abnormal reflex


Summary: An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.

Top Publications

  1. Reese N, Skinner R, Mitchell D, Yates C, Barnes C, Kiser T, et al. Restoration of frequency-dependent depression of the H-reflex by passive exercise in spinal rats. Spinal Cord. 2006;44:28-34 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have shown that passive exercise for 3 months could be used to restore low frequency-dependent depression of the H-reflex after SCI...
  2. Cruccu G, Biasiotta A, Galeotti F, Iannetti G, Truini A, Gronseth G. Diagnostic accuracy of trigeminal reflex testing in trigeminal neuralgia. Neurology. 2006;66:139-41 pubmed
    ..In contrast, electrophysiologic testing of trigeminal reflexes accurately distinguished symptomatic from classic TN (sensitivity 96%, specificity 93%)...
  3. Yates C, Charlesworth A, Allen S, Reese N, Skinner R, Garcia Rill E. The onset of hyperreflexia in the rat following complete spinal cord transection. Spinal Cord. 2008;46:798-803 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies showed the time course for the onset of hyperreflexia to occur between 6-28 days in the contusion model of SCI...
  4. Knikou M, Angeli C, Ferreira C, Harkema S. Soleus H-reflex gain, threshold, and amplitude as function of body posture and load in spinal cord intact and injured subjects. Int J Neurosci. 2009;119:2056-73 pubmed
    ..Impaired spinal reflex excitability in SCI subjects is accompanied by changes of the H-reflex recruitment curve parameters regardless of presence or absence of body loading...
  5. Kao P, LEWIS C, Ferris D. Joint kinetic response during unexpectedly reduced plantar flexor torque provided by a robotic ankle exoskeleton during walking. J Biomech. 2010;43:1401-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings are particularly useful for the development of neuromusculoskeletal computer simulations of human walking that need to adjust reflex gains appropriately for biomechanical analyses...
  6. Bennett D, Li Y, Siu M. Plateau potentials in sacrocaudal motoneurons of chronic spinal rats, recorded in vitro. J Neurophysiol. 2001;86:1955-71 pubmed
    ..Thus plateaus contributed substantially to the long-lasting reflexes in vitro and therefore should contribute significantly to the corresponding exaggerated reflexes and spasticity in awake chronic spinal rats...
  7. Boks M, Liddle P, Burgerhof J, Knegtering R, Van den Bosch R. Neurological soft signs discriminating mood disorders from first episode schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2004;110:29-35 pubmed
    ..To investigate the specificity of neurological soft signs (NSS) for first episode schizophrenia compared with mood disorders...
  8. Shafik A, Ahmed I, El Sibai O, Shafik A, Mostafa R. Study of the rectal electric activity of the uninhibited rectal detrusor (overactive rectum): a new concept of pathogenesis. J Spinal Cord Med. 2005;28:64-8 pubmed
    ..The tachyrhythmic areas seem to initiate the urgency and fecal incontinence of URDS. It is suggested that a disordered rectosigmoid pacemaker causes the dysrhythmic waves. ..
  9. Tiple D, Strano S, Colosimo C, Fabbrini G, Calcagnini G, Prencipe M, et al. Autonomic cardiovascular function and baroreflex sensitivity in patients with cervical dystonia receiving treatment with botulinum toxin type A. J Neurol. 2008;255:843-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes do not worsen after acute botulinum toxin type A injection. ..

