alcohol withdrawal seizures


Summary: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)

Top Publications

  1. Hughes J. Alcohol withdrawal seizures. Epilepsy Behav. 2009;15:92-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapy has emphasized benzodiazepines, mainly diazepam and lorazepam, but more standard antiepileptic drugs, like carbamazepine and topiramate, are also effective and safe...
  2. Cuculi F, Kobza R, Ehmann T, Erne P. ECG changes amongst patients with alcohol withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. Swiss Med Wkly. 2006;136:223-7 pubmed
    b>Alcohol withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens (DT) are serious complications of alcohol dependence. The prevalence of arrhythmias and other electrocardiographic (ECG) changes occurring in these clinical situations is not well studied.
  3. Finn D, Gallaher E, Crabbe J. Differential change in neuroactive steroid sensitivity during ethanol withdrawal. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000;292:394-405 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that sensitization to the anticonvulsant effect of 3alpha,5alpha-P during EtOH withdrawal does not generalize across all genotypes nor does it generalize to all of the pharmacological effects of 3alpha,5alpha-P...
  4. Blondell R, Dodds H, Blondell M, Looney S, Smoger S, Sexton L, et al. Ethanol in formularies of US teaching hospitals. JAMA. 2003;289:552 pubmed
  5. Kim J, Karpyak V, Biernacka J, Nam H, Lee M, Preuss U, et al. Functional role of the polymorphic 647 T/C variant of ENT1 (SLC29A1) and its association with alcohol withdrawal seizures. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16331 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, in humans, the ENT1 (SLC29A1) gene contains a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (647 T/C; rs45573936) that might be involved in the functional change of ENT1...
  6. Bienkowski P, Krzascik P, Koros E, Kostowski W, Scinska A, Danysz W. Effects of a novel uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MRZ 2/579 on ethanol self-administration and ethanol withdrawal seizures in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001;413:81-9 pubmed
  7. Schafer G, Crabbe J, Wiren K. Ethanol-regulated gene expression of neuroendocrine specific protein in mice: brain region and genotype specificity. Brain Res. 2001;897:139-49 pubmed
    ..Overall, the results indicate a complex pattern of ethanol-induced regulation of the putative mouse homologue of RTN1 and suggest that specific brain regional changes may be involved in the expression of physical dependence. ..
  8. Mason J, Eshleman A, Belknap J, Crabbe J, Loftis J, Macey T, et al. NMDA receptor subunit mRNA and protein expression in ethanol-withdrawal seizure-prone and -resistant mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001;25:651-60 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that at the level of both mRNA and protein, NMDA receptor subunit and splice variant expression can be uncoupled from convulsion severity in mice that have been selectively bred for symptoms of ethanol withdrawal. ..
  9. Dachs R. Responding to an in-flight emergency. Am Fam Physician. 2003;68:975-6 pubmed

More Information

Publications130 found, 100 shown here

  1. Bayerlein K, Hillemacher T, Reulbach U, Mugele B, Sperling W, Kornhuber J, et al. Alcoholism-associated hyperhomocysteinemia and previous withdrawal seizures. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;57:1590-3 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it has been shown that high homocysteine levels predicted first-onset alcohol withdrawal seizures. The aim of the present study was to determine plasma homocysteine levels in actively drinking ..
  2. Tanchuck M, Cozzoli D, He I, Kaufman K, Snelling C, Crabbe J, et al. Local changes in neurosteroid levels in the substantia nigra reticulata and the ventral tegmental area alter chronic ethanol withdrawal severity in male withdrawal seizure-prone mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013;37:784-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, EtOH withdrawal reduced sensitivity of GABAA Rs to GABAergic neurosteroids in 2 neuroanatomical substrates within the basal ganglia in WSP-1 male mice. ..
