decerebrate state

Summary

Summary: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)

Top Publications

  1. Guerrero M, Puebla P, Martin M, Carron R, San Roman L, Reguero M, et al. Inhibitory effect of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester on the anti-adrenergic response elicited by ayanin in the pithed rat. Planta Med. 2002;68:322-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that extracts of Croton schiedeanus, the native south American plant from which ayanin was isolated, might be beneficial in cardiovascular disease...
  2. Cohen M, Shaw C. Role in the inspiratory off-switch of vagal inputs to rostral pontine inspiratory-modulated neurons. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2004;143:127-40 pubmed
    ..Thus the pontine and the V influences on the IOS can operate in a complementary manner dependent on state...
  3. Ojeda Rivero R, Cerro Sánchez J, Ordonez Fernandez A, Dominguez Roldan J, Hernandez Fernandez A. [Diagnosis of brain death using trancranial Doppler ultrasonography in an experimental model of organ donation for transplantation]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2002;49:238-46 pubmed
    ..To create an experimental organ donor model and validate it by ultrasound evaluation of intracranial blood flow velocity...
  4. Saito Y, Ezure K, Tanaka I. Difference between hypoglossal and phrenic activities during lung inflation and swallowing in the rat. J Physiol. 2002;544:183-93 pubmed
  5. Yoshiyama M, Araki I, Kobayashi H, Zakoji H, Takeda M. Functional roles of TRPV1 channels in lower urinary tract irritated by acetic acid: in vivo evaluations of the sex difference in decerebrate unanesthetized mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;298:F1351-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Urayama Y, Yamada Y, Nakamura E, Koga T, Fukuda H. Electrical and chemical stimulation of the nucleus raphe magnus inhibits induction of retching by afferent vagal fibers. Auton Neurosci. 2010;152:35-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The NRM area at the level of the abducen nucleus was commonly stained by the dye in the 5 dogs. These results suggest that the DIS of pain suppresses the induction of retching by afferent vagal fibers...
  7. Hayashi N. Exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate and anesthetized rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;284:H2026-33 pubmed
    ..After paralysis, sciatic nerve stimulation had no effect on MAP, HR, or Ve. These results indicate that the midcollicular decerebrated rat can be a model for the study of the exercise pressor reflex...
  8. Côté M, Gossard J. Task-dependent presynaptic inhibition. J Neurosci. 2003;23:1886-93 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that presynaptic inhibition and antidromic discharge may have a more important role in the control of locomotion than scratch...
  9. Jenkins S, Worthington M, Harris J, Clarke R. Differential modulation of withdrawal reflexes by a cannabinoid in the rabbit. Brain Res. 2004;1012:146-53 pubmed
    ..This is the first occasion on which we have found pharmacological distinctions between withdrawal reflexes, and indicates that spinal sensorimotor processing is more heterogeneous than has been suspected previously...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Noga B, Johnson D, Riesgo M, Pinzon A. Locomotor-activated neurons of the cat. I. Serotonergic innervation and co-localization of 5-HT7, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT1A receptors in the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:1560-76 pubmed publisher
  2. Duysens J. How deletions in a model could help explain deletions in the laboratory. J Neurophysiol. 2006;95:562-3; author reply 563-5 pubmed
  3. Giraldi Guimarães A, Mendez Otero R. Induction of the candidate-plasticity NGFI-A protein in the adult rat superior colliculus after visual stimulation. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;133:242-52 pubmed
  4. Honda M, Imaida K, Tanabe M, Ono H. Endogenously released 5-hydroxytryptamine depresses the spinal monosynaptic reflex via 5-HT1D receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;503:55-61 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that 5-HT released from serotonergic terminals depresses monosynaptic reflex transmission via 5-HT1D receptors...
