synkinesis

Summary

Summary: An involuntary movement accompanying a volitional movement. It often refers to facial movements that accompany FACIAL PARALYSIS.

Top Publications

  1. Husseman J, Mehta R. Management of synkinesis. Facial Plast Surg. 2008;24:242-9 pubmed publisher
    Facial synkinesis is one of the most distressing consequences of facial paralysis. Synkinesis refers to the abnormal involuntary facial movement that occurs with voluntary movement of a different facial muscle group...
  2. Kanaya K, Ushio M, Kondo K, Hagisawa M, Suzukawa K, Yamaguchi T, et al. Recovery of facial movement and facial synkinesis in Bell's palsy patients. Otol Neurotol. 2009;30:640-4 pubmed publisher
    We examined the relationship between the time course of development of facial synkinesis in patients with Bell's palsy and the severity of facial nerve damage.
  3. Chua C, Quhill F, Jones E, Voon L, Ahad M, Rowson N. Treatment of aberrant facial nerve regeneration with botulinum toxin A. Orbit. 2004;23:213-8 pubmed
  4. Azadarmaki R, Mirza N, Soliman A. Unilateral true vocal fold synkinesis presenting with airway obstruction. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2009;118:587-91 pubmed
    ..We present a case series of 10 patients with unilateral true vocal fold paralysis who presented with airway obstruction...
  5. Coulson S, Croxson G, Adams R, O Dwyer N. Reliability of the "Sydney," "Sunnybrook," and "House Brackmann" facial grading systems to assess voluntary movement and synkinesis after facial nerve paralysis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;132:543-9 pubmed
  6. Toffola E, Furini F, Redaelli C, Prestifilippo E, Bejor M. Evaluation and treatment of synkinesis with botulinum toxin following facial nerve palsy. Disabil Rehabil. 2010;32:1414-8 pubmed publisher
    To assess the effect and efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in reducing synkinesis in aberrant facial nerve regeneration (following facial paralysis).
  7. Henstrom D, Malo J, Cheney M, Hadlock T. Platysmectomy: an effective intervention for facial synkinesis and hypertonicity. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2011;13:239-43 pubmed publisher
    To describe a procedure to permanently address platysmal synkinesis and hypertonicity and to report changes in quality of life associated with platysmectomy using the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation instrument.
  8. Ito H, Nakano S, Kusaka H. Low-dose subcutaneous injection of botulinum toxin type A for facial synkinesis and hyperlacrimation. Acta Neurol Scand. 2007;115:271-4 pubmed
    To investigate the efficacy of low dose of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) for facial synkinesis and hyperlacrimation.
  9. Oge A, Yayla V, Demir G, Eraksoy M. Excitability of facial nucleus and related brain-stem reflexes in hemifacial spasm, post-facial palsy synkinesis and facial myokymia. Clin Neurophysiol. 2005;116:1542-54 pubmed
    To compare the electrophysiological excitability characteristics of the facial nucleus and related structures in hemifacial spasm (HFS), post-facial palsy synkinesis (PFPS) and facial myokymia (FM).

More Information

Publications62

  1. Broniatowski M, Grundfest Broniatowski S, Hadley A, Shah N, Barbu A, Phillipbar S, et al. Improvement of respiratory compromise through abductor reinnervation and pacing in a patient with bilateral vocal fold impairment. Laryngoscope. 2010;120:76-83 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether respiratory compromise from bilateral vocal fold impairment (paralysis) can be objectively alleviated by reinnervation and pacing...
  2. Hwang I, Wang C, Chen Y, Cho C, Yeung K. Electromyographic analysis of joint-dependent global synkinesis in the upper limb of healthy adults: laterality of intensity and symmetry of spatial representation. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2006;16:313-23 pubmed
    ..EMG) activity were examined to characterize the effects of limb dominance and movement direction upon global synkinesis (GS). Twenty-two healthy young subjects (11 men, 11 women) with a mean age of 24...
  3. Ma M, van der Hoeven J, Nicolai J, Meek M. Sound-induced facial synkinesis following facial nerve paralysis. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2009;62:1025-9 pubmed publisher
    Facial synkinesis (or synkinesia) (FS) occurs frequently after paresis or paralysis of the facial nerve and is in most cases due to aberrant regeneration of (branches of) the facial nerve...
