gait apraxia

Summary

Summary: Impaired ambulation not attributed to sensory impairment or motor weakness. FRONTAL LOBE disorders; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES (e.g., PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS); DEMENTIA, MULTI-INFARCT; ALZHEIMER DISEASE; and other conditions may be associated with gait apraxia.

Top Publications

  1. Mihalj M, Titlic M, Marovic A, Bulovic B, Srdelic Mihalj S. Gait apraxia. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2010;111:101-2 pubmed
    b>Gait apraxia is most commonly a part of the Hakimov triad (gait apraxia, urinary incontinence, dementia) in normotensive hydrocephalus (NPH), although it may be a symptom of some other conditions...
  2. Salsone M, Bagnato A, Novellino F, Cascini G, Paglionico S, Cipullo S, et al. Cardiac MIBG scintigraphy in Primary Progressive Freezing Gait. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009;15:365-9 pubmed publisher
    ..17+/-0.02 early; 1.16+/-0.02 delayed; PD-FOG: 1.22+/-0.10 early; 1.08+/-0.06 delayed). Our findings demonstrate that cardiac sympathetic denervation did not occur in patients with PPFG, confirming that PPFG and PD are distinct diseases...
  3. Ganeshram K, Adhiyaman V, Meara R. Higher level gait disorders. Age Ageing. 2004;33:206 pubmed
  4. Kageyama Y, Tadano M, Yamamoto S, Ichikawa K. [A case of slowly progressive unilateral spastic hemiparasis, hand clumsiness, limb ataxia and constructional apraxia]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2002;42:202-6 pubmed
    ..Etiologically atypical motor neuron disease with adjacent cortical involvement is suspected rather than corticobasal degeneration with severe unilateral pyramidal tract degeneration...
  5. Della Sala S, Spinnler H, Venneri A. Walking difficulties in patients with Alzheimer's disease might originate from gait apraxia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:196-201 pubmed
    To investigate whether gait apraxia is a possible cause for some of the walking abnormalities shown by patients with Alzheimer's disease.
  6. Zadikoff C, Lang A. Apraxia in movement disorders. Brain. 2005;128:1480-97 pubmed
    ..The term 'apraxia' has also been applied to other motor disturbances, such as 'gait apraxia' and 'apraxia of eyelid opening', that perhaps are misnomers, demonstrating the lack of a coherent nomenclature ..
  7. Lowry K, Smiley Oyen A, Carrel A, Kerr J. Walking stability using harmonic ratios in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2009;24:261-7 pubmed publisher
  8. Taskapilioglu O, Karli N, Erer S, Zarifoglu M, Bakar M, Turan F. Primary gait ignition disorder: report of three cases. Neurol Sci. 2009;30:333-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We reported our experience with pergolide in the treatment of patients suffering from primary GIF and underline the fact that more research is needed on the treatment of this condition...
  9. Bindu P, Desai S, Shehanaz K, Nethravathy M, Pal P. Clinical heterogeneity in Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome: a clinicoradiological study in 13 patients from South India. Brain Dev. 2006;28:343-7 pubmed
    ..Two patients had acanthocytes in peripheral blood smear. This study emphasizes the phenotypic heterogeneity in HSS and as well brings out the common features shared by patients with early onset disease...

