spastic paraparesis


Summary: Mild or moderate loss of motor function accompanied by spasticity in the lower extremities. This condition is a manifestation of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that cause injury to the motor cortex or descending motor pathways.

Top Publications

  1. Ataka S, Tomiyama T, Takuma H, Yamashita T, Shimada H, Tsutada T, et al. A novel presenilin-1 mutation (Leu85Pro) in early-onset Alzheimer disease with spastic paraparesis. Arch Neurol. 2004;61:1773-6 pubmed
    ..Phenotypic diversity has been reported to be associated with various mutations in PSEN1. Various mutations of PSEN1 have been reported in cases of early-onset Alzheimer disease with spastic paraparesis.
  2. Jacquemont S, Orrico A, Galli L, Sahota P, Brunberg J, Anichini C, et al. Spastic paraparesis, cerebellar ataxia, and intention tremor: a severe variant of FXTAS?. J Med Genet. 2005;42:e14 pubmed
  3. Raman A, Lin X, Suri M, Hewitt M, Constantinescu C, Phillips M. A presenilin 1 mutation (Arg278Ser) associated with early onset Alzheimer's disease and spastic paraparesis. J Neurol Sci. 2007;260:78-82 pubmed
    ..The novel PSEN1 mutation identified in this patient adds to the diverse list of existing mutations causing EOFAD associated with spastic paraparesis.
  4. Verkkoniemi A, Kalimo H, Paetau A, Somer M, Iwatsubo T, Hardy J, et al. Variant Alzheimer disease with spastic paraparesis: neuropathological phenotype. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2001;60:483-92 pubmed
    Variant Alzheimer disease (varAD) is clinically characterized by the combination of presenile dementia with spastic paraparesis and is caused by certain mutations of the presenilin 1 (PS-1) gene...
  5. Wharton S, McDermott C, Grierson A, Wood J, Gelsthorpe C, Ince P, et al. The cellular and molecular pathology of the motor system in hereditary spastic paraparesis due to mutation of the spastin gene. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2003;62:1166-77 pubmed
    Hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, the most common cause of which is mutation of the spastin gene...
  6. Shrimpton A, Schelper R, Linke R, Hardy J, Crook R, Dickson D, et al. A presenilin 1 mutation (L420R) in a family with early onset Alzheimer disease, seizures and cotton wool plaques, but not spastic paraparesis. Neuropathology. 2007;27:228-32 pubmed
    ..EOAD), but only a relatively few give rise to plaques with an appearance like cotton wool (CWP) and/or spastic paraparesis (SP)...
  7. Dintchov Traykov L, Mehrabian S, Van den Broeck M, Radoslavova Raycheva M, Cruts M, Kirilova Jordanova A, et al. Novel PSEN1 mutation in a Bulgarian patient with very early-onset Alzheimer's disease, spastic paraparesis, and extrapyramidal signs. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2009;24:404-7 pubmed publisher
    ..novel L381V mutation in the PSEN1 gene presented clinically, by a very early onset in the proband, rapid progression of dementia, spastic paraparesis, and extrapyramidal signs, as atypical clinical signs in Alzheimer's disease patients.
  8. Reinders J, Wesseling P, Hilkens P. Intramedullary enterogenous cyst presenting with spastic paraparesis during two consecutive pregnancies: a case report. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001;71:528-30 pubmed
    A 35 year old woman presented with two episodes of spastic paraparesis, occurring in the third trimester of two consecutive pregnancies. The neurological symptoms seemed to be caused by an intramedullary cyst in the thoracic spinal cord...
  9. Dupre N, Bouchard J, Brais B, Rouleau G. Hereditary ataxia, spastic paraparesis and neuropathy in the French-Canadian population. Can J Neurol Sci. 2006;33:149-57 pubmed
    ..We predict that the regional populations of Canada will allow the identification of new rare forms of hereditary ataxias, spastic parapareses and neuropathies, and contribute to the unravelling of the genetic basis of these entities...

