pupil disorders


Summary: Conditions which affect the structure or function of the pupil of the eye, including disorders of innervation to the pupillary constrictor or dilator muscles, and disorders of pupillary reflexes.

Top Publications

  1. Kalaboukhova L, Fridhammar V, Lindblom B. Relative afferent pupillary defect in glaucoma: a pupillometric study. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2007;85:519-25 pubmed
    ..The method is fast and objective. Pupil area amplitude measurements were superior to pupil velocity measurements for the detection of RAPD in glaucoma. ..
  2. Matsui M, Motomura D, Karasawa H, Fujikawa T, Jiang J, Komiya Y, et al. Multiple functional defects in peripheral autonomic organs in mice lacking muscarinic acetylcholine receptor gene for the M3 subtype. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:9579-84 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, this mutant mouse should provide a useful animal model for investigation of human diseases that are affected in the peripheral cholinergic functions...
  3. Bredrup C, Matejas V, Barrow M, Bláhová K, Bockenhauer D, Fowler D, et al. Ophthalmological aspects of Pierson syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;146:602-611 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the ocular phenotype of Pierson syndrome and to increase awareness among ophthalmologists of the diagnostic features of this condition...
  4. Khor W, Perera S, Jap A, Ho C, Hoh S. Anterior segment imaging in the management of postoperative fibrin pupillary-block glaucoma. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2009;35:1307-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible risk factors are discussed and various treatment modalities reviewed...
  5. Mohney B, Pulido J, Lindor N, Hogan M, Consugar M, Peters J, et al. A novel mutation of LAMB2 in a multigenerational mennonite family reveals a new phenotypic variant of Pierson syndrome. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:1137-44 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe a novel laminin ?-2 (LAMB2) mutation associated with nephrotic syndrome and severe retinal disease without microcoria in a large, multigenerational family with Pierson syndrome...
  6. Suh J, Jarad G, Vandevoorde R, Miner J. Forced expression of laminin beta1 in podocytes prevents nephrotic syndrome in mice lacking laminin beta2, a model for Pierson syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:15348-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the possibility that up-regulation of LAMB1 in podocytes, should it become achievable, would likely lessen the severity of nephrotic syndrome in patients carrying LAMB2 mutations...
  7. Lehnhardt A, Lama A, Amann K, Matejas V, Zenker M, Kemper M. Pierson syndrome in an adolescent girl with nephrotic range proteinuria but a normal GFR. Pediatr Nephrol. 2012;27:865-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Pierson syndrome, caused by mutations in the LAMB2 gene, was originally described as a combination of microcoria and congenital nephrotic syndrome, rapidly progressing to end-stage renal failure...
  8. CHEN Y, Zhou Y, Go G, Marmerstein J, Kikkawa Y, Miner J. Laminin ?2 gene missense mutation produces endoplasmic reticulum stress in podocytes. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24:1223-33 pubmed publisher
  9. Yiu G, Lessell S. Dorsal midbrain syndrome from a ring-enhancing lesion. Semin Ophthalmol. 2012;27:65-8 pubmed publisher
    ..His intracranial lesion was presumed to be a metastatic lesion, and treated with stereotactic radiosurgery. We report the patient's clinical course, and discuss the diagnosis and management of the solitary midbrain lesion. ..

More Information

Publications149 found, 100 shown here

  1. Groom M, Kay M, Vicinanza Adami C, Santini R. Optic tract syndrome secondary to metastatic breast cancer. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998;125:115-8 pubmed
    ..This case demonstrates that an isolated optic tract syndrome may occur as a result of metastatic lesions to the lateral geniculate body and optic tract. ..
  2. Pearce J. The Argyll Robertson pupil. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:1345 pubmed
  3. Tatsumi Y, Kanamori A, Kusuhara A, Nakanishi Y, Kusuhara S, Nakamura M. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in optic tract syndrome. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2005;49:294-6 pubmed
    ..OCT can determine the RNFLT reduction corresponding to the characteristic patterns of optic atrophy of OTS. ..