More Information

Publications151 found, 100 shown here

  1. Burgess H, Johnson S, Granato M. Unidirectional startle responses and disrupted left-right co-ordination of motor behaviors in robo3 mutant zebrafish. Genes Brain Behav. 2009;8:500-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we show that twitch twice mutants exhibit normal visual acuity but display defects in horizontal eye movements, suggesting a specific and critical role for twitch twice/robo3 in sensory-guided behavior. ..
  2. Capasso M, Di Muzio A, Caporale C, De Angelis M, Lugaresi A, Uncini A. Demyelinating motor Guillain-Barré syndrome following rubella. Neurology. 2005;64:390 pubmed
  3. Antozzi C, Frassoni C, Vincent A, Regondi M, Andreetta F, Bernasconi P, et al. Sequential antibodies to potassium channels and glutamic acid decarboxylase in neuromyotonia. Neurology. 2005;64:1290-3 pubmed
    ..The range of antibodies produced in thymoma-associated neuromyotonia is richer, and the timing of antibody appearance more complex, than previously suspected...
  4. Akshoomoff N, Farid N, Courchesne E, Haas R. Abnormalities on the neurological examination and EEG in young children with pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37:887-93 pubmed
    ..Results also indicate that EEG abnormalities are common in this young population but clinical seizures are rare, confirming other studies. ..
  5. Masri A, Hamamy H. Clinical and inheritance profiles of hyperekplexia in Jordan. J Child Neurol. 2007;22:895-900 pubmed
    ..Recognition of the syndrome allows for prompt proper management and provision of genetic counseling. ..
  6. Benz E, Hornby T, Bode R, Scheidt R, Schmit B. A physiologically based clinical measure for spastic reflexes in spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86:52-9 pubmed
    ..Distinguishing the 3 spastic reactions using an efficient and valid clinical tool may help guide management of spastic hypertonia in SCI. ..
  7. Maĭs kyĭ V, Piliavs kyĭ O, Maznychenko A, Datsenko V, Pavliuchenko V, Kostiukov O, et al. [Central neuronal pathways in the Bezold-Jarisch reflex in rats]. Fiziol Zh. 2005;51:24-38 pubmed
    ..In the medulla NOS-containing neurons activated by input from cardiopulmonary receptors can contribute to the enhancement of cardioprotective depressor reflexes in the rats. ..
  8. McDougal W. Reversible acute renal failure after unilateral extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. J Urol. 2005;174:1024 pubmed
  9. Schaller B, Buchfelder M. Delayed trigeminocardiac reflex induced by an intraorbital foreign body. Ophthalmologica. 2006;220:348 pubmed
  10. Shinjo Y, Jin Y, Kaga K. Assessment of vestibular function of infants and children with congenital and acquired deafness using the ice-water caloric test, rotational chair test and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential recording. Acta Otolaryngol. 2007;127:736-47 pubmed
    ..Five (25%) showed no responses at all in the caloric test, rotational chair test and VEMP recording. ..
  11. Liao K, Wagner J, Joshi A, Estrovich I, Walker M, Strupp M, et al. Why do patients with PSP fall? Evidence for abnormal otolith responses. Neurology. 2008;70:802-9 pubmed publisher
    ..6 to 466], p = 0.001). Taken together, these results indicate that abnormal otolith-mediated reflexes may be at least partly responsible for frequent falls in progressive supranuclear palsy, and deserve further study. ..
  12. Montano N, Lauriola L, Colosimo C, Cioni B, Bonis P, Papacci F, et al. Intramedullary thrombosed venous ectasia mimicking hemangioblastoma. Eur J Neurol. 2008;15:e10-11 pubmed
  13. Illarramendi X, Buhrer Sekula S, Sales A, Bakker M, Oliveira A, Nery J, et al. High prevalence of vasomotor reflex impairment in newly diagnosed leprosy patients. Eur J Clin Invest. 2005;35:658-65 pubmed
    ..Autonomic nerve lesion was more frequent than somatic lesions and was strongly related to the immune-inflammatory reaction against M. leprae. ..
  14. Mahant S, Feigenbaum A. A child with an underrecognized form of developmental delay: a congenital disorder of glycosylation. CMAJ. 2006;175:1369 pubmed
  15. Webb M, Unkel J. Anesthetic management of the trigeminocardiac reflex during mesiodens removal-a case report. Anesth Prog. 2007;54:7-8 pubmed
    ..The management of the case, as well as the reflex arc, is discussed. ..
  16. Compostella C, Compostella L, D Elia R. The symptoms of autonomic dysfunction in HIV-positive Africans. Clin Auton Res. 2008;18:6-12 pubmed
    ..African HIV-positive patients report symptoms of autonomic dysfunction, despite normal or borderline autonomic reflex responses. ..