  4. Salardini A, Narayanan N, Arora J, Constable T, Jabbari B. Ipsilateral synkinesia involves the supplementary motor area. Neurosci Lett. 2012;523:135-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the supplementary motor area plays a central role in involuntary coordination observed in synkinesia, and provides insight into how the supplementary motor area orchestrates movements...
  5. McElhinny E, Reich I, Burt B, Mancini R, Wladis E, Durairaj V, et al. Treatment of pseudoptosis secondary to aberrant regeneration of the facial nerve with botulinum toxin type A. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;29:175-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To report on low-dose minimal injection treatment using botulinum toxin A for pseudoptosis secondary to aberrant facial nerve regeneration...
  6. Zealear D, Mainthia R, Li Y, Kunibe I, Katada A, Billante C, et al. Stimulation of denervated muscle promotes selective reinnervation, prevents synkinesis, and restores function. Laryngoscope. 2014;124:E180-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study was to assess the effect of different stimulus paradigms on reinnervation quality and functional recovery...
  7. Maronian N, Robinson L, Waugh P, Hillel A. A new electromyographic definition of laryngeal synkinesis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2004;113:877-86 pubmed
    Laryngeal synkinesis involves the misdirected reinnervation of an injured recurrent laryngeal nerve to vocal fold abductor and adductor musculature...
  8. Furukawa H, Saito A, Mol W, Sekido M, Sasaki S, Yamamoto Y. Double innervation occurs in the facial mimetic muscles after facial-hypoglossal end-to-side neural repair: rat model for neural supercharge concept. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2008;61:257-64 pubmed
    ..used in persistent incomplete facial palsy recently, and has achieved clinical evidences of recovery with rare synkinesis. We established a rat model to compare synkinesis after end-to-end and end-to-side neurorrhaphy techniques ..
  9. Neville C, Venables V, Aslet M, Nduka C, Kannan R. An objective assessment of botulinum toxin type A injection in the treatment of post-facial palsy synkinesis and hyperkinesis using the synkinesis assessment questionnaire. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2017;70:1624-1628 pubmed publisher
    ..to provide reliable and valid evidence that botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is a successful treatment for facial synkinesis in facial palsy by using the synkinesis assessment questionnaire (SAQ) tool...
  10. Ueki Y, Mima T, Oga T, Ikeda A, Hitomi T, Fukuyama H, et al. Dominance of ipsilateral corticospinal pathway in congenital mirror movements. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:276-9 pubmed
    ..To clarify the mechanism of congenital mirror movements...
  11. Hwang I, Tung L, Yang J, Chen Y, Yeh C, Wang C. Electromyographic analyses of global synkinesis in the paretic upper limb after stroke. Phys Ther. 2005;85:755-65 pubmed
    Global synkinesis (GS), or motor irradiation, is an involuntary movement associated with the coactivation of numerous muscles in one limb when the opposite limb is active...
  12. Farmer S. Mirror movements in neurology. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:1330 pubmed
  13. Brodsky J, Smith T, Litofsky S, Lee D. Lipoma of the cerebellopontine angle. Am J Otolaryngol. 2006;27:271-4 pubmed
    ..We describe the case of a healthy 42-year-old woman who presented with left-sided hearing loss and facial synkinesis. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enhancing lesion of the left CPA with no signal on fat ..
  14. Jowett N, Hadlock T. Contemporary management of Bell palsy. Facial Plast Surg. 2015;31:93-102 pubmed publisher
    ..This article describes contemporary use of physical therapy, injectables, and static and dynamic surgical procedures in facial reanimation of acute and chronic BP. ..
  15. Azuma T, Nakamura K, Takahashi M, Ohyama S, Toda N, Iwasaki H, et al. Mirror biofeedback rehabilitation after administration of single-dose botulinum toxin for treatment of facial synkinesis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;146:40-5 pubmed publisher
    The efficacy of facial biofeedback rehabilitation with a mirror after administration of a single dose of botulinum A toxin on facial synkinesis was examined in patients with chronic facial palsy.