  4. Minardi J, Crocco T. Management of traumatic brain injury: first link in chain of survival. Mt Sinai J Med. 2009;76:138-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This review provides the most recent evidence regarding the treatment of traumatic brain injury in the prehospital setting and introduces areas in need of future research. ..
  5. Yu T, Yin Z, Yang H. Surgical management of congenital pupillary-iris-lens membrane. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2011;21:604-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the surgical interventions in congenital pupillary-iris-lens membrane. Six patients with congenital pupillary-iris-lens membrane presented with partial or totally occluded pupils, or increased intraocular pressure (IOP)...
  6. Cacciatori M, Arpa P. Surgical technique for anterior segment surgery in pediatric patients using 25-gauge instruments. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2006;32:562-4 pubmed
    ..We report our experience using 25-gauge instruments and describe intraoperative and postoperative advantages. ..
  7. Peter N, Pearson A. Orbital apex syndrome from blunt ocular trauma. Orbit. 2010;29:42-4 pubmed publisher
    ..It is a rare complication of trauma and results from penetrating injuries as well as those involving bony fractures. We present a case of OAS from non-penetrating ocular trauma without bony involvement...
  8. Chandra A, Singh M, Singh V, Rai A, Chakraborty S, Maurya O. A live cysticercosis in anterior chamber leading to glaucoma secondary to pupilary block. J Glaucoma. 2007;16:271-3 pubmed
    ..The intraocular tension was 48 mm Hg. The diagnosis of cysticercosis leading to glaucoma secondary to pupilary block was made. The cyst was removed surgically by viscoexpression. The histopathology proved to be a cysticercosis...
  9. Søgaard I. [A royal eye lesion]. Dan Medicinhist Arbog. 2007;35:37-52 pubmed
    ..The dilated pupil was caused by a Marcus Gunn phenomena or paradox pupil reaction which the king could not observe himself when he looked in his mirror. ..
  10. Rosse R, Johri S, Deutsch S. Pupillary changes associated with the development of stimulant-induced mania: a case report. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1997;20:270-5 pubmed
    ..Such medication-associated changes in the total power of pupillary oscillation might be of utility in identifying persons at risk for manic-like adverse effects during the medical use of psychomotor stimulants or sympathomimetic agents...
  11. Hart A, Morgan J, Schneider J, West K, McKie L, Bhattacharya S, et al. Cardiac malformations and midline skeletal defects in mice lacking filamin A. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:2457-67 pubmed
  12. Lee W, Murdock J, Albini T, O Brien T, Levine M. Ocular damage secondary to intense pulse light therapy to the face. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;27:263-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It is imperative for treating physicians to be aware of these hazards and to use appropriate eye protection to prevent ocular damage. ..
  13. Lawlor M, Quartilho A, Bunce C, Nathwani N, Dowse E, Kamal D, et al. Patients With Normal Tension Glaucoma Have Relative Sparing of the Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect Compared to Those With Open Angle Glaucoma and Elevated Intraocular Pressure. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:5237-5241 pubmed publisher
  14. Bienfait H, Baas F, Gabreëls Festen A, Koelman J, Langerhorst C, de Visser M. Two amino-acid substitutions in the myelin protein zero gene of a case of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease associated with light-near dissociation. Neuromuscul Disord. 2002;12:281-5 pubmed
    ..Multiple mutations in the myelin protein zero gene, as well as Charcot-Marie-Tooth with pupillary abnormalities have previously been described in rare instances. However, concurrent occurrence of both phenomena is a novel finding. ..
