dyskinesias

Summary

Summary: Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.

Top Publications

  1. Troiano A, de la Fuente Fernandez R, Sossi V, Schulzer M, Mak E, Ruth T, et al. PET demonstrates reduced dopamine transporter expression in PD with dyskinesias. Neurology. 2009;72:1211-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Dyskinesias are common in Parkinson disease (PD). Prior investigations suggest that dopamine (DA) terminals compensate for abnormal DA transmission...
  2. Poewe W. Treatments for Parkinson disease--past achievements and current clinical needs. Neurology. 2009;72:S65-73 pubmed publisher
    ..levodopa-related motor complications are only partially effective, rarely abolishing motor fluctuations or dyskinesias. Best results are currently achieved with invasive strategies via subcutaneous (s.c...
  3. Bachmann C, Zapf A, Brunner E, Trenkwalder C. Dopaminergic treatment is associated with decreased body weight in patients with Parkinson's disease and dyskinesias. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16:895-901 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to investigate whether PD patients with dyskinesias display body weight alterations and to observe any correlations between medication and other putative ..
  4. Chelaru M, Duval C, Jog M. Levodopa-induced dyskinesias detection based on the complexity of involuntary movements. J Neurosci Methods. 2010;186:81-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The clear difference between the sample entropy-based measures for the non-dyskinetic and dyskinetic patients made possible the automatic, efficient recognition of the dyskinetic condition, based on multi-layer perceptrons...
  5. Adamiak U, Kaldonska M, Klodowska Duda G, Wyska E, Safranow K, Bialecka M, et al. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of levodopa in patients with advanced Parkinson disease. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2010;33:135-41 pubmed publisher
    ..pk/pd) relationship of levodopa (l-dopa) in patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD) and also to evaluate the effect of tolcapone on the pk/pd analysis of l-dopa in 1 patient with severe dyskinesias and fluctuations.
  6. Lee J, Yang H, Kim J, Jeon B. Novel GCH-1 mutations and unusual long-lasting dyskinesias in Korean families with dopa-responsive dystonia. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2013;19:1156-9 pubmed publisher
    To describe the long-term follow-up data of Korean patients with GTP cyclohydrolase (GTPCH) I deficient dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) with novel mutations and unusual long-lasting dyskinesias.
  7. Pappa S, Dazzan P. Spontaneous movement disorders in antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode psychoses: a systematic review. Psychol Med. 2009;39:1065-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Their presence has been documented extensively in chronic schizophrenia but not at the time of illness onset...
  8. Soderstrom K, O Malley J, Levine N, Sortwell C, Collier T, Steece Collier K. Impact of dendritic spine preservation in medium spiny neurons on dopamine graft efficacy and the expression of dyskinesias in parkinsonian rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;31:478-90 pubmed publisher
    ..However, analyses of vibrissae-induced forelimb use, levodopa-induced dyskinesias and graft-induced dyskinesias showed significant improvement in rats with dopamine grafts associated with ..
  9. Bjorklund T, Carlsson T, Cederfjäll E, Carta M, Kirik D. Optimized adeno-associated viral vector-mediated striatal DOPA delivery restores sensorimotor function and prevents dyskinesias in a model of advanced Parkinson's disease. Brain. 2010;133:496-511 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach has been shown to be efficient in restoring motor function and reducing established dyskinesias in rats with a partial lesion of the nigrostriatal dopamine projection...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Carta M, Carlsson T, Munoz A, Kirik D, Bjorklund A. Role of serotonin neurons in the induction of levodopa- and graft-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2010;25 Suppl 1:S174-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism may also play a role in the development of graft-induced dyskinesias in patients that receive fetal neuron transplants, possibly due to the inclusion of serotonin neurons in the ..
  2. Mittal V, Walker E, Bearden C, Walder D, Trottman H, Daley M, et al. Markers of basal ganglia dysfunction and conversion to psychosis: neurocognitive deficits and dyskinesias in the prodromal period. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;68:93-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Politis M. Dyskinesias after neural transplantation in Parkinson's disease: what do we know and what is next?. BMC Med. 2010;8:80 pubmed publisher
    ..uncontrolled movements in the absence of dopaminergic medication, so-called off-phase, graft-induced dyskinesias. Notwithstanding the several mechanisms having been proposed, the pathogenesis of this type of dyskinesias ..