More Information

Publications117 found, 100 shown here

  1. Karlstrom H, Brooks W, Kwok J, Broe G, Kril J, McCann H, et al. Variable phenotype of Alzheimer's disease with spastic paraparesis. J Neurochem. 2008;104:573-83 pubmed
    Pedigrees with familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) show considerable phenotypic variability. Spastic paraparesis (SP), or progressive spasticity of the lower limbs is frequently hereditary and exists either as uncomplicated (paraparesis ..
  2. Nakajima T, Akagawa H, Ochiai T, Hayashi M, Goto S, Taira T, et al. [Intrathecal baclofen therapy for spastic paraparesis due to aortic dissecting aneurysm; recent progress in treatment strategy]. Kyobu Geka. 2009;62:1039-42 pubmed
    ..More promotive enlightenment if ITB is indispensable for enhancement of its medical benefit in Japan...
  3. Brooks W, Kwok J, Kril J, Broe G, Blumbergs P, Tannenberg A, et al. Alzheimer's disease with spastic paraparesis and 'cotton wool' plaques: two pedigrees with PS-1 exon 9 deletions. Brain. 2003;126:783-91 pubmed which dominantly inherited familial Alzheimer's disease is associated in some family members with spastic paraparesis and non-neuritic 'cotton wool' plaques...
  4. Hattori S, Sakuma K, Wakutani Y, Wada K, Shimoda M, Urakami K, et al. A novel presenilin 1 mutation (Y154N) in a patient with early onset Alzheimer's disease with spastic paraparesis. Neurosci Lett. 2004;368:319-22 pubmed
    Early onset familial Alzheimer's disease with spastic paraparesis (FAD-SP) has been associated with mutations of the presenilin 1 gene (PSEN1). We report a pedigree of FAD-SP due to a novel missense mutation of PSEN1 (Y154N)...
  5. Lindsey J, Lusher M, McDermott C, White K, Reid E, Rubinsztein D, et al. Mutation analysis of the spastin gene (SPG4) in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis. J Med Genet. 2000;37:759-65 pubmed
    Hereditary spastic paraparesis is a genetically heterogeneous condition. Recently, mutations in the spastin gene were reported in families linked to the common SPG4 locus on chromosome 2p21-22.
  6. Fink J. Progressive spastic paraparesis: hereditary spastic paraplegia and its relation to primary and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Semin Neurol. 2001;21:199-207 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes the clinical and pathologic relationship between these disorders...
  7. Assini A, Terreni L, Borghi R, Giliberto L, Piccini A, Loqui D, et al. Pure spastic paraparesis associated with a novel presenilin 1 R278K mutation. Neurology. 2003;60:150 pubmed
  8. Depienne C, Tallaksen C, Lephay J, Bricka B, Poea Guyon S, Fontaine B, et al. Spastin mutations are frequent in sporadic spastic paraparesis and their spectrum is different from that observed in familial cases. J Med Genet. 2006;43:259-65 pubmed
    ..It accounts for 10-40% of families with pure (or eventually complicated) hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP).
  9. Rudzinski L, Fletcher R, Dickson D, Crook R, Hutton M, Adamson J, et al. Early onset familial Alzheimer Disease with spastic paraparesis, dysarthria, and seizures and N135S mutation in PSEN1. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2008;22:299-307 pubmed publisher
    ..There is considerable phenotypic variability in EOFAD, including some patients with spastic paraparesis. The objective is to describe clinical and neuropathologic features of a family with a PSEN1 mutation that ..
  10. Jimenez Caballero P, Lladó A, de Diego Boguna C, Martin Correa E, Serviá Candela M, Marsal Alonso C. A novel presenilin 1 mutation (V261L) associated with presenile Alzheimer's disease and spastic paraparesis. Eur J Neurol. 2008;15:991-4 pubmed publisher
    We report a novel mutation in exon 8 of the presenilin 1 (PSEN1) gene (V261L) associated with early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease and spastic paraparesis.
  11. Dan B, Bouillot E, Bengoetxea A, Cheron G. Effect of intrathecal baclofen on gait control in human hereditary spastic paraparesis. Neurosci Lett. 2000;280:175-8 pubmed
    ..during locomotion was analysed by means of orthogonal planar regression in a patient with pure hereditary spastic paraparesis before and after an intrathecal bolus of baclofen and in seven healthy subjects...