  15. Navas F, Boyer D, Thomas E, Novak R, Chu T, Gallemore R. Management of pupillary block glaucoma in phakic patients after vitrectomy with silicone oil injection. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;134:634-5; author reply 635 pubmed
  16. Pittasch D, Lobmann R, Lehnert H, Behrens Bauman W. Pupillary autonomic denervation and diabetes mellitus. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002;86:1319 pubmed
  17. Cross S, Morgan J, Pattyn A, West K, McKie L, Hart A, et al. Haploinsufficiency for Phox2b in mice causes dilated pupils and atrophy of the ciliary ganglion: mechanistic insights into human congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:1433-9 pubmed
  18. LaRocca V, Gorelick G, Kaufman L. Medical imaging in pediatric neuro-ophthalmology. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2005;15:85-105 pubmed
  19. Cakmak H. Topical apraclonidine testing of pupillary sympathetic denervation in diabetic patients. J Neuroophthalmol. 2006;26:298; author reply 299 pubmed
  20. Weir R, Hajdu S, Greaves B. Transient tadpole pupil associated with primary uncomplicated medial rectus reattachment. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2010;47 Online:e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..This case highlights a phenomenon underreported by the ophthalmic community significant in the assessment of depth of anesthesia. ..
  21. O NEILL W, Mercer P, Sheldon S, Kotsos T. Detection of juvenile sleep deprivation by stochastic optimization of pupillographic records. Methods Inf Med. 2003;42:282-6 pubmed
  22. Flint A, Liberato B, Anziska Y, Schantz Dunn J, Wright C. Meningovascular syphilis as a cause of basilar artery stenosis. Neurology. 2005;64:391-2 pubmed
  23. Tsuji N, Ozaki K, Narama I, Matsuura T. Inferior ectopic pupil and typical ocular coloboma in RCS rats. Comp Med. 2011;61:378-84 pubmed
    ..The RCS strain is a suitable model for human ocular coloboma, and inferior ectopic pupil appears to be a strong indicator of ocular coloboma. ..
  24. Bang S, Joo C, Jun J. Reverse pupillary block after implantation of a scleral-sutured posterior chamber intraocular lens: a retrospective, open study. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:35 pubmed publisher
    ..643?±?0.385 D to?-?0.875?±?0.505 D (P?=?0.016). Concomitant vitrectomy, angle pigmentation, and iridodonesis may be risk factors for RPB after scleral-sutured PC IOL implantation. LPI is effective for relieving the RPB. ..
  25. Veenstra Knol H, Scheewe J, van der Vlist G, van Doorn M, Ausems M. Early recognition of basal cell naevus syndrome. Eur J Pediatr. 2005;164:126-30 pubmed
    ..We describe three unrelated children with basal cell naevus syndrome who appeared to be the first patient in each family...
  26. Modrzejewska M, Grzesiak W, Karczewicz D, Zaborski D. Refractive status and ocular axial length in preterm infants without retinopathy of prematurity with regard to birth weight and gestational age. J Perinat Med. 2010;38:327-31 pubmed publisher
    ..23) or GA (Rs=0.17) were found only in group E. AL of myopic eyes was significantly longer. In general, hyperopia was positively correlated with BW, whereas correlation between myopia and BW or GA was not found. ..
  27. Silver B, Nagel M, Mahalingam R, Cohrs R, Schmid D, Gilden D. Varicella zoster virus vasculopathy: a treatable form of rapidly progressive multi-infarct dementia after 2 years' duration. J Neurol Sci. 2012;323:245-7 pubmed publisher
    ..VZV must be considered as a possible cause of neurological disease in any patient with idiopathic multifocal vasculopathy. ..
  28. Monga P, Dhaliwal U. Paradoxical reaction in tubercular meningitis resulting in involvement of optic radiation. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2009;57:139-41 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of optic radiation involvement in a paradoxical reaction in neuro-tuberculosis in a young adult. ..
  29. Karasu A, Civelek E, Aras Y, Sabanci P, Cansever T, Yanar H, et al. Analyses of clinical prognostic factors in operated traumatic acute subdural hematomas. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg. 2010;16:233-6 pubmed
    ..6%. According to the results, the most important determinants of the prognosis are GCS score of the patient on admission, abnormality in pupil reaction, timing of the operation, and the patient's age. ..