  16. Ongkasuwan J, Courey M. The role of botulinum toxin in the management of airway compromise due to bilateral vocal fold paralysis. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;19:444-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Eliminating any thyroarytenoid/lateral cricoarytenoid (LCA) activity during respiratory gestures should allow greater unopposed posterior cricoarytenoid abduction...
  17. Bran G, Börjesson P, Boahene K, Gosepath J, Lohuis P. Effect of endoscopic brow lift on contractures and synkinesis of the facial muscles in patients with a regenerated postparalytic facial nerve syndrome. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014;133:121-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors proposed that endoscopic brow lift leads to an improvement of periocular movement disorders by reducing pathologically raised levels of afferent input...
  18. Shah A, Kumar A, Kothari K. Bilateral Marcus Gunn jaw winking synkinesis with monocular elevation deficiency: a case report and literature review. Int Ophthalmol. 2012;32:199-201 pubmed publisher
    Marcus Gunn jaw winking synkinesis (MGJWS) occurs due to an aberrant innervation of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle by a branch of the motor division of the trigeminal nerve that supplies the muscles of mastication...
  19. Wu Z, Silverman C, Linstrom C, Tessema B, Cosetti M. Objective computerized versus subjective analysis of facial synkinesis. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:2118-22 pubmed
    To compare the sensitivity of an objective, computerized approach to measurement of facial synkinesis with that for a subjective approach and to examine the test-retest reliability of these approaches.
  20. Morrison D, Elsas F, Descartes M. Congenital oculomotor nerve synkinesis associated with fetal retinoid syndrome. J AAPOS. 2005;9:166-8 pubmed
    Isotretinoin (RA), used for the treatment of cystic acne, is a powerful teratogen, causing craniofacial dysmorphisms and neural tube defects. We present two patients with RA embryopathy and oculomotor nerve synkinesis.
  21. Kulkarni K, Pasol J. Bilateral oculomotor synkinesis following Miller Fisher syndrome. Int Ophthalmol. 2012;32:277-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Six months later, she developed bilateral oculomotor synkinesis, suggesting aberrant regeneration. The pathogenesis of MFS is reviewed in light of this unusual finding.
  22. Terzis J, Karypidis D. Therapeutic strategies in post-facial paralysis synkinesis in adult patients. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012;129:925e-939e pubmed publisher
    Facial synkinesis comprises unwanted facial muscle contractions in different facial muscle groups following voluntary ones, in cases of incomplete recovery from facial paralysis...
  23. Terzis J, Karypidis D. Therapeutic strategies in post-facial paralysis synkinesis in pediatric patients. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2012;65:1009-18 pubmed publisher
    ..They are frequently encountered in patients with long standing facial paralysis and seriously affect their psychological status due to the impairment of their facial appearance, function and emotional expressivity...
  24. Lee C, Kikkawa D, Pasco N, Granet D. Advanced functional oculofacial indications of botulinum toxin. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2005;45:77-91 pubmed
  25. Beurskens C, Oosterhof J, Nijhuis van der Sanden M. Frequency and location of synkineses in patients with peripheral facial nerve paresis. Otol Neurotol. 2010;31:671-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Synkinesis is an involuntary movement accompanying a voluntary one. These unintentional movements are caused by an undifferentiated regeneration of the facial nerve that occurs after being compressed or partially damaged...
  26. Jones C, Lee E, Sparrow J, Harrad R. Levator function revisited: a two-phase assessment of lid movement to better identify levator-superior rectus synkinesis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010;94:229-32 pubmed publisher
    To assess a two-phase method of recording levator function in order to facilitate the identification of patients with ptosis who have a synkinesis between the levator and superior rectus muscles.
  27. Bacsi A, Kiernan M. Changes in axonal excitability and burst pattern behaviour in synkinesis. J Clin Neurosci. 2008;15:1288-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Synkinesis after severe facial nerve paralysis has been related to the processes of aberrant reinnervation and increased excitability of the facial nucleus...