  12. Mwanza J, Lysebo D, Kayembe D, Tshala Katumbay D, Nyamabo L, Tylleskar T, et al. Visual evoked potentials in konzo, a spastic paraparesis of acute onset in Africa. Ophthalmologica. 2003;217:381-6 pubmed
    ..To assess whether or not visual evoked potentials (VEPs) are abnormal in konzo, a para/tetraparesis of sudden onset, and to correlate the findings to the clinical picture of the disorder...
  13. Kakinohana M, Nakamura S, Fuchigami T, DAvison K, Marsala M, Sugahara K. Mu and delta, but not kappa, opioid agonists induce spastic paraparesis after a short period of spinal cord ischaemia in rats. Br J Anaesth. 2006;96:88-94 pubmed
    ..IT) morphine given after a short interval of aortic occlusion in a rodent model induced transient spastic paraparesis via opioid receptor-predicted actions in spinal cord...
  14. Dumanchin C, Tournier I, Martin C, Didic M, Belliard S, Carlander B, et al. Biological effects of four PSEN1 gene mutations causing Alzheimer disease with spastic paraparesis and cotton wool plaques. Hum Mutat. 2006;27:1063 pubmed
    ..mutations associated with a phenotypic variant of Alzheimer disease, which includes cotton wool plaques and spastic paraparesis (CWP/SP). Two of these mutations (c.869-22_869-23ins18 and c.871A > C, p...
  15. Serranová T, Valls Sole J, Muñoz E, Genis D, Jech R, Seeman P. Abnormal corticospinal tract modulation of the soleus H reflex in patients with pure spastic paraparesis. Neurosci Lett. 2008;437:15-9 pubmed publisher
    ..conduction time (CMCT) is usually abnormally prolonged in leg muscles of patients with pure hereditary spastic paraparesis (PHSP)...
  16. O Riordan S, McMonagle P, Janssen J, Fox N, Farrell M, Collinge J, et al. Presenilin-1 mutation (E280G), spastic paraparesis, and cranial MRI white-matter abnormalities. Neurology. 2002;59:1108-10 pubmed
    ..One had spastic paraparesis and white matter abnormalities on cranial MRI...
  17. Edvardson S, Hama H, Shaag A, Gomori J, Berger I, Soffer D, et al. Mutations in the fatty acid 2-hydroxylase gene are associated with leukodystrophy with spastic paraparesis and dystonia. Am J Hum Genet. 2008;83:643-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients with autosomal-recessive unclassified leukodystrophy or complex spastic paraparesis, sequence analysis of the FA2H gene is warranted.
  18. Uttner I, Kirchheiner J, Tumani H, Mottaghy F, Lebedeva E, Ozer E, et al. A novel presenilin1 mutation (Q223R) associated with early onset Alzheimer's disease, dysarthria and spastic paraparesis and decreased Abeta levels in CSF. Eur J Neurol. 2010;17:631-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The index patient was a 35-year-old man presenting with cognitive decline, behavioural symptoms, dysarthria, and gait disorder due to spasticity...
  19. Adamolekun B. Etiology of Konzo, epidemic spastic paraparesis associated with cyanogenic glycosides in cassava: role of thiamine deficiency?. J Neurol Sci. 2010;296:30-3 pubmed publisher
    Konzo is a syndrome of symmetrical, non-progressive, non-remitting spastic paraparesis occurring in epidemic and endemic forms in several countries in Africa, invariably associated with monotonous consumption of inadequately processed ..
  20. Verkkoniemi A, Somer M, Rinne J, Myllykangas L, Crook R, Hardy J, et al. Variant Alzheimer's disease with spastic paraparesis: clinical characterization. Neurology. 2000;54:1103-9 pubmed
    ..To present the clinical, neuroimaging, and electrophysiologic characteristics of a variant AD phenotype...
  21. McDermott C, Dayaratne R, Tomkins J, Lusher M, Lindsey J, Johnson M, et al. Paraplegin gene analysis in hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) pedigrees in northeast England. Neurology. 2001;56:467-71 pubmed
    To identify the frequency and characterize the phenotype of paraplegin mutations in the hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) population in the northeast of England.