  5. Takata Y, Arai T, Suzuki S, Kurihara J, Uezono T, Okubo Y, et al. Captopril enhances cardiac vagal but not sympathetic neurotransmission in pithed rats. J Pharmacol Sci. 2004;95:390-3 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the interruption of angiotensin II formation by captopril causes less presynaptic inhibition of acetylcholine release via angiotensin II receptors without affecting cardiac sympathetic neurotransmission...
  6. Rossignol S, Barrière G, Frigon A, Barthelemy D, Bouyer L, Provencher J, et al. Plasticity of locomotor sensorimotor interactions after peripheral and/or spinal lesions. Brain Res Rev. 2008;57:228-40 pubmed
  7. Miller D, Reighard D, Mehta A, Mehta A, Kalash R, Yates B. Responses of thoracic spinal interneurons to vestibular stimulation. Exp Brain Res. 2009;195:89-100 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the preferred tilt directions of the interneurons were more heterogeneous than thoracic spinal outputs, showing that the outputs do not simply reflect an addition of local interneuronal activity...
  8. Stucke A, Zuperku E, Tonkovic Capin V, Tonkovic Capin M, Hopp F, Kampine J, et al. Halothane depresses glutamatergic neurotransmission to brain stem inspiratory premotor neurons in a decerebrate dog model. Anesthesiology. 2003;98:897-905 pubmed
    ..The authors investigated the effect of halothane on these synaptic mechanisms in decerebrate dogs...
  9. Frigon A, Gossard J. Evidence for specialized rhythm-generating mechanisms in the adult mammalian spinal cord. J Neurosci. 2010;30:7061-71 pubmed publisher
  10. Sugiyama Y, Suzuki T, Yates B. Role of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in the patterning of vestibular system influences on sympathetic nervous system outflow to the upper and lower body. Exp Brain Res. 2011;210:515-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This patterning apparently requires the integration by spinal circuitry of labyrinthine signals transmitted from the brainstem, likely from regions in addition to the RVLM...
  11. Wetmore D, Jirenhed D, Rasmussen A, Johansson F, Schnitzer M, Hesslow G. Bidirectional plasticity of Purkinje cells matches temporal features of learning. J Neurosci. 2014;34:1731-7 pubmed publisher
  12. Kalita J, Mishra V, Misra U, Gupta R. Clinicoradiological observation in three patients with suicidal hanging. J Neurol Sci. 2002;198:21-4 pubmed
    ..A hospital-based clinical, radiological and neurophysiological study...
  13. Leal A, Williams M, Garry M, Mitchell J, Smith S. Evidence for functional alterations in the skeletal muscle mechanoreflex and metaboreflex in hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;295:H1429-38 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the previously reported alterations in the EPR control of HR in hypertension may be principally due to overactivity of the mechanically sensitive component of the reflex...
  14. Petersen P, Vestergaard M, Jensen K, Berg R. Premotor spinal network with balanced excitation and inhibition during motor patterns has high resilience to structural division. J Neurosci. 2014;34:2774-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The multifaceted synaptic connections provide spinal networks with a remarkable ability to remain functional after structural divisions. ..
  15. Hayes S, Kindig A, Kaufman M. Blockade of acid sensing ion channels attenuates the exercise pressor reflex in cats. J Physiol. 2007;581:1271-82 pubmed
    ..We conclude that ASICs play a role in the metabolic component of the exercise pressor reflex...
  16. Cobos Puc L, Villalón C, Sánchez López A, Lozano Cuenca J, Pertz H, Görnemann T, et al. Pharmacological evidence that alpha2A- and alpha2C-adrenoceptors mediate the inhibition of cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow in pithed rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;554:205-11 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the cardiac sympatho-inhibition induced by B-HT 933 in pithed rats is mainly mediated by stimulation of alpha(2A)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors...
  17. Saito Y, Ezure K, Tanaka I. Swallowing-related activities of respiratory and non-respiratory neurons in the nucleus of solitary tract in the rat. J Physiol. 2002;540:1047-60 pubmed
  18. McVea D, Pearson K. Long-lasting, context-dependent modification of stepping in the cat after repeated stumbling-corrective responses. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97:659-69 pubmed
    ..We propose that the conditioned change in leg movement is related to a general ability of animals to adapt locomotor movements to new features of the environment...