  3. Bleich S, Bayerlein K, Hillemacher T, Degner D, Kornhuber J, Frieling H. An assessment of the potential value of elevated homocysteine in predicting alcohol-withdrawal seizures. Epilepsia. 2006;47:934-8 pubmed
    ..This pilot study gives further hints that biologic markers may be helpful to predict patients at risk for first-onset alcohol-withdrawal seizures. ..
  4. Vaaramo K, Puljula J, Tetri S, Juvela S, Hillbom M. Mortality of subjects with alcohol-related seizures increased after alcohol cheapening. Acta Neurol Scand. 2014;129:56-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the political decision to lower alcohol price associated with a significant increase in the mortality rate of subjects with alcohol-related seizures. ..
  5. Shaw R, McNaughton G. Emergency airway management in a case of lingual haematoma. Emerg Med J. 2001;18:408-9 pubmed
    ..The aetiogy of acute tongue swelling and modern emergency airway algorithms are discussed with reference to the literature. ..
  6. Bleich S, Loffelholz K, Kornhuber J. [Folate against hyperhomocysteinemia. A new approach for the prevention and therapy of alcoholism-associated disorders?]. Nervenarzt. 2004;75:425-30 pubmed
    ..Taking into account that high plasma homocysteine levels are helpful in the prediction of alcohol withdrawal seizures, early anti-convulsive therapy could prevent this severe complication...
  7. Kliethermes C, Cronise K, Crabbe J. Home cage activity and ingestive behaviors in mice following chronic ethanol vapor inhalation. Physiol Behav. 2005;85:479-88 pubmed
    ..Further, even in a relatively severe mouse model of alcohol withdrawal, any decreases in general home cage activity are short-lived. ..
  8. Wood J, Carney J, Szczepanski K, Calello D, Hurt H. Transplacental isopropanol exposure: case report and review of metabolic principles. J Perinatol. 2007;27:183-5 pubmed
    ..Blood samples from the infant revealed toxic levels of isopropanol. Similar symptoms have been reported in infants with isopropanol toxicity from other routes of exposure. ..
  9. Uzbay I, Yesilyurt O, Celik T, Ergun H, Isimer A. Effects of agmatine on ethanol withdrawal syndrome in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2000;107:153-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that agmatine attenuates withdrawal syndrome in ethanol-dependent rats; thus, this drug may be beneficial in the treatment of ethanol dependence. ..
  10. Pesola G, Avasarala J. Bupropion seizure proportion among new-onset generalized seizures and drug related seizures presenting to an emergency department. J Emerg Med. 2002;22:235-9 pubmed
    ..Possibly, greater exclusion criteria are needed than currently recommended for the use of bupropion at therapeutic doses. ..
  11. Denmark D, Buck K. Molecular analyses and identification of promising candidate genes for loci on mouse chromosome 1 affecting alcohol physical dependence and associated withdrawal. Genes Brain Behav. 2008;7:599-608 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results will be primary to further efforts to identify genes involved in a wide variety of behavioral responses to alcohol and may directly facilitate progress in human alcoholism genetics. ..
  12. Karpyak V, Kim J, Biernacka J, Wieben E, Mrazek D, Black J, et al. Sequence variations of the human MPDZ gene and association with alcoholism in subjects with European ancestry. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009;33:712-21 pubmed publisher
    ..boundaries, and 2 kilobases in the 5' region of the human MPDZ gene in 61 subjects with a history of alcohol withdrawal seizures (AWS), 59 subjects with a history of alcohol withdrawal without AWS, and 64 Coriell samples from self-..
  13. Lutz U. Alterations in homocysteine metabolism among alcohol dependent patients--clinical, pathobiochemical and genetic aspects. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2008;1:47-55 pubmed
    ..Elevation of plasma homocysteine concentration is considered as a predictor for the occurrence of alcohol withdrawal seizures and--as homocysteine is a cardiovascular risk factor--might contribute to the higher risk for ..