  22. Spurek M, Taylor Gjevre R, Van Uum S, Khandwala H. Adrenomyeloneuropathy as a cause of primary adrenal insufficiency and spastic paraparesis. CMAJ. 2004;171:1073-7 pubmed
    ..In this article, we describe an illustrative case of adrenomyeloneuropathy and discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of the 2 disorders...
  23. Crone C, Petersen N, Nielsen J, Hansen N, Nielsen J. Reciprocal inhibition and corticospinal transmission in the arm and leg in patients with autosomal dominant pure spastic paraparesis (ADPSP). Brain. 2004;127:2693-702 pubmed
    ..Patients with genetically identified autosomal dominant pure spastic paraparesis (ADPSP) develop spasticity and paresis in the legs, but usually have no symptoms in the arms...
  24. Bilic E, Bilic E, Zagar M, Juric S. Masked deficit of vitamin B12 in the patient with heterozygous beta-thalassemia and spastic paraparesis. Acta Neurol Belg. 2004;104:173-5 pubmed
    ..Vitamin B12 deficiency is a diagnosis that must not be overlooked. This case report turns the light on the fact that increased MCV is a hallmark in vitamin B12 deficiency, but it is not an obligatory sign. ..
  25. Levin M, Lee S, Gardner L, Shin Y, Douglas J, Salapa H. Autoantibodies to heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein A1 (hnRNPA1) cause altered 'ribostasis' and neurodegeneration; the legacy of HAM/TSP as a model of progressive multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2017;304:56-62 pubmed publisher
    ..with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was shown to cause HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), a disease biologically similar to progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  26. Dusad T, Kundnani V, Dutta S, Patel A, Mehta G, Singh M. An unusual case of intradural intramedullary dorsal bronchogenic cyst in spine. J Spine Surg. 2017;3:514-518 pubmed publisher
    ..We present an 18-year-old male patient with spastic paraparesis and bowel and bladder involvement...
  27. Jager M, Westhoff B, Wild A, Krauspe R. [Computer-assisted periacetabular triple osteotomy for treatment of dysplasia of the hip]. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 2004;142:51-9 pubmed
  28. Adeva Bartolome M, de Castro García F, Alonso Navarro H, Pérez Macho L. [Spastic paraparesis due to stenosis of dorsal canal caused by Paget's disease]. Rev Clin Esp. 2007;207:471-2 pubmed
  29. Li J, Hsu C, Tsai C. Spinocerebellar variant of adrenoleukodystrophy with a novel ABCD1 gene mutation. J Neurol Sci. 2010;290:163-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The proband, a 37-year-old man presented with dysarthria, cerebellar ataxia and mild spastic paraparesis, and had atrophy of cerebellum and upper cervical cord on MRI...
  30. Medina F, Quintremil S, Alberti C, Godoy F, Pando M, Bustamante A, et al. Tax secretion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Tax detection in plasma of patients with human T-lymphotropic virus-type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and asymptomatic carriers. J Med Virol. 2016;88:521-31 pubmed publisher
    ..1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of the neurologic disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Tax viral protein plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis...
  31. Hageman G, van der Hoek J, Faber C. Spastic paraparesis without optic atrophy after occupational methanol exposure. J Neurol. 2003;250:876-7 pubmed
  32. Lesca G, Vanier M, Creisson E, Bendelac N, Hainque B, Ollagnon Roman E, et al. [X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in a female proband: clinical presentation, biological diagnosis and family consequences]. Arch Pediatr. 2005;12:1237-40 pubmed
    ..More than a half of the carrier females display clinical symptoms over the age of 40 years...
  33. de Souza P, de Rezende Pinto W, de Rezende Batistella G, Bortholin T, Oliveira A. Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia: Clinical and Genetic Hallmarks. Cerebellum. 2017;16:525-551 pubmed publisher
    ..Although spastic paraparesis and urinary dysfunction represent the most common clinical presentation, a complex group of different ..
  34. Kevelam S, Neeleman R, Waisfisz Q, Friesema E, Langendonk J, van der Knaap M. Acute intermittent porphyria-related leukoencephalopathy. Neurology. 2016;87:1258-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical features were childhood-onset slowly progressive spastic paraparesis, cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, and in 2 patients, optic atrophy as well as vertical gaze and ..