  19. Anker A, Sadacca B, Yates B. Vestibular inputs to propriospinal interneurons in the feline C1-C2 spinal cord projecting to the C5-C6 ventral horn. Exp Brain Res. 2006;170:39-51 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that C(1)-C(2) propriospinal interneurons contribute to regulating posturally related responses of the diaphragm, although additional pathways are also involved in generating this activity...
  20. Svensson P, Bengtsson F, Hesslow G. Cerebellar inhibition of inferior olivary transmission in the decerebrate ferret. Exp Brain Res. 2006;168:241-53 pubmed
    ..The duration of the strongest inhibition was short and had a sharp peak at about 30 ms. It is suggested that the time course of the inhibition is important for temporal regulation of learned responses...
  21. Hanna R, Hayes S, Kaufman M. alpha,beta-Methylene ATP elicits a reflex pressor response arising from muscle in decerebrate cats. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002;93:834-41 pubmed
    ..In addition, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the stimulation of P2 receptors comprises part of the metabolic error signal evoking the exercise pressor reflex...
  22. Harris J, Clarke R. Organisation of sensitisation of hind limb withdrawal reflexes from acute noxious stimuli in the rabbit. J Physiol. 2003;546:251-65 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, the sensitisation field for the heel-MG reflex varied little between preparations and appears to be a function of spinal neurones...
  23. Kotani S, Kawahara S, Kirino Y. Purkinje cell activity during learning a new timing in classical eyeblink conditioning. Brain Res. 2003;994:193-202 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that some Purkinje cells code the timing of the CR, but do not play a consistent role in shaping the CR over a range of ISIs...
  24. Koba S, Yoshida T, Hayashi N. Sympathetically induced renal vasoconstriction during stimulation of mesencephalic locomotor region in rats. Auton Neurosci. 2005;121:40-6 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence that central command induces renal vasoconstriction by increasing sympathetic activity, depending on central command intensity...
  25. Stucke A, Zuperku E, Krolo M, Brandes I, Hopp F, Kampine J, et al. Sevoflurane enhances gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor function and overall inhibition of inspiratory premotor neurons in a decerebrate dog model. Anesthesiology. 2005;103:57-64 pubmed
    ..This study investigated in further detail the effects of sevoflurane on GABAAergic inhibition by examining postsynaptic GABAA receptor activity in these neurons...
  26. Lafreniere Roula M, McCrea D. Deletions of rhythmic motoneuron activity during fictive locomotion and scratch provide clues to the organization of the mammalian central pattern generator. J Neurophysiol. 2005;94:1120-32 pubmed
  27. Ruiz Gimeno J, Ferre M, Napal M, Pelegrin F. [Prolonged coma due to fat embolism syndrome after fracture of the femur]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2006;53:187-90 pubmed
    ..Early diagnosis will identify the patient at high surgical risk. A favorable course and outcome have been reported with preoperative closure of the foramen ovale...
  28. Murata J, Matsukawa K, Komine H, Tsuchimochi H, Nakamoto T. Central inhibition of the aortic baroreceptors-heart rate reflex at the onset of spontaneous muscle contraction. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004;97:1371-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that central command, produced within the caudal diencephalon and the brain stem, selectively inhibits the cardiac component, but not the vasomotor component, of the aortic baroreflex at the onset of spontaneous exercise...
  29. Steward O, Zheng B, Banos K, Yee K. Response to: Kim et al., "axon regeneration in young adult mice lacking Nogo-A/B." Neuron 38, 187-199. Neuron. 2007;54:191-5 pubmed
  30. ST JOHN W. Eupnea of in situ rats persists following blockers of in vitro pacemaker burster activities. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2008;160:353-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, gasping does depend upon a conductance through persistent sodium channels...