  28. Kitisomprayoonkul W, Sirileartthananon P, Chaiwanichsiri D. Electrodiagnosis and recovery of facial paralysis at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007;90:2198-203 pubmed
    ..To study electrodiagnostic findings and recovery patterns of patients with facial nerve paralysis...
  29. Winterhoff J, Laskawi R. [Treatment of blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm and facial synkinesis with botulinum toxin]. HNO. 2012;60:479-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This article describes three of these diseases: blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm and facial synkinesis following facial nerve paralysis. The different etiologies, clinical symptoms and diagnosis are discussed...
  30. Costa Barbosa F, Balasubramanian R, Keefe K, Shaw N, Al Tassan N, Plummer L, et al. Prioritizing genetic testing in patients with Kallmann syndrome using clinical phenotypes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:E943-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The complexity of genetic testing in Kallmann syndrome (KS) is growing and costly. Thus, it is important to leverage the clinical evaluations of KS patients to prioritize genetic screening...
  31. Cecini M, Pavese C, Comelli M, Carlisi E, Sala V, Bejor M, et al. Quantitative measurement of evolution of postparetic ocular synkinesis treated with botulinum toxin type A. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;132:1255-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Facial Grading System is considered one of the best scales available to grade facial motility and postparetic synkinesis. To measure facial landmarks and movement excursion, a new software, the Facial Assessment by Computer ..
  32. Clapham L, Thomas S, Allen D, Arunachalam R, Cole J. Facial muscle contraction in response to mechanical stretch after severe facial nerve injury: Clapham's sign. J Laryngol Otol. 2011;125:732-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In several patients with complete facial nerve palsy, it was noticed that when the cheek was stretched there was subsequent spasm of the muscles of facial expression. This also occurred in patients whose facial nerve had been transected...
  33. Kollewe K, Mohammadi B, Dengler R, Dressler D. Hemifacial spasm and reinnervation synkinesias: long-term treatment with either Botox or Dysport. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2010;117:759-63 pubmed publisher
    ..56 there were no differences between both drugs with respect to therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects thus confirming the hypothesis that there may not be intrinsic differences between both products...
  34. Neely J, Cherian N, Dickerson C, Nedzelski J. Sunnybrook facial grading system: reliability and criteria for grading. Laryngoscope. 2010;120:1038-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The hypothesis was that even in naïve observers, specific criteria improve reliability...
  35. Zhang B, Yang C, Wang W, Li W. Repair of ocular-oral synkinesis of postfacial paralysis using cross-facial nerve grafting. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2010;26:375-80 pubmed publisher
    ..techniques and results of cross-facial nerve grafting that have been developed in the repair of ocular-oral synkinesis after facial paralysis...
  36. Salazar G, Casas E, Oliveras D, Rando A, Sergio P. Ocular-jaw synkinesia in normal, Parkinson's disease, and multiple system atrophy subjects: Clinical and electrophysiological findings. Clin Neurophysiol. 2010;121:94-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We term this conjugated movement 'ocular-jaw synkinesia' (OJS). The clinical and electrophysiological features of OJS are described in this study...
  37. Vrabec J, Backous D, Djalilian H, Gidley P, Leonetti J, Marzo S, et al. Facial Nerve Grading System 2.0. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;140:445-50 pubmed publisher
    ..To present an updated version of the original Facial Nerve Grading Scale (FNGS), commonly referred to as the House-Brackmann scale...
  38. Mori R, Vasavada S, Baker D, Sabanegh E. Treatment of debilitating cremasteric synkinesia with intracremasteric botulinum-A toxin injections. Urology. 2011;78:214-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiple imaging modalities revealed no obvious pathology for this significant bilateral pain. Genitourinary examination revealed hyper-retractile testes with changes consistent with bilateral orchidopexies and was otherwise normal...
  39. Kothari M, Hussain A, Kar D, Toshniwal S. Primary superior oblique muscle-levator muscle synkinesis. J AAPOS. 2007;11:204-5 pubmed
    ..1) In this report we present a case of upper eyelid retraction while looking in the field of action of the superior oblique muscle, indicating a primary superior oblique-levator muscle synkinesis.