  4. Sawada H, Oeda T, Kuno S, Nomoto M, Yamamoto K, Yamamoto M, et al. Amantadine for dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15298 pubmed publisher
    b>Dyskinesias are some of the major motor complications that impair quality of life for patients with Parkinson's disease...
  5. Politis M, Oertel W, Wu K, Quinn N, Pogarell O, Brooks D, et al. Graft-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease: High striatal serotonin/dopamine transporter ratio. Mov Disord. 2011;26:1997-2003 pubmed publisher
    Graft-induced dyskinesias are a serious complication after neural transplantation in Parkinson's disease...
  6. Gittis A, Leventhal D, Fensterheim B, Pettibone J, Berke J, Kreitzer A. Selective inhibition of striatal fast-spiking interneurons causes dyskinesias. J Neurosci. 2011;31:15727-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide direct evidence that hypofunction of striatal FSIs can produce movement abnormalities, and suggest that they may represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of hyperkinetic movement disorders...
  7. Blandini F, Armentero M. New pharmacological avenues for the treatment of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease: targeting glutamate and adenosine receptors. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2012;21:153-68 pubmed publisher
    ..which is hampered by numerous side effects, including abnormal involuntary movements known as L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LIDs)...
  8. Lopez Laso E, Beyer K, Opladen T, Artuch R, Saunders Pullman R. Dyskinesias as a limiting factor in the treatment of Segawa disease. Pediatr Neurol. 2012;46:404-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the development of levodopa limiting treatment dyskinesias is thought to support the diagnosis of other early-onset dystonia/parkinsonism syndromes...
  9. Dybdal D, Forcelli P, DUBACH M, Oppedisano M, Holmes A, Malkova L, et al. Topography of dyskinesias and torticollis evoked by inhibition of substantia nigra pars reticulata. Mov Disord. 2013;28:460-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In monkeys, choreiform limb dyskinesias have been described after inhibition of the GPi, but not the SNpr...
  10. Baizabal Carvallo J, Stocco A, Muscal E, Jankovic J. The spectrum of movement disorders in children with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Mov Disord. 2013;28:543-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Movement disorders are frequent but difficult to characterize in patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis...
  11. Barker R, Kuan W. Graft-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease: what is it all about?. Cell Stem Cell. 2010;7:148-9 pubmed publisher
    ..with grafts of fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue has shown some success, but can result in graft-induced dyskinesias (GIDs). Recently in Science Translational Medicine, Politis et al...
  12. Politis M, Wu K, Loane C, Quinn N, Brooks D, Rehncrona S, et al. Serotonergic neurons mediate dyskinesia side effects in Parkinson's patients with neural transplants. Sci Transl Med. 2010;2:38ra46 pubmed publisher
    Troublesome involuntary movements in the absence of dopaminergic medication, so-called off-medication dyskinesias, are a serious adverse effect of fetal neural grafts that hinders the development of cell-based therapies for Parkinson's ..
  13. Williams A, Gill S, Varma T, Jenkinson C, Quinn N, Mitchell R, et al. Deep brain stimulation plus best medical therapy versus best medical therapy alone for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD SURG trial): a randomised, open-label trial. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9:581-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to assess whether surgery and best medical therapy improved self-reported quality of life more than best medical therapy alone in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease...
  14. Depienne C, Bouteiller D, Méneret A, Billot S, Groppa S, Klebe S, et al. RAD51 haploinsufficiency causes congenital mirror movements in humans. Am J Hum Genet. 2012;90:301-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings open a new field of investigation for researchers attempting to unravel the molecular pathways underlying bimanual motor control in humans...
  15. Alegre M, López Azcárate J, Alonso Frech F, Rodriguez Oroz M, Valencia M, Guridi J, et al. Subthalamic activity during diphasic dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2012;27:1178-81 pubmed publisher
    Diphasic dyskinesias are a subtype of levodopa-induced dyskinesias that appear typically at the onset and end of levodopa antiparkinsonian action. The pathophysiology of diphasic dyskinesias is not well understood.
  16. Walther S, Strik W. Motor symptoms and schizophrenia. Neuropsychobiology. 2012;66:77-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This review of the literature supports the idea that motor symptoms are closely related to the neurodevelopmental disturbances of schizophrenia and a distinct syndromal dimension with its own pathophysiology...
  17. Santini E, Alcacer C, Cacciatore S, Heiman M, Herve D, Greengard P, et al. L-DOPA activates ERK signaling and phosphorylates histone H3 in the striatonigral medium spiny neurons of hemiparkinsonian mice. J Neurochem. 2009;108:621-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that in the dopamine-depleted striatum, L-DOPA activates ERK signaling specifically in striatonigral MSNs. This regulation may result in ERK-dependent changes in striatal plasticity leading to dyskinesia...