  31. Segers L, Nuding S, Dick T, Shannon R, Baekey D, Solomon I, et al. Functional connectivity in the pontomedullary respiratory network. J Neurophysiol. 2008;100:1749-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Correlation linkage maps generated for the data support our four motivating hypotheses and suggest network mechanisms for proposed modulatory functions of the PRG...
  32. Glérant J, Khater Boidin J, Salzmann F, Duron B. Vagal pulmonary afferents and central respiratory effects of 5-HT in newborn rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:2249-56 pubmed
    ..We conclude that pulmonary vagal afferents modulate the central respiratory action of 5-HT in decerebrate newborn rats, explaining the conflicting results between in vivo and in vitro experiments...
  33. Sirois J, Frigon A, Gossard J. Independent control of presynaptic inhibition by reticulospinal and sensory inputs at rest and during rhythmic activities in the cat. J Neurosci. 2013;33:8055-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of spatial facilitation and different phase-dependent modulation patterns during fictive locomotion are consistent with independent presynaptic inhibitory pathways for reticulospinal and sensory inputs...
  34. Tsuchimochi H, McCord J, Hayes S, Koba S, Kaufman M. Chronic femoral artery occlusion augments exercise pressor reflex in decerebrated rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;299:H106-13 pubmed publisher
    ..026). We conclude that chronic (i.e., 72 h) but not acute (3 min), femoral arterial occlusion augments pressor reflex arising from contraction of hindlimb muscles and that TRPV1 receptors play little role in this augmentation...
  35. Kunibe I, Nonaka S, Katada A, Adachi M, Enomoto K, Harabuchi Y. The neuronal circuit of augmenting effects on intrinsic laryngeal muscle activities induced by nasal air-jet stimulation in decerebrate cats. Brain Res. 2003;978:83-90 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the some of PRN neuron play a role in augmentation of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles activities during nasal air-jet stimulation...
  36. Sánchez López A, Centurión D, Vázquez E, Arulmani U, Saxena P, Villalón C. Pharmacological profile of the 5-HT-induced inhibition of cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow in pithed rats: correlation with 5-HT1 and putative 5-ht5A/5B receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2003;140:725-35 pubmed
    ..5-HT1 (probably 5-HT1B/1D) receptors and (ii). a novel mechanism antagonized by methiothepin that, most likely, involves putative 5-ht5A/5B receptors...
  37. Kuroda M, Yoshikawa D, Koizuka S, Nishikawa K, Saito S, Goto F. The effects of isoflurane on adrenomedullin-induced haemodynamic responses in pithed rats. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2008;25:544-9 pubmed publisher
  38. Muñoz Martínez E, Delgado Lezama R. Pudendal nerve stimulation, interneurons post-discharge and delayed depolarization in hind limb motoneurons of the female cat. Brain Res. 2007;1143:126-31 pubmed
    ..Some post-discharges were as prolonged as LD. We conclude that LD might be a synaptic response to local interneurons...
  39. Marchenko V, Rogers R. Temperature and state dependence of dynamic phrenic oscillations in the decerebrate juvenile rat. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;293:R2323-35 pubmed
    ..Our results confirm that both the fast oscillations in Ph activity and the coherence between Ph pairs produced by the juvenile rat are profoundly state- and temperature-dependent...
  40. Duffin J, Li Y. Transmission of respiratory rhythm: midline-crossing connections at the level of the phrenic motor nucleus?. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2006;153:139-47 pubmed
  41. Petersson P, Granmo M, Schouenborg J. Properties of an adult spinal sensorimotor circuit shaped through early postnatal experience. J Neurophysiol. 2004;92:280-8 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that after normal postnatal experience-dependent adaptation, the number of connections from a given skin site onto the reflex encoding interneurons is a major determinant of the difference in gain...