  30. Roberts T, Lawless M, Hodge C. Laser-assisted cataract surgery following insertion of a pupil expander for management of complex cataract and small irregular pupil. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2013;39:1921-4 pubmed publisher
  31. Taylor K, Mizen K, Spencer N. Isolated fracture of the superior orbital fissure. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;48:178-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of a patient with an isolated fracture of the superior orbital fissure and development of superior orbital fissure syndrome. ..
  32. Amini R, Barocas V. Reverse pupillary block slows iris contour recovery from corneoscleral indentation. J Biomech Eng. 2010;132:071010 pubmed publisher
    ..Reverse pupillary block following corneoscleral indentation is a possible explanation for the clinical observation that prevention of blinking causes the iris to drift forward. ..
  33. Cettomai D, Hiremath G, Ratchford J, Venkatesan A, Greenberg B, McGready J, et al. Associations between retinal nerve fiber layer abnormalities and optic nerve examination. Neurology. 2010;75:1318-25 pubmed publisher
    ..OCT-measured RNFL thickness is likely to have an important future role in the clinical setting. ..
  34. Muller A, Petru R, Seitz L, Englmann I, Angerer P. The relation of cognitive load and pupillary unrest. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2011;84:561-7 pubmed publisher
    ..With that, the study contributes to valid interpretations of pupillary unrest measurements in occupational contexts. ..
  35. Giza E, Fotiou D, Bostantjopoulou S, Katsarou Z, Gerasimou G, Gotzamani Psarrakou A, et al. Pupillometry and 123I-DaTSCAN imaging in Parkinson's disease: a comparison study. Int J Neurosci. 2012;122:26-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This impairment does not seem to correspond to the reduction of radioligand binding in the striatum as the result of presynaptic dopaminergic dysfunction, suggesting a different deterioration rate of these systems. ..
  36. Schäfer H, Kaczmarek K, Gockeln R, Winter R, Erb C. [Differentiation between pupillary and ciliary block by means of the Orbscan II in a patient with angle block glaucoma]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2005;222:655-9 pubmed
    ..Since the Orbscan II is capable of collecting topometric data of the cornea, anterior chamber and also lens, it is helpful in differentiating a pupillary from a ciliary block in angle block glaucoma. ..
  37. Saeed M, Henderson G, Dutton G. Hyoscine skin patches for drooling dilate pupils and impair accommodation: spectacle correction for photophobia and blurred vision may be warranted. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007;49:426-8 pubmed
    ..Photophobia was relieved by tinted lenses. The anticholinergic effects of hyoscine skin patches can cause photophobia and impair vision due to pupil dilatation and paralysis of accommodation. Appropriate spectacles are recommended...
  38. Houlden H, Reilly M, Smith S. Pupil abnormalities in 131 cases of genetically defined inherited peripheral neuropathy. Eye (Lond). 2009;23:966-74 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate and correlate the frequency and types of pupil abnormalities that are associated with hereditary peripheral neuropathy in a large cohort of patients prospectively examined...
  39. Kanigowska K, Grałek M, Grajkowska W, Pronicki M. Pupillary block glaucoma in child with persistent hyperplastic primary vitreus--case report. Klin Oczna. 2008;110:297-300 pubmed
    ..Early surgical intervention is necessary to prevent progressive pathologic changes in eyes with this developmental disorder and to obtain the best possible visual results. ..
  40. Papageorgiou E, Wermund T, Wilhelm H. Pupil perimetry demonstrates hemifield pupillary hypokinesia in a patient with a pretectal lesion causing a relative afferent pupil defect but no visual field loss. J Neuroophthalmol. 2009;29:33-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate this assumption, we looked for hemihypokinesia by means of pupil perimetry...
  41. Papaconstantinou D, Georgalas I, Kourtis N, Krassas A, Diagourtas A, Koutsandrea C, et al. Lens-induced glaucoma in the elderly. Clin Interv Aging. 2009;4:331-6 pubmed
    ..We will review the anatomic predisposing factors, their physiology, signs and symptoms, and therapeutic approach. We will consider two studies and discuss the visual results and risk factors associated with these pathologic conditions. ..