  14. Ripley T, Dunworth S, Stephens D. Effect of CGP39551 administration on the kindling of ethanol-withdrawal seizures. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002;163:157-65 pubmed
    ..Treatment with an NMDA receptor-competitive antagonist potentiated the ethanol-withdrawal syndrome in animals with previous experience of ethanol withdrawal. ..
  15. Metten P, Sorensen M, Cameron A, Yu C, Crabbe J. Withdrawal severity after chronic intermittent ethanol in inbred mouse strains. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010;34:1552-64 pubmed publisher
  16. Kurth C, Wegerer V, Degner D, Sperling W, Kornhuber J, Paulus W, et al. Risk assessment of alcohol withdrawal seizures with a Kohonen feature map. Neuroreport. 2001;12:1235-8 pubmed
    ..hyperhomocysteinaemia in patients suffering from chronic alcoholism might be a risk factor for alcohol withdrawal seizures. In the present follow-up study 12 patients with chronic alcoholism who suffered from withdrawal ..
  17. Faingold C. The Majchrowicz binge alcohol protocol: an intubation technique to study alcohol dependence in rats. Curr Protoc Neurosci. 2008;Chapter 9:Unit 9.28 pubmed publisher
    ..One specific behavior observed during ethanol withdrawal and described here is sound-induced (audiogenic) convulsive seizure. ..
  18. LaRoche S, Shivdat Nanhoe R. Subacute encephalopathy and seizures in alcoholics (SESA) presenting with non-convulsive status epilepticus. Seizure. 2011;20:505-8 pubmed publisher
    ..seizures and focal neurological deficits and is quite distinct from patients presenting with typical alcohol withdrawal seizures. EEG often reveals periodic discharges and spikes, but SESA presenting with non-convulsive status ..
  19. Karagülle D, Heberlein A, Wilhelm J, Frieling H, Kornhuber J, Bleich S, et al. Biological markers for alcohol withdrawal seizures: a retrospective analysis. Eur Addict Res. 2012;18:97-102 pubmed publisher
    b>Alcohol withdrawal seizures (AWS) are among the most important possible complications during the detoxification treatment of alcohol-dependent patients...
  20. Gorin R, Crabbe J, Tanchuck M, Long S, Finn D. Effects of finasteride on chronic and acute ethanol withdrawal severity in the WSP and WSR selected lines. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005;29:939-48 pubmed
    ..The differential effect of finasteride on acute versus chronic EtOH withdrawal severity may result from an indirect effect of finasteride on EtOH pharmacokinetics in the chronic paradigm. ..
  21. Akinfiresoye L, Miranda C, Lovinger D, N GOUEMO P. Alcohol Withdrawal Increases Protein Kinase A Activity in the Rat Inferior Colliculus. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2016;40:2359-2367 pubmed publisher a key target for the action of alcohol and may therefore play a role in the pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawal seizures (AWSs)...
  22. Foster J. The recognition and treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal. Nurs Times. 2004;100:40-3 pubmed
    ..This article describes the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal that are likely to be encountered in a general hospital setting, and offers evidence-based guidance on monitoring the process and providing nursing care. ..
  23. Nguyen L, Rhondali W, De la Cruz M, Hui D, Palmer L, Kang D, et al. Frequency and predictors of patient deviation from prescribed opioids and barriers to opioid pain management in patients with advanced cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2013;45:506-16 pubmed publisher
    ..57±0.72 for higher score, P=0.001. Very few patients reported dose deviations, which were mostly toward lower dose. More research is necessary to better characterize the frequency and predictors of opioid deviation in this population. ..
  24. Sarai M, Tejani A, Chan A, Kuo I, Li J. Magnesium for alcohol withdrawal. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;:CD008358 pubmed publisher
    ..22 to 0.30). No clinically important changes in adverse events were reported. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether magnesium is beneficial or harmful for the treatment or prevention of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. ..