  18. Olanow C, Gracies J, Goetz C, Stoessl A, Freeman T, Kordower J, et al. Clinical pattern and risk factors for dyskinesias following fetal nigral transplantation in Parkinson's disease: a double blind video-based analysis. Mov Disord. 2009;24:336-43 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study is to assess dyskinesias in 34 Parkinson's disease patients randomized to receive bilateral fetal nigral transplantation with 4 donors per side (12), 1 donor per side (11), or placebo (11)...
  19. Liang L, Delong M, Papa S. Inversion of dopamine responses in striatal medium spiny neurons and involuntary movements. J Neurosci. 2008;28:7537-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings point to the fundamental role of dopamine-mediated balance of striatal outputs for normal movement...
  20. Hagell P, Piccini P, Bjorklund A, Brundin P, Rehncrona S, Widner H, et al. Dyskinesias following neural transplantation in Parkinson's disease. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5:627-8 pubmed
    Severe dyskinesias during the 'off' phases (periods of increased Parkinson's disease (PD) disability) have been observed following intrastriatal transplantation of human embryonic mesencephalic tissue...
  21. Nadjar A, Brotchie J, Guigoni C, Li Q, Zhou S, Wang G, et al. Phenotype of striatofugal medium spiny neurons in parkinsonian and dyskinetic nonhuman primates: a call for a reappraisal of the functional organization of the basal ganglia. J Neurosci. 2006;26:8653-61 pubmed
    ..Striatofugal pathways are not as segregated in the primate as previously considered...
  22. Hallett P, Dunah A, Ravenscroft P, Zhou S, Bezard E, Crossman A, et al. Alterations of striatal NMDA receptor subunits associated with the development of dyskinesia in the MPTP-lesioned primate model of Parkinson's disease. Neuropharmacology. 2005;48:503-16 pubmed
    The development of dyskinesias and other motor complications greatly limits the use of levodopa therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  23. Dodel R, Berger K, Oertel W. Health-related quality of life and healthcare utilisation in patients with Parkinson's disease: impact of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. Pharmacoeconomics. 2001;19:1013-38 pubmed
    ..as changes between akinetic and mobile phases (motor fluctuations) or as abnormal involuntary movements (dyskinesias)...
  24. Del Sorbo F, Albanese A. Levodopa-induced dyskinesias and their management. J Neurol. 2008;255 Suppl 4:32-41 pubmed publisher
    This paper reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features and rationale for managing dyskinesias associated with Parkinson's disease...
  25. Boulet S, Lacombe E, Carcenac C, Feuerstein C, Sgambato Faure V, Poupard A, et al. Subthalamic stimulation-induced forelimb dyskinesias are linked to an increase in glutamate levels in the substantia nigra pars reticulata. J Neurosci. 2006;26:10768-76 pubmed
    ..These new neurochemical data suggest that STN-HFS-induced forelimb dyskinesia is mediated by glutamate, probably via the direct activation of STN axons, shedding light on the mechanisms of STN-HFS in PD...
  26. Olanow C, Goetz C, Kordower J, Stoessl A, Sossi V, Brin M, et al. A double-blind controlled trial of bilateral fetal nigral transplantation in Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 2003;54:403-14 pubmed
    ..Fetal nigral transplantation currently cannot be recommended as a therapy for PD based on these results...
  27. Thomas A, Iacono D, Luciano A, Armellino K, Di Iorio A, Onofrj M. Duration of amantadine benefit on dyskinesia of severe Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:141-3 pubmed
    ..A double-blind study programmed over 12 months was designed to assess the duration of the antidyskinetic effect of amantadine on levodopa induced dyskinesia...
  28. Foffani G, Ardolino G, Meda B, Egidi M, Rampini P, Caputo E, et al. Altered subthalamo-pallidal synchronisation in parkinsonian dyskinesias. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:426-8 pubmed
    The aim of this work was to study the role of subthalamo-pallidal synchronisation in the pathophysiology of dyskinesias. We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in a patient with Parkinson's disease and left surgery induced dyskinesias ..
  29. Pechevis M, Clarke C, Vieregge P, Khoshnood B, Deschaseaux Voinet C, Berdeaux G, et al. Effects of dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease on quality of life and health-related costs: a prospective European study. Eur J Neurol. 2005;12:956-63 pubmed
    The treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) with l-DOPA leads to involuntary movements (dyskinesias)...