  35. Mohammadi A, Fazeli B, Taheri M, Sahebkar A, Poursina Z, Vakili V, et al. Modulatory effects of curcumin on apoptosis and cytotoxicity-related molecules in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;85:457-462 pubmed publisher
    ..apoptosis- and cytotoxicity-related genes in patients suffering from HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), a progressive demyelinating neuroinflammatory disease caused by HTLV-1 infection...
  36. Frasson E, Priori A, Ruzzante B, Didonè G, Bertolasi L. Nerve stimulation boosts botulinum toxin action in spasticity. Mov Disord. 2005;20:624-9 pubmed
    ..the effectiveness of intramuscular BTXA injections on the neuromuscular blockade in patients with spastic paraparesis and could induce a rapid and persistent improvement in spasticity...
  37. Depienne C, Tallaksen C, Lephay J, Bricka B, Poea Guyon S, Fontaine B, et al. Gene symbol: SPAST. Disease: Spastic paraparesis. Accession #Hm0554. Hum Genet. 2006;118:782 pubmed
  38. Dev R, Singh G, Singh S, Mamgain A. Cystothecostomy: a new technique to treat long segment spinal extradural arachnoid cyst. Br J Neurosurg. 2008;22:585-7 pubmed publisher
    ..He presented to us with a slowly progressive spastic paraparesis. MRI revealed dorsal epidural arachnoid cyst extending from T7 vertebral body to L1 body producing marked ..
  39. O Connor G, Seich Al Basatena N, Olavarria V, MacNamara A, Vine A, Ying Q, et al. In contrast to HIV, KIR3DS1 does not influence outcome in HTLV-1 retroviral infection. Hum Immunol. 2012;73:783-7 pubmed publisher associated with the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)...
  40. Pinkhardt E, Sperfeld A, Uttner I, Ludolph A, Kassubek J. Amygdala size reduction is associated with memory deficits in complicated hereditary spastic paraparesis: an MRI study. Eur Neurol. 2010;64:117-23 pubmed publisher
    Neuroimaging findings in hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP), especially in complicated HSP (cHSP), are heterogenous...
  41. Yasuma K, Yasunaga J, Takemoto K, Sugata K, Mitobe Y, Takenouchi N, et al. HTLV-1 bZIP Factor Impairs Anti-viral Immunity by Inducing Co-inhibitory Molecule, T Cell Immunoglobulin and ITIM Domain (TIGIT). PLoS Pathog. 2016;12:e1005372 pubmed publisher
    ..HBZ-Tg) mice, and on ATL cells and HTLV-1 infected CD4+ T cells of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in vivo...
  42. Lyoo C, Cho H, Choi J, Hwang M, Hong S, Kim Y, et al. Tau Accumulation in Primary Motor Cortex of Variant Alzheimer's Disease with Spastic Paraparesis. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;51:671-5 pubmed publisher
    We studied topographic distribution of tau and amyloid-β in a patient with variant Alzheimer's disease with spastic paraparesis (VarAD) by comparing AD patients...
  43. Bhattacharjee S, Beauchamp N, Murray B, Lynch T. Case series of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraparesis with novel mutation in SPG 7 gene. Neurosciences (Riyadh). 2017;22:303-307 pubmed publisher
    Autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraparesis is rare.We present 4 patients with slowly progressive predominantly lower limb spasticity and ataxia. Only one patient had family history of ataxia but without any underlying diagnosis...
  44. Gonçalves da Silva J, de Almeida Holanda M, do Desterro Leiros M, Melo L, de Araújo A, de Almeida E. Basilar impression associated with impacted cisterna magna, spastic paraparesis and distress of balance: case report. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2006;64:668-71 pubmed
    ..Six months after posterior fossa decompression there was the disappearance of nuchal rigidity, vertigo, spastic paraparesis and improvement of balance...
  45. Carod Artal F. Infectious diseases causing autonomic dysfunction. Clin Auton Res. 2018;28:67-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Orthostatic hypotension, urinary dysfunction and hypohidrosis have been described in tropical spastic paraparesis patients...
  46. Matsuo T, Miyata Y, Nakamura T, Satoh K, Sakai H. Prosultiamine for treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction accompanied by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Int J Urol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    To evaluate oral prosultiamine treatment in patients with overactive bladder accompanied by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.