  25. Daeppen J, Gache P, Landry U, Sekera E, Schweizer V, Gloor S, et al. Symptom-triggered vs fixed-schedule doses of benzodiazepine for alcohol withdrawal: a randomized treatment trial. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:1117-21 pubmed
    ..Symptom-triggered benzodiazepine treatment for alcohol withdrawal is safe, comfortable, and associated with a decrease in the quantity of medication and duration of treatment. ..
  26. Mariani J, Levin F. Pharmacotherapy for alcohol-related disorders: what clinicians should know. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2004;12:351-66 pubmed
    ..The routine exclusion of alcohol-dependent patients from pharmacotherapy trials of psychiatric disorders presents a barrier to gathering more data. Recommendations for future research are discussed. ..
  27. Ntais C, Pakos E, Kyzas P, Ioannidis J. Benzodiazepines for alcohol withdrawal. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;:CD005063 pubmed
    ..Benzodiazepines offered a large benefit against alcohol withdrawal seizures compared to placebo (relative risk [RR] 0.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04 to 0.69; p = 0.01)...
  28. Becker H, Myrick H, Veatch L. Pregabalin is effective against behavioral and electrographic seizures during alcohol withdrawal. Alcohol Alcohol. 2006;41:399-406 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that pregabalin may be an effective therapeutic agent for medical management of alcohol detoxification. ..
  29. Reilly W, Koirala B, Devaud L. Sex differences in acoustic startle responses and seizure thresholds between ethanol-withdrawn male and female rats. Alcohol Alcohol. 2009;44:561-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings add weight to recommendations that treatment of alcohol withdrawal in humans should consider hormonal status as well as withdrawal time. ..
  30. Riley H, ZALUD A, Diaz Granados J. The influence of a chronic adolescent nicotine exposure on ethanol withdrawal severity during adulthood in C3H mice. Alcohol. 2010;44:81-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have serious implications for the long-term consequences following co-abuse of these drugs during adolescence. ..
  31. Scorza F, Arida R, Cysneiros R, Priel M, de Albuquerque M, Cavalheiro E. The effects of alcohol intake and withdrawal on the seizures frequency and hippocampal morphology in rats with epilepsy. Neurosci Res. 2003;47:323-8 pubmed
    ..The alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a crucial event for the development of functional and neuropathological alterations associated with epilepsy. ..
  32. Bonnet U, Hamzavi Abedi R, Specka M, Wiltfang J, Lieb B, Scherbaum N. An open trial of gabapentin in acute alcohol withdrawal using an oral loading protocol. Alcohol Alcohol. 2010;45:143-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, two developed an epileptic seizure. Oral 800 mg gabapentin (loaded up to 3200 mg in the first 24 h) is helpful only in reducing less severe and less complicated acute AWS. ..
  33. Lopez M, Grahame N, Becker H. Development of ethanol withdrawal-related sensitization and relapse drinking in mice selected for high- or low-ethanol preference. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35:953-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, intermittent ethanol vapor exposure appears more likely to affect high-drinking mice (C57BL/6J and HAP-2) than low drinkers, although these animals are less affected by ethanol withdrawal. ..
  34. Gortney J, Raub J, Patel P, Kokoska L, Hannawa M, Argyris A. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome in medical patients. Cleve Clin J Med. 2016;83:67-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors provide a critical review focusing on pharmacotherapy of alcohol withdrawal syndrome in hospitalized patients who are not critically ill. They outline recommendations for patient assessment and monitoring. ..
  35. Schmidt L, Samochowiec J, Finckh U, Fiszer Piosik E, Horodnicki J, Wendel B, et al. Association of a CB1 cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) polymorphism with severe alcohol dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2002;65:221-4 pubmed
    ..031, DF 2), suggesting s an increased risk of delirium (OR=2.45, 95% CI 1.14--5.25). This finding suggests that the homozygous genotype CNR1 1359A/A confers vulnerability to alcohol withdrawal delirium. ..