  30. Dale R, Heyman I, Surtees R, Church A, Giovannoni G, Goodman R, et al. Dyskinesias and associated psychiatric disorders following streptococcal infections. Arch Dis Child. 2004;89:604-10 pubmed
    ..Recently, other post-streptococcal movement disorders have been described, including motor tics and dystonia. Associated emotional and behavioural alteration is characteristic...
  31. Meissner W, Ravenscroft P, Reese R, Harnack D, Morgenstern R, Kupsch A, et al. Increased slow oscillatory activity in substantia nigra pars reticulata triggers abnormal involuntary movements in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat in the presence of excessive extracellular striatal dopamine. Neurobiol Dis. 2006;22:586-98 pubmed
  32. Martinelli P, Contin M, Scaglione C, Riva R, Albani F, Baruzzi A. Levodopa pharmacokinetics and dyskinesias: are there sex-related differences?. Neurol Sci. 2003;24:192-3 pubmed
    ..the potential sex-related differences in levodopa pharmacokinetics and their relation with the presence of dyskinesias in a group of 115 patients (67 men, 49 women) with Parkinson's disease...
  33. Lee J, Poon L, Chong S. Spontaneous dyskinesia in first-episode psychosis in a Southeast Asian population. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;28:536-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with dyskinetic movements at baseline could have a more treatment refractory course of illness...
  34. Bhatia K. Familial (idiopathic) paroxysmal dyskinesias: an update. Semin Neurol. 2001;21:69-74 pubmed
    ..The paroxysmal dyskinesias share features and therefore may have the same pathophysiological mechanisms as other episodic neurological ..
  35. Hsu A, Togasaki D, Bezard E, Sokoloff P, Langston J, Di Monte D, et al. Effect of the D3 dopamine receptor partial agonist BP897 [N-[4-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazinyl)butyl]-2-naphthamide] on L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-induced dyskinesias and parkinsonism in squirrel monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004;311:770-7 pubmed
    ..Parkinson's disease, continued treatment may result in excessive involuntary movements known as L-dopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs)...
  36. Henry B, Fox S, Crossman A, Brotchie J. Mu- and delta-opioid receptor antagonists reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesia in the MPTP-lesioned primate model of Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 2001;171:139-46 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that specific mu- or delta-opioid receptor antagonists might be applicable clinically in the treatment of levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease...
  37. Herzog J, Pinsker M, Wasner M, Steigerwald F, Wailke S, Deuschl G, et al. Stimulation of subthalamic fibre tracts reduces dyskinesias in STN-DBS. Mov Disord. 2007;22:679-84 pubmed
    ..of patients with subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is complicated by pharmacologically intractable dyskinesias. Here we report that in three of these patients additional stimulation of a proximal contact located within the ..
  38. Follett K. Comparison of pallidal and subthalamic deep brain stimulation for the treatment of levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Neurosurg Focus. 2004;17:E3 pubmed
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) can relieve dyskinesias effectively and safely. This modality is applied most commonly in the treatment of dyskinesias associated with levodopa therapy for Parkinson disease...
  39. Hagell P, Cenci M. Dyskinesias and dopamine cell replacement in Parkinson's disease: a clinical perspective. Brain Res Bull. 2005;68:4-15 pubmed
    Both increased and decreased dyskinesias have been reported from open label clinical trials of transplantation of human embryonic dopamine rich tissue in Parkinson's disease patients...
  40. Kleiner Fisman G, Herzog J, Fisman D, Tamma F, Lyons K, Pahwa R, et al. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation: summary and meta-analysis of outcomes. Mov Disord. 2006;21 Suppl 14:S290-304 pubmed
    ..These data provide an estimate of the magnitude of the treatment effects and emphasize the need for controlled and randomized studies...
  41. Yuan C, Ye Q, Wang J, Zhang Y, Yuan C. [Effects of traditional Chinese herbal medicine on the neurobehavioral manifestations and the activity of dopamine D2 receptor in corpora striatum of rats with levodopa-induced dyskinesias]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2008;6:1024-8 pubmed publisher
    ..herbal medicine (TCM) for nourishing liver and kidney, clearing meridians and removing toxic substances, on the neurobehavioral manifestations and the activity of the dopamine D2 receptor in rat with levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID).