  42. Hattori Y, Hamaguchi C, Yamada Y, Urayama Y, Nakamura E, Koga T, et al. The nucleus raphe magnus suppresses vomiting, and the solitary nucleus and 5-HT are not involved in this suppression. Auton Neurosci. 2010;152:41-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that suppression of the induction of retching by the descending inhibitory system of pain did not occur in the synapse between afferent vagal fibers and NTS neurons. The site of suppression is discussed...
  43. Lee R, Kuo J, Jiang M, Heckman C. Influence of active dendritic currents on input-output processing in spinal motoneurons in vivo. J Neurophysiol. 2003;89:27-39 pubmed
    ..Stretch-evoked I(N,TOT) was always smoothly graded. This suggests that although stretch-evoked I(N,TOT) can be used to predict the overall change in firing, prediction of the dynamics of firing may be less accurate...
  44. Adachi M, Nonaka S, Katada A, Arakawa T, Ota R, Harada H, et al. Carbachol injection into the pontine reticular formation depresses laryngeal muscle activities and airway reflexes in decerebrate cats. Neurosci Res. 2010;67:40-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Because acetylcholine release in the mPRF changes in accordance with sleep-wake cycles, the present findings are relevant to the control of upper airway reflexes during various vigilance states...
  45. Garcia M, Morán A, Calama E, Martín M, Barthelmebs M, Román L. Diabetes-induced changes in the 5-hydroxytryptamine inhibitory receptors involved in the pressor effect elicited by sympathetic stimulation in the pithed rat. Br J Pharmacol. 2005;145:593-601 pubmed
  46. Elayan H, Kennedy B, Ziegler M. Selective peripheral regulation of noradrenaline and adrenaline release by nitric oxide. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2002;29:589-94 pubmed
    ..Stimulation of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors plays a major role in the pressor response to electrical stimulation of L-NAME-treated rats, but this is not due to L-NAME augmentation of noradrenaline release from vascular sympathetic nerves...
  47. Gladden M, Matsuzaki H. Static gamma-motoneurones couple group Ia and II afferents of single muscle spindles in anaesthetised and decerebrate cats. J Physiol. 2002;543:273-88 pubmed
  48. Stone A, Kim J, Yamauchi K, Ruiz Velasco V, Kaufman M. Attenuation of autonomic reflexes by A803467 may not be solely caused by blockade of NaV 1.8 channels. Neurosci Lett. 2013;543:177-82 pubmed publisher
    ..4 ± 1 ?imp/s; p<0.05). We conclude that A803467 reduces the reflex response to lactic acid and capsaicin; however, it may be working on multiple channels, including NaV 1.8, other NaVs as well as voltage-gated calcium channels...
  49. De Serres S, Bennett D, Stein R. Stretch reflex gain in cat triceps surae muscles with compliant loads. J Physiol. 2002;545:1027-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, non-linearities in the system assured vigorous responses at the onset of perturbations, but then weaker responses to ongoing perturbations to reduce the chance of feedback instability (clonus)...
  50. Kuroda M, Yoshikawa D, Nishikawa K, Saito S, Goto F. Volatile anesthetics inhibit calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor-mediated responses in pithed rats and human neuroblastoma cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004;311:1016-22 pubmed
    ..The inhibitory site of volatile anesthetics on the CGRP receptor-mediated response involves Gs protein...
  51. Wehbe E, Saad D, Delgado F, Ta H, Antoun S. Reversible hepatic decerebration: a case report and review of the literature. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;22:759-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The physician should be aware that decerebration and decortication posture can occur with hepatic encephalopathy and can be reversible...
  52. Bianchi M, Lavigne C, Sorond F, Bermas B. Transient life-threatening cerebral edema in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Rheumatol. 2009;15:181-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Although rare, this potentially fatal complication may be reversible with acute corticosteroid administration...
  53. ROSS K, Nichols T. Heterogenic feedback between hindlimb extensors in the spontaneously locomoting premammillary cat. J Neurophysiol. 2009;101:184-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential contributions of heterogenic inhibition to interjoint coordination and limb stability are discussed...