  36. Verbanck P. [Clinical and therapeutic aspects in the treatment of alcohol addiction]. Rev Med Brux. 2002;23:A324-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, alcohol reduces the response to interferon therapy. ..
  37. Chen W, Yin H, Lin H, Chen S, Liu J. Delayed hypokalemic paralysis following a convulsion due to alcohol abstinence. J Clin Neurosci. 2006;13:453-6 pubmed
    ..These findings warn of the lethal hypokalemia that may occur after convulsions, particularly soon after alcohol abstinence associated with moderate withdrawal symptoms. ..
  38. Feng H, Faingold C. The effects of chronic ethanol administration on amygdala neuronal firing and ethanol withdrawal seizures. Neuropharmacology. 2008;55:648-53 pubmed publisher
  39. Kalra N, Khetpal P, Sorrell V. Seriously stressed. Am J Med. 2009;122:735-7 pubmed publisher
  40. Mhatre M, McKenzie S, Gonzalez L. Diazepam during prior ethanol withdrawals does not alter seizure susceptibility during a subsequent withdrawal. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2001;68:339-46 pubmed
    ..This finding suggests that suppression of acute withdrawal symptoms by diazepam does not prevent long-lasting changes in CNS function resulting from repeated exposures to ethanol withdrawal. ..
  41. Rujescu D, Soyka M, Dahmen N, Preuss U, Hartmann A, Giegling I, et al. GRIN1 locus may modify the susceptibility to seizures during alcohol withdrawal. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2005;133B:85-7 pubmed
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that the GRIN1 locus may modify the susceptibility to seizures during alcohol withdrawal. This novel finding warrants replication. ..
  42. Rathlev N, Ulrich A, Delanty N, D ONOFRIO G. Alcohol-related seizures. J Emerg Med. 2006;31:157-63 pubmed
    ..Our purpose is to present recommendations for the diagnostic evaluation, treatment and disposition of these patients based on the current literature. ..
  43. Becker H, Veatch L. Effects of lorazepam treatment for multiple ethanol withdrawals in mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002;26:371-80 pubmed
  44. Bråthen G. [Alcohol and epilepsy]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2003;123:1536-8 pubmed
    ..There is little evidence to support the general advice that well-controlled epilepsy patients need to abstain completely from alcohol. ..
  45. Preuss U, Koller G, Bahlmann M, Zill P, Soyka M, Bondy B. No association between metabotropic glutamate receptors 7 and 8 (mGlur7 and mGlur8) gene polymorphisms and withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens in alcohol-dependent individuals. Alcohol Alcohol. 2002;37:174-8 pubmed
    ..The negative results in this study question the role of these polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of alcohol withdrawal-induced seizures and delirium tremens. ..
  46. Chin P, Branch K, Becker K. Myocardial infarction following brief convulsive seizures. Neurology. 2004;63:2453-4 pubmed
  47. Fernandez Torre J, Martinez Martinez M. Non-convulsive status epilepticus as an unrecognized cause of acute confusion in alcoholics. Eur J Neurol. 2007;14:e14-5 pubmed
  48. Guerreiro R, Fontoura P. Hourglass brain. Neurology. 2008;71:149 pubmed publisher
  49. Knapp D, Breese G. Models of chronic alcohol exposure and dependence. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;829:205-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These include but are not limited to intensity and pattern of alcohol exposure, seizure sensitivity during withdrawal, and emotional responding. ..
  50. Yazdan Ashoori P, Nichols R, Baranchuk A. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy precipitated by alcohol withdrawal. Cardiol J. 2012;19:81-5 pubmed
    ..Several clinical conditions have been reported as triggers of TCM. We report a case of TCM in a post-menopausal woman that was precipitated by alcohol withdrawal. ..
  51. Brown J, McColm R, Aindow J, Anderson J. Nursing assessment and management of alcohol-related brain damage in young people. Nurs Times. 2009;105:20-3 pubmed
    ..This one part unit outlines the main signs and symptoms of Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome. It details nursing assessment and management of these conditions, as well as regimens for safe detoxification. ..
