile seizures (FS)...
  3. Schlachter K, Gruber Sedlmayr U, Stogmann E, Lausecker M, Hotzy C, Balzar J, et al. A splice site variant in the sodium channel gene SCN1A confers risk of febrile seizures. Neurology. 2009;72:974-8 pubmed publisher
    Our aim was to investigate whether the risk of febrile seizures is influenced by a common functional polymorphism in the sodium channel gene SCN1A...
  4. Takano T, Sakaue Y, Sokoda T, Sawai C, Akabori S, Maruo Y, et al. Seizure susceptibility due to antihistamines in febrile seizures. Pediatr Neurol. 2010;42:277-9 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to determine whether seizure susceptibility due to antihistamines is provoked in patients with febrile seizures. The study population comprised 14 patients with simple febrile seizures and 35 patients with complex febrile ..
  5. Sijben A, Sithinamsuwan P, Radhakrishnan A, Badawy R, Dibbens L, Mazarib A, et al. Does a SCN1A gene mutation confer earlier age of onset of febrile seizures in GEFS+?. Epilepsia. 2009;50:953-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulated that earlier onset of febrile seizures in the febrile seizure (FS) and febrile seizure plus (FS+) phenotypes may occur in the presence of a SCN1A ..
  6. Audenaert D, Van Broeckhoven C, De Jonghe P. Genes and loci involved in febrile seizures and related epilepsy syndromes. Hum Mutat. 2006;27:391-401 pubmed
    ..About 13% of patients with epilepsy have a history of febrile seizures (FS)...
  7. Scheffer I, Harkin L, Dibbens L, Mulley J, Berkovic S. Neonatal epilepsy syndromes and generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). Epilepsia. 2005;46 Suppl 10:41-7 pubmed
  8. Baulac S, Gourfinkel An I, Couarch P, Depienne C, Kaminska A, Dulac O, et al. A novel locus for generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus in French families. Arch Neurol. 2008;65:943-51 pubmed publisher
    Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS(+)) is a familial autosomal dominant entity characterized by the association of febrile and afebrile seizures...
  9. Nabbout R, Baulac S, Desguerre I, Bahi Buisson N, Chiron C, Ruberg M, et al. New locus for febrile seizures with absence epilepsy on 3p and a possible modifier gene on 18p. Neurology. 2007;68:1374-81 pubmed
    To report a clinical and genetic study of a large family with febrile seizures (FS) and childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). This family was identified through a French campaign for familial epilepsies...
  10. Audenaert D, Schwartz E, Claeys K, Claes L, Deprez L, Suls A, et al. A novel GABRG2 mutation associated with febrile seizures. Neurology. 2006;67:687-90 pubmed
    ..acid type A receptor (GABRG2) have been reported to cause childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), febrile seizures (FS), and generalized epilepsy with FS plus (GEFS+)...
  11. Haspolat S, Baysal Y, Duman O, Coskun M, Tosun O, Yegin O. Interleukin-1alpha, interleukin-1beta, and interleukin-1Ra polymorphisms in febrile seizures. J Child Neurol. 2005;20:565-8 pubmed
    b>Febrile seizures are the most common form of childhood seizures...
  12. Sun H, Zhang Y, Liang J, Liu X, Ma X, Wu H, et al. SCN1A, SCN1B, and GABRG2 gene mutation analysis in Chinese families with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus. J Hum Genet. 2008;53:769-74 pubmed publisher
    Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+; MIM#604233) is a familial epilepsy syndrome characterized by phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity...
  13. Hartfield D, Tan J, Yager J, Rosychuk R, Spady D, Haines C, et al. The association between iron deficiency and febrile seizures in childhood. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2009;48:420-6 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between iron deficiency and febrile seizures in a large cohort of children aged 6 to 36 months...
  14. Dube C, Brunson K, Eghbal Ahmadi M, Gonzalez Vega R, Baram T. Endogenous neuropeptide Y prevents recurrence of experimental febrile seizures by increasing seizure threshold. J Mol Neurosci. 2005;25:275-84 pubmed
    b>Febrile seizures (FSs) typically occur at the onset of fever and do not recur within the same febrile episode despite enduring or increased hyperthermia...
  15. Huang M, Huang C, Thomas K. Febrile convulsions: development and validation of a questionnaire to measure parental knowledge, attitudes, concerns and practices. J Formos Med Assoc. 2006;105:38-48 pubmed
    ..For research purposes, the KACP questionnaire measures parental responses with a moderate level of reliability and validity. Cross-cultural investigation of the questionnaire is needed to facilitate its use in other countries. ..