  47. Honarbakhsh S, Taylor G. High prevalence of bronchiectasis is linked to HTLV-1-associated inflammatory disease. BMC Infect Dis. 2015;15:258 pubmed publisher
    ..virus type 1 (HTLV-1), a retrovirus, is the causative agent of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL)...
  48. Lee J, Hsu C, Michael M, Nanda A, Liu L, McMillan J, et al. Large Intragenic Deletion in DSTYK Underlies Autosomal-Recessive Complicated Spastic Paraparesis, SPG23. Am J Hum Genet. 2017;100:364-370 pubmed publisher
    SPG23 is an autosomal-recessive neurodegenerative subtype of lower limb spastic paraparesis with additional diffuse skin and hair dyspigmentation at birth followed by further patchy pigment loss during childhood...
  49. Bizzari S, Hamzeh A, Nair P, Mohamed M, Saif F, Aithala G, et al. Novel SPG20 mutation in an extended family with Troyer syndrome. Metab Brain Dis. 2017;32:2155-2159 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical description of these patients included spastic paraparesis, motor and cognitive delay, gait abnormalities, musculoskeletal features, as well as white matter ..
  50. Lima L, Cardoso L, Santos S, Oliveira R, Oliveira S, Goes A, et al. Schistosoma antigens downregulate CXCL9 production by PBMC of HTLV-1-infected individuals. Acta Trop. 2017;167:157-162 pubmed publisher
    ..HTLV-1 is the causal agent of Adult T cell Leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-1-associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP)...
  51. Yengue P, Adler M, Bouhdid H, Mavroudakis N, Gelin M, Bourgeois N. Hepatic myelopathy after splenorenal shunting: report of one case and review of the literature. Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 2001;64:231-3 pubmed characterized by a motor involvement of the lower limbs without clinical sensory abnormality, leading to spastic paraparesis. These neurological features are related to a symmetric loss of myelin in the lateral corticospinal tracts...
  52. Ward K, White R, Mackinnon S, Hanna M. Human herpesvirus-7 infection of the CNS with acute myelitis in an adult bone marrow recipient. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2002;30:983-5 pubmed
    ..This report describes the identification of a reactivated HHV-7 infection in the cerebrospinal fluid of an adult who presented with an acute myelitis 11 months after unrelated donor bone marrow transplant. ..
  53. Feldman M, Hadfield S. Pot paresis: marijuana and a case of hypokalemic periodic paralysis. J Emerg Med. 2009;36:236-8 pubmed
    ..The electrocardiogram showed hypokalemic changes. Serum potassium was 2.0 mmoles/L. His symptoms and the hypokalemia resolved within 12 h of presentation without any treatment. ..
  54. Linhares S, Horta W, Cunha F, Castro J, Santos A, Marques W. Spastic paraparesis as the onset manifestation of spinocerebellar ataxia type 7. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2008;66:246-8 pubmed
  55. Santos R, Conceição G, Martins M, Kraychete A, Penalva M, Carvalho E, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) among maintenance hemodialysis patients. BMC Nephrol. 2017;18:64 pubmed publisher
    ..grave consequences, such as adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy / tropical spastic paraparesis. Its prevalence varies widely across different populations and geographic regions...
  56. Ghorbel I, Boukhris I, Kchir M, Abderrahmane K, Khanfir M, Lamloum M, et al. [Langerhans' cell histiocytosis of the dorsal spine. A rare etiology of spinal cord compression]. Rev Med Interne. 2008;29:58-62 pubmed
    ..A 55-year-old man complained of lumbar and back pain. He developed a spastic paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine showed a spinal cord compression due to bone and epidural tumoral ..
  57. Cilião Alves D, Haddad R, Rocha Junior M, de Deus Wagatsuma V, Martelli Palomino G, Marques A, et al. HLA-G 3'-untranslated region polymorphisms are associated with HTLV-1 infection, proviral load and HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis development. J Gen Virol. 2016;97:2742-2752 pubmed publisher
    ..The factors associated with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) development have not been fully elucidated; immunological and genetic factors may be involved...