  52. Sand T, Bjørk M, Bråthen G, Michler R, Brodtkorb E, Bovim G. Quantitative EEG in patients with alcohol-related seizures. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010;34:1751-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A QEEG with slightly reduced alpha amplitude supports a clinical diagnosis of ARS. An abnormally slow QEEG profile and asymmetry in the temporal regions indicates ES. QEEG predicted the clinical diagnosis better than standard EEG. ..
  53. Rathlev N, Ulrich A, Fish S, D ONOFRIO G. Clinical characteristics as predictors of recurrent alcohol-related seizures. Acad Emerg Med. 2000;7:886-91 pubmed
    ..01). An initial ethanol level higher than 100 mg/dL was significantly associated with a low risk for recurrent alcohol-related seizures during the observation period. No other low-risk clinical characteristics could be identified. ..
  54. Kivisaari J. [Is alcohol normalizing factor?]. Duodecim. 2005;121:2714 pubmed
  55. Coutin Churchman P, Moreno R, Añez Y, Vergara F. Clinical correlates of quantitative EEG alterations in alcoholic patients. Clin Neurophysiol. 2006;117:740-51 pubmed
    ..This study show the relation of specific QEEG alterations to certain clinical features found in alcoholics, in a further attempt to elucidate the semiological value of those alterations in individual patients. ..
  56. Olive M, Becker H. Effects of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 and the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP on handling-induced convulsions during ethanol withdrawal in mice. Alcohol. 2008;42:191-7 pubmed publisher
  57. Du Y, Nie Y, Li Y, Wan Y. The association between the SLC6A3 VNTR 9-repeat allele and alcoholism-a meta-analysis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35:1625-34 pubmed publisher
    ..05, OR 1.5-2.1). Meta-analyses suggest a possible association between the SLC6A3 VNTR A9 and alcoholic subgroup with AWS or DT. ..
  58. Mark G, Finn D. The relationship between hippocampal acetylcholine release and cholinergic convulsant sensitivity in withdrawal seizure-prone and withdrawal seizure-resistant selected mouse lines. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002;26:1141-52 pubmed
    ..Specifically, WSP mice may have lower sensitivity to cholinergic convulsants compared with WSR because of postsynaptic receptor desensitization brought on by higher activity of cholinergic neurons. ..
  59. Mack A. Examination of the evidence for off-label use of gabapentin. J Manag Care Pharm. 2003;9:559-68 pubmed
  60. Lanternier F, Somogyi A, Kahn J, Leport J. [Acute necrotizing esophagitis and Wernicke's encephalopathy in an alcoholic/smoker discovered during alcohol withdrawal]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2004;28:1299-300 pubmed
  61. Shibasaki M, Kurokawa K, Mizuno K, Suzuki T, Ohkuma S. Actin dynamics in development of behavioral sensitization after withdrawal from long-term ethanol administration to mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2012;36:1385-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings presented here suggest that withdrawal from EtOH physical dependence causes behavioral sensitization to EtOH, which may be, at least in part, mediated by alternation of actin dynamics. ..
  62. Devaud L, Walls S, McCulley W, Rosenwasser A. Voluntary wheel running attenuates ethanol withdrawal-induced increases in seizure susceptibility in male and female rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012;103:18-25 pubmed
    ..This effect may be mediated, in part, in male, but not in female rat, by effects of exercise on early pharmacokinetic contributions. This supports the idea that encouraging alcoholics to exercise may benefit their recovery. ..
  63. Hattemer K, Knake S, Oertel W, Hamer H, Rosenow F. Recurrent alcohol-induced seizures in a patient with chronic alcohol abuse. Epileptic Disord. 2008;10:162-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This case report supports the evidence of a seizure-provoking effect of ethanol that should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with alcohol-dependency and seizures. ..