  42. Cronemberger S, Calixto N, de Andrade A, Mérula R. New considerations on pupillary block mechanism. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2010;73:9-15 pubmed
    ..The anterior chamber depth did not change. These findings contradict the theory that pupillary block is the mechanism of acute primary angle-closure. ..
  43. Nichols J, Lee D, Feman S, Shields S. Severe pupil distortion following transchamber repair of a cyclodialysis cleft. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 2002;33:426-9 pubmed
    ..The cleft was closed by transchamber placement of prolene sutures across the cleft under direct visualization through a Tano lens. Postoperative course was complicated by severe pupillary distortion despite subsequent suture removal. ..
  44. Servadei F, Nasi M, Giuliani G, Cremonini A, Cenni P, Zappi D, et al. CT prognostic factors in acute subdural haematomas: the value of the 'worst' CT scan. Br J Neurosurg. 2000;14:110-6 pubmed
    ..Patients with SAH on early CT are those at highest risk for associated evolving contusions. The use of sequential CT should be included in the routine management of head-injured patients. ..
  45. Besada E, Fisher J. Absent relative afferent pupillary defect in an asymptomatic case of lateral chiasmal syndrome from cerebral aneurysm. Optom Vis Sci. 2001;78:195-205 pubmed
    ..Neuroradiological examination of orbital and cranial structures is an imperative protocol in the appropriate management of this potential life- and vision-threatening condition. ..
  46. Cahill M, Eustace P, de Jesus V. Pupillary autonomic denervation with increasing duration of diabetes mellitus. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001;85:1225-30 pubmed
    ..Pupillary autonomic dysfunction occurs before cardiovascular autonomic changes and detection of pupil denervation hypersensitivity to dilute pilocarpine is an inexpensive way to detect early DAN. ..
  47. Helmy A, Kirkpatrick P, Seeley H, Corteen E, Menon D, Hutchinson P. Fixed, dilated pupils following traumatic brain injury: historical perspectives, causes and ophthalmological sequelae. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2012;114:295-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A FDP is a grave prognostic sign following TBI commonly resulting in long term ophthalmological sequelae; however, a favourable outcome is still attainable. ..
  48. Porzecanski A. Test for defective afferent pupillary response. CMAJ. 2004;171:310; author reply 310 pubmed
  49. Chaudhuri K, Malham G, Rosenfeld J. Survival of trauma patients with coma and bilateral fixed dilated pupils. Injury. 2009;40:28-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Further interventions such as ICU admission and surgery may not be warranted. Physicians may need to consider stopping treatment and discussing organ donation. ..
  50. Bremner F. Pupil evaluation as a test for autonomic disorders. Clin Auton Res. 2009;19:88-101 pubmed publisher
    ..The pattern of autonomic disturbance in the pupils often correlates poorly with autonomic function elsewhere, but may have diagnostic value in discriminating between different underlying conditions. ..
  51. Okay O, Daglioglu E, Ozdol C, Uckun O, Dalgic A, Ergungor F. Orbitocerebral injury by a knife: case report. Neurocirugia (Astur). 2009;20:467-9 pubmed
    ..The knife's main trajectory coursed through the temporal lobe. Adjacent cerebral structures were explored before removal of the knife...
  52. Damasco V, Dire D. A child with leukocoria. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2011;27:1170-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of a 3-year-old boy who presents with leukocoria found to be caused by a retinoblastoma and discuss the differential diagnosis of this uncommon presentation to the pediatric emergency department. ..
  53. Patel N, Salchow D, Materin M. Differentials and approach to leukocoria. Conn Med. 2013;77:133-40 pubmed
    ..The Brückner test is a quick, easy, and inexpensive way to assess the red reflex. When leukocoria is suspected, prompt referral to an ophthalmologist is necessary for further evaluation. ..