More Information

Publications61

  1. Goto S, Kihara K, Hamasaki T, Nishikawa S, Hirata Y, Ushio Y. Apraxia of lid opening is alleviated by pallidal stimulation in a patient with Parkinson's disease. Eur J Neurol. 2000;7:337-40 pubmed
    ..Here we report that globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation on the right side markedly alleviates ALO as well as gait freezing in a patient with Parkinson's disease...
  2. Anderson Mooney A, Schmitt F, Head E, Lott I, Heilman K. Gait dyspraxia as a clinical marker of cognitive decline in Down syndrome: A review of theory and proposed mechanisms. Brain Cogn. 2016;104:48-57 pubmed publisher
  3. Harlow T, Gonzalez Alegre P. High prevalence of reported tremor in Klinefelter syndrome. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009;15:393-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, a high proportion of subjects with KS indicated gait imbalance. In summary, our study supports the previously reported association of an ET-like syndrome and KS...
  4. Salzman B. Gait and balance disorders in older adults. Am Fam Physician. 2010;82:61-8 pubmed
    ..However, effective options for patients with gait and balance disorders include exercise and physical therapy...
  5. Frassanito P, D Angelo L, Massimi L, Lauriola L, Novello M, Rocco C, et al. Sudden paraplegia in a case of apparently isolated frontal embryonal tumour with abundant neuropil and true rosettes. Br J Neurosurg. 2012;26:284-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnosis of embryonal tumour with abundant neuropil and true rosettes was posed...
  6. Konishi Y, Shirabe T, Katayama S, Funakawa I, Terao A. Autopsy case of pure akinesia showing pallidonigro-luysian atrophy. Neuropathology. 2005;25:220-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, a moderate number of diffuse plaques positive for beta-amyloid were distributed in the thalamus...
  7. Della Sala S, Francescani A, Spinnler H. Gait apraxia after bilateral supplementary motor area lesion. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002;72:77-85 pubmed
    The study aimed at addressing the issue of the precise nature of gait apraxia and the cerebral dysfunction responsible for it.
  8. Karatayli Ozgursoy S, Dominik J, Eidelman B, Guarderas J. Chronic cough as the presenting symptom of hydrocephalus. South Med J. 2010;103:574-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe this case will remind physicians of the importance of considering neurological disease as a cause of chronic cough after common causes are excluded...
  9. Dickstein R, Yoeli Y, Holtzman S, Faust A, Markoviz E. Weight bearing on the affected lower limb in residents of a geriatric rehabilitation hospital. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;89:287-92 pubmed publisher
  10. Vieregge P. [Gait disorders in the aged. What to do when your patient's gait is impaired?]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2005;147:65-6 pubmed
  11. Lewis S, Barker R. A pathophysiological model of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009;15:333-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is further postulated that this phenomenon may be acting via a transient period of increased synchronization within the basal ganglia oscillations...
  12. Zwick E, Saraph V, Strobl W, Steinwender G. [Single event multilevel surgery to improve gait in diplegic cerebral palsy - a prospective controlled trial]. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 2001;139:485-9 pubmed
    ..To evaluate prospectively the outcome of gait-improvement surgery in children with spastic diplegia...
  13. Erasmus C, Beems T, Rotteveel J. Frontal ataxia in childhood. Neuropediatrics. 2004;35:368-70 pubmed
    ..We suppose that frontal ataxia is the result of a disturbance in the cerebellar-frontal circuitries and an impairment of executive and planning functions of the basal ganglia-frontal lobe circuitry...
  14. Lampe R, Mitternacht J, Schrödl S, Gerdesmeyer L, Nathrath M, Gradinger R. [Using the gait laboratory for the investigation of orthopaedic clinical problems in children]. Klin Padiatr. 2004;216:72-8 pubmed
    ..With typical examples we show how biometrical data of the gait laboratory can be helpful to solve problems in orthopaedic examinations...
  15. Chan M, Lim W, Sahadevan S. Stage-independent and stage-specific phenotypic differences between vascular dementia and Alzheimer's Disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2008;26:513-21 pubmed publisher
  16. Nakamura A, Yoshida K, Ikeda S. Late-onset autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy with rimmed vacuoles. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2004;106:122-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that this autosomal recessive LGMD is unknown and characterized by its late onset, rimmed vacuoles and reduction of the laminin beta1 chain in muscle fibers...
  17. Abou Zeid N, Weinshenker B, Keegan B. Gait apraxia in multiple sclerosis. Can J Neurol Sci. 2009;36:562-5 pubmed
    b>Gait apraxia is a gait disorder not attributable to motor, cerebellar, or sensory dysfunction. Gait impairment is common in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), but is mostly attributed to spasticity and ataxia...
  18. Kaminsky T, Dudgeon B, Billingsley F, Mitchell P, Weghorst S. Virtual cues and functional mobility of people with Parkinson's disease: a single-subject pilot study. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2007;44:437-48 pubmed
    ..All participants expressed satisfaction with VCS. VCS shows promise in simulating kinesia paradoxa to improve the gait of some adults with PD in the home and community...
  19. Hesse S. Locomotor therapy in neurorehabilitation. NeuroRehabilitation. 2001;16:133-9 pubmed
    ..Parkinson and cerebral palsy. An electromechanical gait trainer relieving the strenuous effort of the therapists and controlling the trunk in a phase-dependent manner is a new alternative...