  64. McCulley W, Walls S, Khurana R, Rosenwasser A, Devaud L. Running wheel activity protects against increased seizure susceptibility in ethanol withdrawn male rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012;100:485-9 pubmed publisher
  65. Hillemacher T, Frieling H, Wilhelm J, Heberlein A, Karagülle D, Bleich S, et al. Indicators for elevated risk factors for alcohol-withdrawal seizures: an analysis using a random forest algorithm. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2012;119:1449-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the results of this analysis allow for origination of further research, which should include additional biological and psychosocial parameters as well as consumption behaviour...
  66. Marshall K, Godden E, Yang F, Burgers S, Buck K, Sikela J. In silico discovery of gene-coding variants in murine quantitative trait loci using strain-specific genome sequence databases. Genome Biol. 2002;3:RESEARCH0078 pubmed
    ..As a test of this approach we focused on two QTLs on mouse chromosomes 1 and 13 that are involved in physical dependence on alcohol...
  67. Joshi D, Naidu P, Singh A, Kulkarni S. Protective effect of quercetin on alcohol abstinence-induced anxiety and convulsions. J Med Food. 2005;8:392-6 pubmed
    ..o.) produced a significant protection against ethanol withdrawal-induced reduction in PTZ threshold in mice. The result suggests the protective effect of this safe drug, quercetin, in the management of ethanol withdrawal reactions...
  68. Sattar S, Qadri S, Warsi M, Okoye C, Din A, Padala P, et al. Use of alcoholic beverages in VA medical centers. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2006;1:30 pubmed
    ..While there are data on the prevalence of this practice in academic medical centers, there are no data on the availability of alcoholic beverages at the formularies of the hospitals operated by the department of Veteran's Affairs...
  69. Fitzpatrick W, Lowry N. PLEDs: clinical correlates. Can J Neurol Sci. 2007;34:443-50 pubmed
    ..We reviewed our experience in 96 consecutive patients exhibiting periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs) on EEG...
  70. Tetrault J, O Connor P. Substance abuse and withdrawal in the critical care setting. Crit Care Clin. 2008;24:767-88, viii pubmed publisher
    ..The authors stress the importance of long-term planning as part of the overall treatment protocol beyond the acute presentation...
  71. Leone M, Bråthen G. Treatment policies for alcohol-related seizures: a survey of European neurologists. Eur J Neurol. 2007;14:e2-3 pubmed
  72. Lutz U, Batra A. [Diagnostics and therapy of alcohol withdrawal syndrome: focus on delirium tremens and withdrawal seizure]. Psychiatr Prax. 2010;37:271-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore non-pharmacological procedures accompanying delirium tremens and a potential integration of viewing videotapes of delirium tremens in the course of alcohol-specific therapy are discussed...
  73. Blednov Y, Benavidez J, Homanics G, Harris R. Behavioral characterization of knockin mice with mutations M287L and Q266I in the glycine receptor ?1 subunit. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;340:317-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to reducing ethanol action on the GlyRs, these mutations reduced glycinergic inhibition, which may also alter sensitivity to GABAergic drugs...
  74. Leach J, Mohanraj R, Borland W. Alcohol and drugs in epilepsy: pathophysiology, presentation, possibilities, and prevention. Epilepsia. 2012;53 Suppl 4:48-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This article highlights the pathophysiology behind provoked seizures, provides clues to diagnosis, and then outlines the steps that clinicians should take to reduce the deleterious effects of toxic compounds...
  75. Sand T, Bråthen G, Michler R, Brodtkorb E, Helde G, Bovim G. Clinical utility of EEG in alcohol-related seizures. Acta Neurol Scand. 2002;105:18-24 pubmed
    ..To study if electroencephalogram (EEG) can discriminate between alcohol-related seizures (ARS) and seizures unrelated to alcohol use...