  54. Zemrani B, Cachat F, Bonny O, Giannoni E, Durig J, Fellmann F, et al. A novel LAMB2 gene mutation associated with a severe phenotype in a neonate with Pierson syndrome. Eur J Med Res. 2016;21:19 pubmed publisher
    ..This new mutation expands the genotype-phenotype spectrum of this rare disease and confirms that truncating mutations might be associated with severe clinical features. ..
  55. Inglehearn C, Morrice D, Lester D, Robertson G, Mohamed M, Simmons I, et al. Genetic, ophthalmic, morphometric and histopathological analysis of the Retinopathy Globe Enlarged (rge) chicken. Mol Vis. 2003;9:295-300 pubmed
    ..Candidate disease loci include RP10 (IMPDH1) and uncharacterised Ushers (USH1E) and glaucoma (GLC1F) loci. ..
  56. Wang A, Fealey R, Gehrking T, Low P. Patterns of neuropathy and autonomic failure in patients with amyloidosis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2008;83:1226-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Early recognition of autonomic failure may lead to earlier diagnosis of the underlying pathogenesis of amyloidosis, as well as earlier treatment for patients with this condition. ..
  57. Nelson D, Nyström H, MacCallum R, Thornquist B, Lilja A, Bellander B, et al. Extended analysis of early computed tomography scans of traumatic brain injured patients and relations to outcome. J Neurotrauma. 2010;27:51-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally we present a practical clinical "rule of thumb" to help predict the probability of unfavorable outcome using clinical and CT variables. ..
  58. Skorkovská K, Wilhelm H. [Afferent pupillary disorders in postchiasmal lesions of the visual pathways]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2009;226:886-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this article is to clarify various findings and terms such as relative afferent pupillary defect and pupillary hemihypokinesia. ..
  59. Tanaka T, Canfield D. Intracranial meningioma with ophthalmoplegia in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Comp Med. 2012;62:439-42 pubmed
    ..Histopathologic examination led to the diagnosis of intracranial meningioma. Here we describe a case of intracranial meningioma with internal and external ophthalmoplegia in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). ..
  60. Kaiserman I, Frucht Pery J. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy after a trans-Atlantic airplane journey. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;133:581-3 pubmed
    ..Prolonged airplane travel may compromise vision either by a thromboembolic mechanism caused by prolonged immobilization or by a vasospasm mechanism induced by the low oxygen pressure during the flight. ..
  61. Costin D, Constantin C, Ion C, Popa S. [Complications at the beginning of refractive surgery]. Oftalmologia. 2002;54:72-4 pubmed
    ..An interesting observation is related to IOP evolution. In average a decrease of IOP was noted from pre-operative medium of 14.43 mmHg to a post-operative medium value of 10.73 mmHg. ..
  62. Toth C, Fletcher W. Autonomic disorders and the eye. J Neuroophthalmol. 2005;25:1-4 pubmed
  63. Frankel J. Laser eyebrow epilation. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:624; author reply 624-5 pubmed
  64. Miki A, Iijima A, Takagi M, Tanimoto N, Usui T, Hasegawa S, et al. Pupillography of relative afferent pupillary defects in amblyopia associated with peripapillary myelinated nerve fibers and myopia. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2008;45:309-12 pubmed
    ..All of the patients had an afferent pupillary defect in the eye with myelinated nerve fibers. This finding supports the notion that this type of amblyopia is a severe form of anisometropic amblyopia that is often resistant to treatment. ..
  65. Niaudet P. Living donor kidney transplantation in patients with hereditary nephropathies. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2010;6:736-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Most patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome should not receive a kidney transplant from a living donor because there is a high risk of disease recurrence and graft loss. ..
  66. Gaton D, Mimouni K, Lusky M, Ehrlich R, Weinberger D. Pupillary block following posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation in adults. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87:1109-11 pubmed
    ..Despite the rarity of the complication of pupillary block after posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation, physicians should be aware of the sometimes difficult course of recovery after treatment. ..