  16. Livingston J, Cross J, McLellan A, Birch R, Zuberi S. A novel inherited mutation in the voltage sensor region of SCN1A is associated with Panayiotopoulos syndrome in siblings and generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus. J Child Neurol. 2009;24:503-8 pubmed publisher
    ..one of whom had Panayiotopoulos syndrome and the other a phenotype consistent with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus...
  17. Gordon K, Dooley J, Wood E, Brna P, Bethune P. Which characteristics of children with a febrile seizure are associated with subsequent physician visits?. Pediatrics. 2004;114:962-4 pubmed
    ..Children with a known family history of febrile seizures at the time of study entry had 24% fewer physician visits...
  18. Mancardi M, Striano P, Gennaro E, Madia F, Paravidino R, Scapolan S, et al. Familial occurrence of febrile seizures and epilepsy in severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI) patients with SCN1A mutations. Epilepsia. 2006;47:1629-35 pubmed
    ..has been traditionally emphasized in literature, with 25-70% of the patients having a family history of febrile seizures (FS) or epilepsy...
  19. Millar J. Evaluation and treatment of the child with febrile seizure. Am Fam Physician. 2006;73:1761-4 pubmed
    ..Antipyretics are effective in reducing the risk of febrile seizures if given early in the illness...
  20. Nakayama J, Yamamoto N, Hamano K, Iwasaki N, Ohta M, Nakahara S, et al. Linkage and association of febrile seizures to the IMPA2 gene on human chromosome 18. Neurology. 2004;63:1803-7 pubmed
    b>Febrile seizures (FSs) are the most common form of childhood seizures, and genetic factors play a role in susceptibility to FS. To identify novel loci and genes associated with susceptibility to FS...
  21. Mantegazza M, Gambardella A, Rusconi R, Schiavon E, Annesi F, Cassulini R, et al. Identification of an Nav1.1 sodium channel (SCN1A) loss-of-function mutation associated with familial simple febrile seizures. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18177-82 pubmed
    b>Febrile seizures (FS) affect 5-12% of infants and children up to 6 years of age...
  22. Vestergaard M, Wisborg K, Henriksen T, Secher N, Ostergaard J, Olsen J. Prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures. Pediatrics. 2005;116:1089-94 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures in 2 population-based birth cohorts...
  23. Shaked O, Peña B, Linares M, Baker R. Simple febrile seizures: are the AAP guidelines regarding lumbar puncture being followed?. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009;25:8-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The AAP recommendations regarding simple febrile seizures were conceived in a different epidemiologic era of disease pathology with data not representative of current ..
  24. Laina I, Syriopoulou V, Daikos G, Roma E, Papageorgiou F, Kakourou T, et al. Febrile seizures and primary human herpesvirus 6 infection. Pediatr Neurol. 2010;42:28-31 pubmed publisher
    ..herpesvirus 6 infection is acquired mainly during the first two years of life and is often associated with febrile seizures. The aim of the present study was to investigate in Greece the frequency and clinical characteristics of ..
  25. Schuchmann S, Schmitz D, Rivera C, Vanhatalo S, Salmen B, Mackie K, et al. Experimental febrile seizures are precipitated by a hyperthermia-induced respiratory alkalosis. Nat Med. 2006;12:817-23 pubmed
    b>Febrile seizures are frequent during early childhood, and prolonged (complex) febrile seizures are associated with an increased susceptibility to temporal lobe epilepsy...
  26. Ishizaki Y, Kira R, Fukuda M, Torisu H, Sakai Y, Sanefuji M, et al. Interleukin-10 is associated with resistance to febrile seizures: genetic association and experimental animal studies. Epilepsia. 2009;50:761-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common form of childhood convulsions. Many reports have shown that a proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1) beta, may have a facilitatory effect on the development of FS...
  27. Zerr D, Blume H, Berg A, Del Beccaro M, Gospe S, Allpress A, et al. Nonfebrile illness seizures: a unique seizure category?. Epilepsia. 2005;46:952-5 pubmed
    ..Children with nonfebrile illness seizures were more likely than children with febrile seizures to have diarrheal illnesses accompanying their seizure (44 vs. 16%; p=0.001)...
  28. Joshi C, Wawrykow T, Patrick J, Prasad A. Do clinical variables predict an abnormal EEG in patients with complex febrile seizures?. Seizure. 2005;14:429-34 pubmed
    b>Febrile seizures are the commonest convulsive event in children younger than 5 years of age (incidence of 2-5%). Electroencephalography (EEG) is not indicated in the work up of simple febrile seizures...