  42. Calon F, Dridi M, Hornykiewicz O, Bedard P, Rajput A, Di Paolo T. Increased adenosine A2A receptors in the brain of Parkinson's disease patients with dyskinesias. Brain. 2004;127:1075-84 pubmed
    ..Fourteen levodopa-treated Parkinson's disease patients, of which seven developed dyskinesias and seven did not, were compared with nine controls...
  43. Pahwa R, Factor S, Lyons K, Ondo W, Gronseth G, Bronte Stewart H, et al. Practice Parameter: treatment of Parkinson disease with motor fluctuations and dyskinesia (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2006;66:983-95 pubmed
    ..Which factors predict improvement after DBS?..
  44. Deuschl G, Schade Brittinger C, Krack P, Volkmann J, Schafer H, Bötzel K, et al. A randomized trial of deep-brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:896-908 pubmed
    ..Neurostimulation of the subthalamic nucleus reduces levodopa-related motor complications in advanced Parkinson's disease. We compared this treatment plus medication with medical management...
  45. Quik M, Police S, Langston J, Di Monte D. Increases in striatal preproenkephalin gene expression are associated with nigrostriatal damage but not L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in the squirrel monkey. Neuroscience. 2002;113:213-20 pubmed
    ..in the caudate and putamen have been linked to the development of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesias in primate models of Parkinson's disease, although not all investigators have been able to confirm this ..
  46. Kulisevsky J, Barbanoj M, Gironell A, Antonijoan R, Casas M, Pascual Sedano B. A double-blind crossover, placebo-controlled study of the adenosine A2A antagonist theophylline in Parkinson's disease. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2002;25:25-31 pubmed
    ..of the effect of levodopa in all Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale variables considered, including dyskinesias, maximal levodopa-induced improvement and the duration of the effect of levodopa did not differ significantly ..
  47. Moretti P, Peters S, del Gaudio D, Sahoo T, Hyland K, Bottiglieri T, et al. Brief report: autistic symptoms, developmental regression, mental retardation, epilepsy, and dyskinesias in CNS folate deficiency. J Autism Dev Disord. 2008;38:1170-7 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that autistic features are salient in CFD and suggest that a subset of children with developmental regression, mental retardation, seizures, dyskinesia, and autism may have CNS folate abnormalities...
  48. Nyholm D. Enteral levodopa/carbidopa gel infusion for the treatment of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias in advanced Parkinson's disease. Expert Rev Neurother. 2006;6:1403-11 pubmed
    ..Motor fluctuations and dyskinesias develop with time as a consequence and can become disabling...
  49. Vitale C, Pellecchia M, Grossi D, Fragassi N, Cuomo T, Di Maio L, et al. Unawareness of dyskinesias in Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. Neurol Sci. 2001;22:105-6 pubmed
    We performed a clinical study to evaluate the unawareness of dyskinesias in patients affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD)...
  50. Storch A, Trenkwalder C, Oehlwein C, Winkelmann J, Polzer U, Hundemer H, et al. High-dose treatment with pergolide in Parkinson's disease patients with motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2005;11:393-8 pubmed
    ..3+/-3.8 to 1.7+/-0.9 h per day (p < 0.001) measured by patients' diaries. Dyskinesias, present for 5.0+/-3.3 h per day at baseline, were reduced to 1.4+/-0.8 h per day (p < 0...
  51. Blanchet P, Calon F, Morissette M, Hadj Tahar A, Belanger N, Samadi P, et al. Relevance of the MPTP primate model in the study of dyskinesia priming mechanisms. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2004;10:297-304 pubmed
    ..Studies indicate that sustained dopamine D2 receptor occupancy can prevent and reverse existing dyskinesias. Recent experiments in levodopa-treated MPTP animals, co-administered either a threshold dose of cabergoline or ..
  52. Ma Y, Feigin A, Dhawan V, Fukuda M, Shi Q, Greene P, et al. Dyskinesia after fetal cell transplantation for parkinsonism: a PET study. Ann Neurol. 2002;52:628-34 pubmed
    Persistent dyskinesias in the absence of or with only minimal amounts of dopaminergic medication have been reported after dopamine cell implantation for Parkinson's disease...
  53. Nordmark E, Hagglund G, Lagergren J. Cerebral palsy in southern Sweden I. Prevalence and clinical features. Acta Paediatr. 2001;90:1271-6 pubmed
    ..4 per 1,000. The distribution according to gestational age, birthweight and subdiagnoses was similar to that in earlier Swedish studies, except for a higher rate of dyskinetic syndromes in this study...