  76. Blagaic A, Blagaic V, Romic Z, Sikiric P. The influence of gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on acute and chronic ethanol administration in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;499:285-90 pubmed
    ..6 g/kg) through 13 days, with provocation on the 14th day...
  77. Ebell M. Benzodiazepines for alcohol withdrawal. Am Fam Physician. 2006;73:1191 pubmed
  78. Ulrichsen J. [Treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms with benzodiazepines]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2006;168:2896-9 pubmed
  79. Veatch L, Wright T, Randall C. Only male mice show sensitization of handling-induced convulsions across repeated ethanol withdrawal cycles. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007;31:477-85 pubmed
  80. Kozell L, Belknap J, Hofstetter J, Mayeda A, Buck K. Mapping a locus for alcohol physical dependence and associated withdrawal to a 1.1 Mb interval of mouse chromosome 1 syntenic with human chromosome 1q23.2-23.3. Genes Brain Behav. 2008;7:560-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the fine mapping of this QTL and analyses of the genes within the QTL interval can inform developing models for genetic determinants of alcohol dependence in humans...
  81. Grzywacz A, Kucharska Mazur J, Samochowiec J. [Association studies of dopamine D4 receptor gene exon 3 in patients with alcohol dependence]. Psychiatr Pol. 2008;42:453-61 pubmed
    ..The control group consisted of healthy volunteers, gender and age matched, with excluded psychiatric disorders (n = 399)...
  82. Reynolds T, Cooke F, Murch N. Problem based review: alcohol-use disorders on the Acute Medical Unit. Acute Med. 2012;11:101-6 pubmed
    ..For patients with confusion and a possible history of high alcohol intake and malnutrition, acute physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for Wernicke's Encephalopathy and treat appropriately with parenteral thiamine...
  83. Strzelec J, Czarnecka E. Influence of clonazepam and carbamazepine on alcohol withdrawal syndrome, preference and development of tolerance to ethanol in rats. Pol J Pharmacol. 2001;53:117-24 pubmed
    ..Carbamazepine clearly reduced preference to ethanol (significantly vs. the control group and vs. the baseline values). Clonazepam also diminished preference to alcohol, but only in comparison with baseline values...
  84. Voris J, Smith N, Rao S, Thorne D, Flowers Q. Gabapentin for the treatment of ethanol withdrawal. Subst Abus. 2003;24:129-32 pubmed
    ..Both sets of data suggest that gabapentin works well for the mild to moderate alcohol withdrawal patient...
  85. Halladay A, Wagner G, Sekowski A, Rothman R, Baumann M, Fisher H. Alterations in alcohol consumption, withdrawal seizures, and monoamine transmission in rats treated with phentermine and 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan. Synapse. 2006;59:277-89 pubmed
    ..period from the alcohol-containing diet, phentermine enhanced the effects of 5-HTP on both reduction of alcohol withdrawal seizures as well as changes in striatal serotonin...
  86. Lussier Cushing M, Repper Delisi J, Mitchell M, Lakatos B, Mahmoud F, Lipkis Orlando R. Is your medical/surgical patient withdrawing from alcohol?. Nursing. 2007;37:50-5; quiz 55-6 pubmed
    ..Look beyond the stereotype. Any hospitalized patient could be dependent on alcohol-and at risk for alcohol withdrawal syndrome...
  87. Barrons R, Roberts N. The role of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine in alcohol withdrawal syndrome. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2010;35:153-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine in treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and determine the role in therapy of both agents...
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    ..The article focuses on those agents that should prompt the emergency physician to initiate unique therapy to abate the seizure and correct the underlying cause...
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    ..Caution is required when prescribing benzodiazepines to alcoholic patients and the use of benzodiazepine which do not undergo hepatic oxidation by cytochrome P 450 such as oxazepam or lorazepam is suggested...
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    ..These data demonstrate that DETC-MeSO produces the neuroprotective effect through antagonism of NMDA receptors in vivo...