  29. Yu Z, Jiang J, Wu D, Xie H, Jiang J, Zhou L, et al. Febrile seizures are associated with mutation of seizure-related (SEZ) 6, a brain-specific gene. J Neurosci Res. 2007;85:166-72 pubmed
    Genetic factors contribute significantly to the etiology of febrile seizures (FS), the most common type of seizures in childhood. However, in most patients with FS, the causative gene is unknown...
  30. Spampanato J, Kearney J, de Haan G, McEwen D, Escayg A, Aradi I, et al. A novel epilepsy mutation in the sodium channel SCN1A identifies a cytoplasmic domain for beta subunit interaction. J Neurosci. 2004;24:10022-34 pubmed
    ..channel SCN1A was identified in a small Italian family with dominantly inherited generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+)...
  31. Waruiru C, Appleton R. Febrile seizures: an update. Arch Dis Child. 2004;89:751-6 pubmed
    This review focuses on the latest knowledge and understanding of febrile seizures and outlines the more important issues in the management of children who present with an apparent "febrile seizure"...
  32. Püst B. [Febrile seizures--an update]. Kinderkrankenschwester. 2004;23:328-31 pubmed
    b>Febrile seizures are most common seizures in childhood (2-4%). Children with simple febrile seizures only have a slightly increased risk of epilepsy. Recurrences are common...
  33. Seltz L, Cohen E, Weinstein M. Risk of bacterial or herpes simplex virus meningitis/encephalitis in children with complex febrile seizures. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009;25:494-7 pubmed publisher
    ..rates of bacterial meningitis and herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis in children presenting with complex febrile seizures. Health records from 2002 to 2006 of all children 6 months to 6 years with a discharge diagnosis from the ..
  34. Kinney H, Chadwick A, Crandall L, Grafe M, Armstrong D, Kupsky W, et al. Sudden death, febrile seizures, and hippocampal and temporal lobe maldevelopment in toddlers: a new entity. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2009;12:455-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The association of these anomalies with a high incidence (40%) of individual/family histories of simple febrile seizures in the cases raised concern that febrile seizures can be associated with death...
  35. Stehr Green P, Radke S, Kieft C, Galloway Y, McNicholas A, Reid S. The risk of simple febrile seizures after immunisation with a new group B meningococcal vaccine, New Zealand. Vaccine. 2008;26:739-42 pubmed publisher
    ..vaccination campaign in New Zealand, we examined the possible excess risk of vaccine-associated simple febrile seizures (SFS)...
  36. Xu R, Thomas E, Gazina E, Richards K, Quick M, Wallace R, et al. Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus-associated sodium channel beta1 subunit mutations severely reduce beta subunit-mediated modulation of sodium channel function. Neuroscience. 2007;148:164-74 pubmed
    ..channel beta1 subunit have been identified in individuals from two families with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+)...
  37. Kanai K, Hirose S, Oguni H, Fukuma G, Shirasaka Y, Miyajima T, et al. Effect of localization of missense mutations in SCN1A on epilepsy phenotype severity. Neurology. 2004;63:329-34 pubmed
    ..voltage-gated sodium channel subunit gene SCN1A were identified in patients with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) and severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI), although GEFS+ is distinct from SMEI in terms ..
  38. Vestergaard M, Obel C, Henriksen T, Christensen J, Madsen K, Ostergaard J, et al. The Danish National Hospital Register is a valuable study base for epidemiologic research in febrile seizures. J Clin Epidemiol. 2006;59:61-6 pubmed
    We examined the quality and completeness of the discharge diagnosis of febrile seizures in the Danish National Hospital Register (DNHR)...
  39. Owusu Ofori A, Agbenyega T, Ansong D, Scheld W. Routine lumbar puncture in children with febrile seizures in Ghana: should it continue?. Int J Infect Dis. 2004;8:353-61 pubmed
    Performing routine lumbar punctures in children with febrile seizures has been controversial...
  40. Tang B, Dutt K, Papale L, Rusconi R, Shankar A, Hunter J, et al. A BAC transgenic mouse model reveals neuron subtype-specific effects of a Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus (GEFS+) mutation. Neurobiol Dis. 2009;35:91-102 pubmed publisher
    ..sodium channel SCN1A are responsible for a number of seizure disorders including Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus (GEFS+) and Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy of Infancy (SMEI)...
  41. Vestergaard M, Hviid A, Madsen K, Wohlfahrt J, Thorsen P, Schendel D, et al. MMR vaccination and febrile seizures: evaluation of susceptible subgroups and long-term prognosis. JAMA. 2004;292:351-7 pubmed
    The rate of febrile seizures increases following measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination but it is unknown whether the rate varies according to personal or family history of seizures, perinatal factors, or socioeconomic status...