  58. Matsuura E, Enose Akahata Y, Yao K, Oh U, Tanaka Y, Takashima H, et al. Dynamic acquisition of HTLV-1 tax protein by mononuclear phagocytes: Role in neurologic disease. J Neuroimmunol. 2017;304:43-50 pubmed publisher
    Pathology of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/Tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is believed to be the result of "bystander damage" involving effector CD8 (+) T lymphocytes (CTLs) killing of virus infected cells...
  59. Shiohama Y, Naito T, Matsuzaki T, Tanaka R, Tomoyose T, Takashima H, et al. Prevalence of plasma autoantibody against cancer testis antigen NY-ESO-1 in HTLV-1 infected individuals with different clinical status. Virol J. 2017;14:130 pubmed publisher
    ..7% (7/51) of ACs, 29.2% (38/130) of patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and 18.9% (10/53) of patients with ATL...
  60. Clarençon F, Touze E, Leroy Willig A, Turmel H, Naggara O, Pavy S, et al. Spastic paraparesis as a manifestation of Leber's disease. J Neurol. 2006;253:525-6 pubmed
  61. Depienne C, Tallaksen C, Lephay J, Bricka B, Poea Guyon S, Fontaine B, et al. Gene symbol: SPAST. Disease: Spastic paraparesis. Accession #Hm0555. Hum Genet. 2006;118:782 pubmed
  62. Ishiura H, Morikawa M, Hamada M, Watanabe T, Kako S, Chiba S, et al. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis involving central nervous system successfully treated with rituximab alone. Arch Neurol. 2008;65:662-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Because central nervous system (CNS) involvement of LYG has been known to show poor prognosis, the establishment of an effective treatment for CNS LYG with mild adverse effects is desired...
  63. Szymocha R, Akaoka H, Dutuit M, Malcus C, Didier Bazes M, Belin M, et al. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-infected T lymphocytes impair catabolism and uptake of glutamate by astrocytes via Tax-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. J Virol. 2000;74:6433-41 pubmed
    ..virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of a chronic progressive myelopathy called tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM)...
  64. Kerrigan D, Karvosky M, Riley P. Spastic paretic stiff-legged gait: joint kinetics. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;80:244-9 pubmed
  65. Dal D, Celiker V. Anesthetic management of a strabismus patient with phenylketonuria. Paediatr Anaesth. 2004;14:701-2 pubmed
  66. Koritnik B, Azam S, Knific J, Zidar J. Functional changes of the cortical motor system in hereditary spastic paraparesis. Acta Neurol Scand. 2009;120:182-90 pubmed publisher
    Hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by progressive bilateral lower limb spasticity...
  67. Soosman S, Joseph Mathurin N, BRASKIE M, Bordelon Y, Wharton D, Casado M, et al. Widespread white matter and conduction defects in PSEN1-related spastic paraparesis. Neurobiol Aging. 2016;47:201-209 pubmed publisher
    The mechanisms underlying presenilin 1 (PSEN1) mutation-associated spastic paraparesis (SP) are not clear...
  68. Shafit Zagardo B, Kress Y, Zhao M, Lee S. A novel microtubule-associated protein-2 expressed in oligodendrocytes in multiple sclerosis lesions. J Neurochem. 1999;73:2531-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a hitherto unsuspected role for this microtubule-associated protein in oligodendrocyte function during development and myelin repair. ..
  69. Fuentes A, Deirós C, Buisan L. [Anestesia in a man with hereditary spastic paraparesis]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2005;52:303-4 pubmed
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    ..We describe two sisters with hemiplegic migraine, low CSF and platelet serotonin levels, and progressive spastic paraparesis associated with profound spinal cord atrophy whose lower extremity strength and ambulation responded to a ..
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    ..This review provides an update on the pathological consequences of mutations in early-onset AD genes, the phenotypic heterogeneity of those cases, and future directions for research and clinical practice. ..
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    ..5 months. Eight patients who had marked spastic paraparesis or tetraparesis were included in the HM group and all others had AHD group...
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    ..The difference in the neurophysiological results suggests that the two drugs have different action mechanisms with a more prevalent reduction of alpha motoneuron excitability in phenol-treated patients. ..