  20. Oh D, Yoo E, Yi C, Kwon O. Case report: physiotherapy strategies for a patient with conversion disorder presenting abnormal gait. Physiother Res Int. 2005;10:164-8 pubmed
  21. Putzhammer A, Perfahl M, Pfeiff L, Müller J. [Three-dimensional ultrasonic movement analysis of gait and hand-movements in schizophrenic patients]. Psychiatr Prax. 2005;32 Suppl 1:S38-42 pubmed
  22. Prats Vinas J, Martínez González M, Garcia Ribes A, Pacheco Boiso M. [Apraxia of gait: an acquired sequela with a poor prognosis]. Rev Neurol. 2005;40:279-81 pubmed
    b>Gait apraxia is not used to be considered as a diagnostic entity in Pediatric Neurology.
  23. Moretti R, Torre P, Antonello R, Cattaruzza T, Cazzato G, Bava A, et al. Neuropsychological evaluation of late-onset post-radiotherapy encephalopathy: a comparison with vascular dementia. J Neurol Sci. 2005;229-230:195-200 pubmed
    ..High dose RT might result in a severely demented, bedridden patient, who "has been cured" from his primary disease, the brain tumour. This constellation demands serious consideration before RT is given...
  24. Sullivan E, Rosenbloom M, Pfefferbaum A. Balance and gait deficits in schizophrenia compounded by the comorbidity of alcoholism. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:751-5 pubmed
    ..Alcoholism carries a liability of balance and gait instability that persists with sobriety. Such deficits are less well documented in schizophrenia and may be compounded by comorbidity with alcoholism, which is prevalent in schizophrenia...
  25. Selby Silverstein L, Hillstrom H, Palisano R. The effect of foot orthoses on standing foot posture and gait of young children with Down syndrome. NeuroRehabilitation. 2001;16:183-93 pubmed
    ..0003), and walking speed (p=0.0001) all decreased with FO use. Trial-to-trial variability of normalized peak ankle moment (p=0.0001), and of phase of peak ankle moment (p=0.0001) increased when the children wore FOs...
  26. Götze C, Sippel C, Rosenbaum D, Hackenberg L, Steinbeck J. [Objective measures of gait following revision hip arthroplasty. First medium-term results 2.6 years after surgery]. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 2003;141:201-8 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the study was to identify the functional impairments after revision arthroplasty by gait analysis...
  27. Robbins M, Verghese J, Antoniello D. Isolated gait apraxia from an acute unilateral parasagittal lesion. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2011;113:782-4 pubmed publisher
  28. Liska W, Doyle N, Schwartz Z. Successful revision of a femoral head ostectomy (complicated by postoperative sciatic neurapraxia) to a total hip replacement in a cat. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2010;23:119-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Postoperatively, activity was limited for six weeks; normal activity resumed at eight weeks. Rehabilitation treatments were provided to maximise the patient's excellent recovery...
  29. Weimer A, Schatz A, Lincoln A, Ballantyne A, Trauner D. "Motor" impairment in Asperger syndrome: evidence for a deficit in proprioception. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2001;22:92-101 pubmed
    ..The pattern of impairments suggests that a proprioceptive deficit may underlie the incoordination observed in AS and that these individuals may be overreliant on visual input to maintain balance and position in space...
  30. Gietzelt M, Wolf K, Kohlmann M, Marschollek M, Haux R. Measurement of accelerometry-based gait parameters in people with and without dementia in the field: a technical feasibility study. Methods Inf Med. 2013;52:319-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In clinical settings, there is usually a supervisor who gives instructions to the patients, but this can have an influence on patients' gait. It is expected that this effect will be smaller in field studies...
  31. Carboncini M, Volterrani D, Bonfiglio L, Barsotti G, Della Porta M, Mariani G, et al. Higher level gait disorders in subcortical chronic vascular encephalopathy: a single photon emission computed tomography study. Age Ageing. 2009;38:302-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to investigate brain activation during walking in subjects with high-level gait disorders due to chronic subcortical vascular encephalopathy...
  32. Chastan N, Do M, Bonneville F, Torny F, Bloch F, Westby G, et al. Gait and balance disorders in Parkinson's disease: impaired active braking of the fall of centre of gravity. Mov Disord. 2009;24:188-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The markedly decreased braking capacity observed in half the PD patients contributes to their gait disorders and postural instability, perhaps as a result of nondopaminergic lesions, possibly at the mesencephalic level...
  33. Wetter S, Poole J, Haaland K. Functional implications of ipsilesional motor deficits after unilateral stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86:776-81 pubmed
    ..To investigate the functional impact of ipsilesional motor deficits after unilateral stroke and the best predictors of those deficits...
  34. Hackney M, Earhart G. Backward walking in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2009;24:218-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Those with mild to moderate PD have impaired FW and BW, but differences between those with and without PD are more pronounced in BW...
  35. Bartels A, de Jong B, Giladi N, Schaafsma J, Maguire R, Veenma L, et al. Striatal dopa and glucose metabolism in PD patients with freezing of gait. Mov Disord. 2006;21:1326-32 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, in freezing PD, caudate uptake of FDG and FDOPA was reduced, whereas putamen FDOPA decrease was associated with FDG increase. Right hemisphere circuitry seemed to be more affected in freezing patients...