  67. Nwosu B, Raygada M, Tsilou E, Rennert O, Stratakis C. Rieger's anomaly and other ocular abnormalities in association with osteogenesis imperfecta and a COL1A1 mutation. Ophthalmic Genet. 2005;26:135-8 pubmed
    ..We speculate that the course of his disease and, perhaps, its co-existence with OI could be exacerbated by his collagen type-I defect, although no causality can be established by this report of a single case. ..
  68. Brozou C, Fotiou D, Androudi S, Theodoridou E, Giantselidis C, Alexandridis A, et al. Pupillometric characteristics in patients with choroidal neovascularization due to age-related macular degeneration. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19:254-62 pubmed
    ..To study the pupillary light reflex in patients with choroidal neovascularization due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD)...
  69. Shi Y, Tu Y, Mecham R, Bassnett S. Ocular phenotype of Fbn2-null mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:7163-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The observation that fiber cell differentiation was disturbed in Fbn2(-/-) mice raises the possibility that the attachment of zonular fibers to the lens surface may help specify the equatorial margin of the lens epithelium. ..
  70. Lagreze W, Kardon R. Correlation of relative afferent pupillary defect and estimated retinal ganglion cell loss. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1998;236:401-4 pubmed
    ..The spatial distribution of pupillomotor retinal ganglion cells seems to be proportional to the distribution of light-sensitive ganglion cells projecting to the lateral geniculate nucleus. ..
  71. Muller A, Schnaidt A, Buchwald H, Kampmeier J. [Comparison of different methods for pupillometry for mesopic and scotopic conditions]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2004;221:843-8 pubmed
    ..67 mm to the mesopic measurement of the Goldmann perimeter, the results for the Procyon Video pupillometer at the scotopic level, by addition of 2.4 mm the scotopic measurement of the Colvard pupillometer could be achieved. ..
  72. Brooks B, Kleta R, Caruso R, Stuart C, Ludlow J, Stratakis C. Triple-A syndrome with prominent ophthalmic features and a novel mutation in the AAAS gene: a case report. BMC Ophthalmol. 2004;4:7 pubmed
    ..In addition to known ophthalmic manifestations, triple-A syndrome can present with accommodative dysregulation and ocular signs of autonomic dysfunction. ..
  73. Kwon Y, Pereira M, Anderson S, Kim Y, Kardon R. Quantitative correlation of elevated intraocular pressure with relative afferent pupillary defect change in unilateral glaucoma. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2005;83:127-9 pubmed
  74. Mazer Amirshahi M, Whitaker N, Kayewilson L, Litovitz T. Severe ocular injury after button battery exposure. J Emerg Med. 2013;44:e187-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Prolonged ocular exposure to an intact battery can cause significant tissue necrosis, which may threaten sight. Early removal is critical to prevent significant ocular damage and visual compromise. ..
  75. Tenen A, Roberts K, Sack J, Hodge C. Assessment of midperipheral anterior chamber depth in patient with posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2013;39:1611-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Assessment of midperipheral anterior chamber anatomy may be advantageous in the evaluation of patients for pIOL surgery. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. ..
  76. Galvis V, Tello A, Montezuma S. Delayed pupillary capture and noninvasive repositioning of a posterior chamber intraocular lens after pupil dilation. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2002;28:1876-9 pubmed
    ..A noninvasive approach was used to resolve the capture. The possible causes and measures to avoid this complication are discussed. ..
  77. Casse G, Adenis J, Sauvage J, Robert P. Videonystagmography to assess eyelid dynamic disorders. Orbit. 2009;28:20-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Apply a videonystagmography (VNG) device to study indirectly blinking in patients with essential blepharospasm...
  78. Younis A, Eggenberger E. Correlation of relative afferent pupillary defect and retinal nerve fiber layer loss in unilateral or asymmetric demyelinating optic neuropathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:4013-6 pubmed publisher
    ..156, P = 0.001). RAPD as measured in log units significantly correlated with total and quadrantic RNFL thickness differences and ratios. Total, superior, and inferior quadrant data produced the strongest correlations. ..