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    ..The authors suggest that PLP1 testing might be considered in the evaluation of women with spastic paraparesis, cognitive decline and WM changes.
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    ..Disability Status Scale: (i) HTLV-1 carriers; (ii) probable HTLV-1-associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis; and (iii) definitive HTLV-1-associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis...
  79. Fuchigami T, Kakinohana M, Nakamura S, Murata K, Sugahara K. Intrathecal nicorandil and small-dose morphine can induce spastic paraparesis after a noninjurious interval of spinal cord ischemia in the rat. Anesth Analg. 2006;102:1217-22 pubmed
    ..6 +/- 4.7 microg of IT morphine. The present study demonstrates that IT small-dose morphine combined with nicorandil induces spastic paraparesis after noninjurious interval of spinal cord ischemia in the rat.
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    ..The causal effect of the steroid treatment is discussed...
  81. Sobolewski P. [The application of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of spastic paraparesis]. Przegl Lek. 2007;64 Suppl 2:3-7 pubmed
    ..BTX-A) has brought a new approach to the treatment for spasticity and pain connected, in the patients with spastic paraparesis in course of multiple sclerosis, posttraumatic and angiogenic lesion of brain and spinal cord...
  82. Lebiedowska M, Fisk J. Passive dynamics of the knee joint in healthy children and children affected by spastic paresis. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 1999;14:653-60 pubmed
    ..The purposes of this study were (1) to evaluate how changes in biomechanical parameters affect segment dynamics in children and (2) to determine whether the biomechanical parameters were changed in children with spastic paresis...
  83. Sztriha L, Frossard P, Hofstra R, Verlind E, Nork M. Novel missense mutation in the L1 gene in a child with corpus callosum agenesis, retardation, adducted thumbs, spastic paraparesis, and hydrocephalus. J Child Neurol. 2000;15:239-43 pubmed
    Corpus callosum agenesis, retardation, adducted thumbs, spastic paraparesis, and hydrocephalus (CRASH syndrome) is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by mutations in the neuronal cell adhesion molecule L1 (LICAM) gene...
  84. Salvi S, Santorelli F, Bertini E, Boldrini R, Meli C, Donati A, et al. Clinical and molecular findings in hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome. Neurology. 2001;57:911-4 pubmed
    ..The most consistent neurologic finding was spastic paraparesis, seen in five of the eight patients. However, all showed signs of pyramidal tract involvement...
  85. Kaiser P. [Endemic spastic paraperesis (konzo)]. Nervenarzt. 2002;73:946-51 pubmed
    Konzo is characterized by the abrupt onset of isolated and symmetric spastic paraparesis of the lower extremities which is permanent but nonprogressive...
  86. Ozdemir N, Citak G, Acar U. Spastic foot drop caused by a brain tumour: a case report. Br J Neurosurg. 2004;18:314-5 pubmed
  87. Yang B, Ondra S. Unknown case: part II. Soft tissue herniation through a thoracic laminectomy defect. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31:2871-2 pubmed
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    ..To determine the effect of hippotherapy on spasticity and on mental well-being of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), and to compare it with the effects of other interventions...
  89. Guneri E, Kirkim G, Serbetcioglu B, Erdag T, Guneri A. Cochlear implantation in neurobrucellosis. Otol Neurotol. 2009;30:747-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To report the first successful cochlear implantation (CI) in neurobrucellosis...
  90. Cartier L, Ramirez E, Galeno H. [HTLV-I tax gene on the etiological identification of tropical spastic paraparesis. A clinical, serological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) study in 72 patients]. Rev Med Chil. 1999;127:945-52 pubmed
    Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) is an endemic disease in Chile. In most countries, only 50% of patients are seropositive to HTLV-I. However, new studies suggest that seronegative TSP is also associated with HTLV-I.
  91. Le T, Crook R, Hardy J, Dickson D. Cotton wool plaques in non-familial late-onset Alzheimer disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2001;60:1051-61 pubmed
    ..They were first described in a Finnish kindred with early-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) with spastic paraparesis due to a presenilin-1 delta9 mutation...
  92. Kulkarni P. Anesthetic management of a strabismus patient with phenylketonuria. Paediatr Anaesth. 2004;14:701 pubmed