  36. Reijnders J, Ehrt U, Lousberg R, Aarsland D, Leentjens A. The association between motor subtypes and psychopathology in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009;15:379-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the association between motor subtypes and psychopathology in PD...
  37. Jordbru A, Smedstad L, Klungsøyr O, Martinsen E. Psychogenic gait disorder: a randomized controlled trial of physical rehabilitation with one-year follow-up. J Rehabil Med. 2014;46:181-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study examined the effect of a 3-week inpatient rehabilitation programme compared with a waiting list control condition, and whether eventual gains were maintained at 1-month and 1-year follow-up...
  38. Macefield V, Norcliffe Kaufmann L, Axelrod F, Kaufmann H. Relationship between proprioception at the knee joint and gait ataxia in HSAN III. Mov Disord. 2013;28:823-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III features marked ataxic gait that progressively worsens over time. We assessed whether proprioceptive disturbances can explain the ataxia...
  39. Kamm C, Heldner M, Vanbellingen T, Mattle H, Müri R, Bohlhalter S. Limb apraxia in multiple sclerosis: prevalence and impact on manual dexterity and activities of daily living. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;93:1081-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the prevalence and impact of limb apraxia on manual dexterity and activities of daily living (ADLs) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  40. Skinner S. Neurophysiologic monitoring of the spinal accessory nerve, hypoglossal nerve, and the spinomedullary region. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2011;28:587-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, an Illustrative case is presented to highlight the many strengths and weaknesses of "state of the art" lower cranial nerve/spinomedullary region monitoring...
  41. Auvinet B, Bileckot R, Alix A, Chaleil D, Barrey E. Gait disorders in patients with fibromyalgia. Joint Bone Spine. 2006;73:543-6 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to compare gait in patients with fibromyalgia and in matched controls...
  42. Kahloul N, Chaari W, Boughamoura L, Charfeddine L, Khammeri S, Amri F. [Pseudohypoparathyroidism revealed by Fahr syndrome]. Arch Pediatr. 2009;16:444-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We report an observation of a 12-year-old girl who presented gait impairment, seizures, somnolence and aphasia. Brain computed tomodensitometry identified intracranial calcifications. The tests demonstrated pseudohypoparathyroidism...
  43. Kroner A, Schwab N, Ip C, Sommer C, Wessig C, Wiendl H, et al. The co-inhibitory molecule PD-1 modulates disease severity in a model for an inherited, demyelinating neuropathy. Neurobiol Dis. 2009;33:96-103 pubmed publisher
  44. Compta Y, Valldeoriola F, Urra X, Gomez Anson B, Rami L, Tolosa E, et al. Isolated frontal disequilibrium as presenting form of anti-Hu paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis. Mov Disord. 2007;22:736-8 pubmed
    ..Only mild residual hyperintensities persist on follow-up MRI. A paraneoplastic syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subacute, fast progressive gait disorders...
  45. Elble R. Gait and dementia: moving beyond the notion of gait apraxia. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2007;114:1253-8 pubmed
    ..these gait disorders is unnecessarily complex and too heavily influenced by the controversial concept of gait apraxia. Straightforward descriptive diagnostic criteria are needed...
  46. Nadeau S. Gait apraxia: further clues to localization. Eur Neurol. 2007;58:142-5 pubmed
    b>Gait apraxia characterized primarily by gait ignition failure has been linked to lesions involving the dorsomedial frontal lobes, but the precise locus within this general region has not been determined...
  47. Szirmai I. [Vascular or "lower body Parkinsonism": rise and fall of a diagnosis]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2011;64:385-93 pubmed
    ..In some cases differentiation of gait apraxia and parkinsonism could be challenging...
  48. Cushing N, Jang J, O Connor C, Burrell J, Clemson L, Hodges J, et al. Disability in atypical parkinsonian syndromes is more dependent on memory dysfunction than motor symptoms. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2013;19:436-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the relations between disability, apraxia, cognitive and behavioural changes are not well understood in atypical parkinsonian syndromes...
  49. Kreisler A, Mastain B, Tison F, Fenelon G, Destee A. [Multi-infarct disorder presenting as corticobasal degeneration (DCB): vascular pseudo-corticobasal degeneration?]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2007;163:1191-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although we cannot exclude underlying CBD pathology, our cases illustrate the fact that multi-infarct pathology can masquerade as CBD or alter the clinical phenotype of the disease...
  50. Iansek R, Huxham F, McGinley J. The sequence effect and gait festination in Parkinson disease: contributors to freezing of gait?. Mov Disord. 2006;21:1419-24 pubmed
    ..The variability of FOG is suggested to relate to a combination of factors, including the sequence effect and its variability, as well as the severity of hypokinesia and its response to medications...
  51. Ma F, Selber P, Nattrass G, Harvey A, Wolfe R, Graham H. Lengthening and transfer of hamstrings for a flexion deformity of the knee in children with bilateral cerebral palsy: technique and preliminary results. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2006;88:248-54 pubmed
    ..Two children also showed an improvement of one level in the Gross Motor Function Classification System...
  52. Vogt L. [Gait analysis in patients following revision hip arthroplasty. First medium-term results 2.6 years after surgery]. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 2003;141:598; author reply 598-9 pubmed