  79. Cooper J, Eisenberg N, Schulman E, Wang F. Maximum atropine dose without clinical signs or symptoms. Optom Vis Sci. 2013;90:1467-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This would be an appropriate starting point in evaluating a low dosage of atropine to slow myopic progression. ..
  80. Benz M, Glaser J, Davis J. Progressive outer retinal necrosis in immunocompetent patients treated initially for optic neuropathy with systemic corticosteroids. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;135:551-3 pubmed
    ..To report two cases of progressive outer retinal necrosis occurring in immunocompetent individuals after treatment with corticosteroids for presumed optic neuropathy...
  81. Papalkar D, Francis I. Relative afferent pupillary defect, or afferent pupillary defect?. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;34:193; author reply 193 pubmed
  82. Dawczynski J, Thorwarth M, Koenigsdoerffer E, Schultze Mosgau S. Interdisciplinary treatment and ophthalmological findings in Parry-Romberg syndrome. J Craniofac Surg. 2006;17:1175-6 pubmed
    ..In the presented case of Parry-Romberg syndrome a rare association to ophthalmological involvement could be found. Beside the enophthalmos and eyelid alterations, also a panuveitis with papillitis should be treated by steroid therapy...
  83. You J, Liu P, Jiang D. [Quantitation of the relative afferent pupillary defect for evaluating the patient's condition with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2005;30:474 pubmed
  84. Asensio Martin M, Pavón Benito A, Salvador Bravo M, García Pérez G. [Burst suppression entropy response to moderate hypothermia in a patient receiving a massive transfusion]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2006;53:665-6 pubmed
  85. McNamara C, Hartnett C, McNamara C. Marcus Gunn (jaw-winking) phenomenon: a case report. Spec Care Dentist. 2009;29:138-40 pubmed
    ..Although MGP may be uncommon in a dental context, dentists and other oral health professionals can play a significant part in its detection and diagnosis. ..
  86. Wilhelm H, Peters T, Lüdtke H, Wilhelm B. The prevalence of relative afferent pupillary defects in normal subjects. J Neuroophthalmol. 2007;27:263-7 pubmed
    ..3 log units) relative afferent pupil defect (RAPD) is present in a minority. We have extended the investigation of the prevalence of RAPD to a larger number of normal subjects...
  87. Mittal M, Rabinstein A, Wijdicks E. Pearls & oy-sters: oval pupil: two observations. Neurology. 2013;81:e124-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of an oval pupil usually localizes the neurologic problem to the midbrain. ..
  88. Klein C, Vernino S, Lennon V, Sandroni P, Fealey R, Benrud Larson L, et al. The spectrum of autoimmune autonomic neuropathies. Ann Neurol. 2003;53:752-8 pubmed
  89. Matsunaga K, Ito K, Esaki K, Sugimoto K, Sano T, Miura K, et al. Evaluation and comparison of indentation ultrasound biomicroscopy gonioscopy in relative pupillary block, peripheral anterior synechia, and plateau iris configuration. J Glaucoma. 2004;13:516-9 pubmed
  90. Herbold T, Busse H, Uhlig C. Bilateral cataract and corectopia after laser eyebrow [corrected] epilation. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:1634-5 pubmed
    ..To report a patient with bilateral cataract and corectopia after laser epilation of the eyebrows...
  91. Maneschg O, Resch M, Papp A, Nemeth J. [Prognostic factors and visual outcome for open globe injuries with intraocular foreign bodies]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2011;228:801-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features as well as the visual results and determine the prognostic factors after the removal of retained intraocular foreign bodies (IOFBs)...
  92. Levi L, Guilburd J, Soustiel J, Sviri G, Constantinescu M, Zaaroor M. Why mortality is still high with modern care of 613 evacuated mass lesions presented as severe head injuries 1999-2009. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2012;114:301-4 pubmed publisher