  42. Mashimo T, Ohmori I, Ouchida M, Ohno Y, Tsurumi T, Miki T, et al. A missense mutation of the gene encoding voltage-dependent sodium channel (Nav1.1) confers susceptibility to febrile seizures in rats. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5744-53 pubmed publisher
    Although febrile seizures (FSs) are the most common convulsive syndrome in infants and childhood, the etiology of FSs has remained unclarified. Several missense mutations of the Na(v)1...
  43. Dai X, Chen W, Wang X, Zhu Q, Li C, Li L, et al. A novel genetic locus for familial febrile seizures and epilepsy on chromosome 3q26.2-q26.33. Hum Genet. 2008;124:423-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Febrile seizures (FS) are common in children, and the incidence is 2-5% before the age of 5 years. A four-generation Chinese family with autosomal dominant febrile seizure and epilepsy was studied by genome-wide linkage analysis...
  44. Auer T, Barsi P, Bone B, Angyalosi A, Aradi M, Szalay C, et al. History of simple febrile seizures is associated with hippocampal abnormalities in adults. Epilepsia. 2008;49:1562-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the hippocampal abnormality in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a consequence or the cause of afebrile or febrile seizures (FSs)...
  45. Kang J, Kang J, Macdonald R. The GABAA receptor gamma2 subunit R43Q mutation linked to childhood absence epilepsy and febrile seizures causes retention of alpha1beta2gamma2S receptors in the endoplasmic reticulum. J Neurosci. 2004;24:8672-7 pubmed
    ..gamma2 subunit mutation R43Q is an autosomal dominant mutation associated with childhood absence epilepsy and febrile seizures. Previously, we demonstrated that homozygous alpha1beta3gamma2L(R43Q) receptor whole-cell currents had ..
  46. Naveed ur Rehman -, Billoo A. Association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile seizures. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2005;15:338-40 pubmed
    ..These were divided into two groups with children having febrile seizures comprised the cases while those having only febrile illness with no seizures comprised the controls...
  47. Herrgård E, Karvonen M, Luoma L, Saavalainen P, Maatta S, Laukkanen E, et al. Increased number of febrile seizures in children born very preterm: relation of neonatal, febrile and epileptic seizures and neurological dysfunction to seizure outcome at 16 years of age. Seizure. 2006;15:590-7 pubmed
    ..Eight children had only febrile seizures, and 3 of these had both multiple simple and complex febrile seizures and neurodevelopmental dysfunction...
  48. Kwong K, Lam S, Que T, Wong S. Influenza A and febrile seizures in childhood. Pediatr Neurol. 2006;35:395-9 pubmed
    The aims of the present study are to identify predisposing factors of febrile seizures in influenza A infection and to clarify the special characteristics of febrile seizures in children with influenza A infection...
  49. Auvichayapat P, Auvichayapat N, Jedsrisuparp A, Thinkhamrop B, Sriroj S, Piyakulmala T, et al. Incidence of febrile seizures in thalassemic patients. J Med Assoc Thai. 2004;87:970-3 pubmed
    b>Febrile seizures are the most common seizures in children. Their incidence is 2-5% or 4.8/1000 person-years. To date, the pathophysiology of febrile seizures is unknown...
  50. Dubé C, Brewster A, Baram T. Febrile seizures: mechanisms and relationship to epilepsy. Brain Dev. 2009;31:366-71 pubmed publisher
    Studies of febrile seizures have been driven by two major enigmas: first, how these most common of human seizures are generated by fever has not been known...
  51. Kira R, Torisu H, Takemoto M, Nomura A, Sakai Y, Sanefuji M, et al. Genetic susceptibility to simple febrile seizures: interleukin-1beta promoter polymorphisms are associated with sporadic cases. Neurosci Lett. 2005;384:239-44 pubmed
    b>Febrile seizures (FSs) are the commonest form of convulsions. A genetic predisposition to FSs is known, based on family studies, twin studies, and complex segregation analysis...
  52. Scheffer I, Zhang Y, Jansen F, Dibbens L. Dravet syndrome or genetic (generalized) epilepsy with febrile seizures plus?. Brain Dev. 2009;31:394-400 pubmed publisher
    Dravet syndrome and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) can both arise due to mutations of SCN1A, the gene encoding the alpha 1 pore-forming subunit of the sodium channel...
  53. Singh N, Pappas C, Dahle E, Claes L, Pruess T, De Jonghe P, et al. A role of SCN9A in human epilepsies, as a cause of febrile seizures and as a potential modifier of Dravet syndrome. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000649 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides evidence for a role of SCN9A in human epilepsies, both as a cause of FS and as a partner with SCN1A mutations. ..