  40. Kleiss I, Beurskens C, Stalmeier P, Ingels K, Marres H. Synkinesis assessment in facial palsy: validation of the Dutch Synkinesis Assessment Questionnaire. Acta Neurol Belg. 2016;116:171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study is to validate an existing health-related quality of life questionnaire for patients with synkinesis in facial palsy for implementation in the Dutch language and culture...
  41. Weber E, Newman S. Aberrant regeneration of the oculomotor nerve: implications for neurosurgeons. Neurosurg Focus. 2007;23:E14 pubmed
    Aberrant regeneration of cranial nerve III, otherwise known as oculomotor synkinesis, is an uncommon but well-described phenomenon most frequently resulting from trauma, tumors, and aneurysms...
  42. Guntinas Lichius O. Objective computerized versus subjective analysis of facial synkinesis. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:845; author reply 845-6 pubmed
  43. Burroughs J, Anderson R, Elliot R. Correction of congenital blepharoptosis in oculomotor-abducens synkinesis. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;22:64-5 pubmed
    A 4-year-old boy was referred for blepharoptosis. Examination revealed the presence of oculomotor-abducens synkinesis (right upper eyelid elevation with right gaze). Reports of congenital oculomotor-abducens synkinesis syndromes are rare...
  44. Park I, Song I, Lee S, Lee K, Kim H, Kim J. Mirror movements and involuntary homolateral limb synkinesis in a patient with probable Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2009;111:380-3 pubmed publisher
    ..gait disturbance, right focal hand dystonia, myoclonus, mirror movements, and involuntary homolateral limb synkinesis during alternating limb movements...
  45. Mabvuure N, Hallam M, Venables V, Nduka C. Validation of a new photogrammetric technique to monitor the treatment effect of Botulinum toxin in synkinesis. Eye (Lond). 2013;27:860-4 pubmed publisher
    To validate a new photogrammetric technique for quantifying eye surface area and using this to quantify the degree of improvement in symmetry in patients with oral-ocular synkinesis following Botulinum toxin injection.
  46. Després C, Beuter A, Richer F, Poitras K, Veilleux A, Ayotte P, et al. Neuromotor functions in Inuit preschool children exposed to Pb, PCBs, and Hg. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2005;27:245-57 pubmed
    ..Tremor amplitude was related to blood Hg concentrations at testing time, which corroborate an effect already reported among adults...
  47. Brichacek M, Brandt M, Carey J, Byrne P. Stapedial synkinesis causing change in hearing threshold with facial motion. Otol Neurotol. 2013;34:762-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It is exceedingly rare for such synkinesis to produce perceivable changes in hearing threshold...
  48. Zaytseva N, Walid M, Berdichevskaia E. Interhemispheric interaction in the motor domain in children with cerebral palsy. Neurol India. 2009;57:411-7 pubmed publisher
  49. Dressler D. Routine use of Xeomin in patients previously treated with Botox: long term results. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16 Suppl 2:2-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, its real potential can only be assessed, when it is used outside of study design restrictions, in an independent setting, in off-label indications and during continued use...
  50. Morishima N, Yagi R, Shimizu K, Ota S. Prognostic factors of synkinesis after Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2013;40:431-4 pubmed publisher
    This study evaluated the prognostic factors of synkinesis following Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome.
  51. Ghodasra D, Nallasamy S, Binenbaum G. Congenital trigemino-abducens synkinesis in a neonate. J AAPOS. 2009;13:417-8 pubmed publisher
    Congenital ocular synkinesis syndromes involve aberrant innervation of extraocular and eyelid muscles in a variety of patterns. A rare iteration is trigemino-abducens synkinesis, with only three published cases to date...
  52. Placheta E, Tzou C, Hold A, Pona I, Frey M. Facial synkinesia before and after surgical reanimation of the paralyzed face. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014;133:842e-851e pubmed publisher
    ..The rate of postoperative synkinesia after facial reanimation is not clearly established. The severity and type of synkinesia determine the degree of clinical relevance...
  53. Espay A, Li J, Johnston L, Chen R, Lang A. Mirror movements in parkinsonism: evaluation of a new clinical sign. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:1355-8 pubmed
    ..Mirror movements (MM) are not widely appreciated in parkinsonism and no report has evaluated this clinical sign in detail...