  17. Brusciano L, Limongelli P, del Genio G, Rossetti G, Sansone S, Healey A, et al. Clinical and instrumental parameters in patients with constipation and incontinence: their potential implications in the functional aspects of these disorders. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2009;24:961-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies designed to demonstrate a causal relationship between these parameters and the success of a specific treatment of the physiatric disorders on the proctology symptoms are warranted. ..
  18. Barisic N, Grković L. Long term clinical and electrophysiological assessment of Croatian children with corticospinal tract involvement in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2010;14:391-9 pubmed publisher
  19. Caselli A, Spallone V, Marfia G, Battista C, Pachatz C, Veves A, et al. Validation of the nerve axon reflex for the assessment of small nerve fibre dysfunction. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2006;77:927-32 pubmed
    ..This response is already reduced in the early stages of peripheral neuropathy, supporting the hypothesis that small-fibre impairment is an early event in the natural history of diabetic neuropathy. ..
  20. Hill E, Haydel M. Conversion disorder presenting as hemiplegia and hemianesthesia with loss of neurologic reflexes: a case report. South Med J. 2006;99:380-2 pubmed
    ..Conversion disorders should be considered when the neurologic findings do not correspond to known anatomic or physiologic pathways, although a thorough medical investigation must be performed to search for organic causes. ..
  21. Osterhoudt K, Mistry R, Mistry R. A boy with tremor, diaphoresis, and altered behavior. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2007;23:419-21 pubmed
  22. Archer D, Roth S. [Anesthetics are exciting! Implications of pharmacologically-induced nociceptive hyperreflexia]. Can J Anaesth. 2008;55:6-10 pubmed publisher
  23. Scarborough D, Bailey Van Kuren M, Hughes M. Altering the gag reflex via a palm pressure point. J Am Dent Assoc. 2008;139:1365-72 pubmed
    ..The change in trigger point in the hypersensitive group represented a functional gain. Application of the pressure point during dental procedures would decrease the likelihood of triggering a gag reflex. ..
  24. Gallimore D. The diagnosis of brainstem death and its implications. Nurs Times. 2006;102:28-30 pubmed
    ..The idea that it is the same as death of the whole person has been tested in medical research and legally, which has provided evidence to support the withdrawal of advanced medical treatment and for discussion of organ donation. ..
  25. Persson E, Hagberg G, Uvebrant P. Disabilities in children with hydrocephalus--a population-based study of children aged between four and twelve years. Neuropediatrics. 2006;37:330-6 pubmed
    ..Being born very preterm and with a hydrocephalus that is already overt at birth involve the highest risk of a poor outcome. Apart from major impairments, the children frequently have definite motor problems. ..
  26. Nagane Y, Utsugisawa K. Ross syndrome associated with cytomegalovirus infection. Muscle Nerve. 2008;38:924-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The CMV IgM antibody titer was also positive in the cerebrospinal fluid...
  27. Cruccu G, Iannetti G, Marx J, Thoemke F, Truini A, Fitzek S, et al. Brainstem reflex circuits revisited. Brain. 2005;128:386-94 pubmed
    ..The jaw jerk, perhaps the brainstem reflex most widely used in clinical neurophysiology, had no apparent topodiagnostic value, probably because it depends strongly on peripheral variables, including dental occlusion. ..
  28. Gharabaghi A, Koerbel A, Samii A, Kaminsky J, von Goesseln H, Tatagiba M, et al. The impact of hypotension due to the trigeminocardiac reflex on auditory function in vestibular schwannoma surgery. J Neurosurg. 2006;104:369-75 pubmed
    ..Further study of this phenomenon will advance the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and may help to improve hearing preservation by controlling the occurrence of the TCR. ..
  29. Lo Y, Tan Y, Fook Chong S, Boolsambatra P, Yue W, Chan L, et al. Role of spinal inhibitory mechanisms in whiplash injuries. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24:1055-67 pubmed
    ..The use of this simple, quick, and sensitive method is advocated in the diagnostic work up of whiplash injury. ..
  30. Alexander C. Altered control of the trapezius muscle in subjects with non-traumatic shoulder instability. Clin Neurophysiol. 2007;118:2664-71 pubmed
    ..The control of lower trapezius should be considered when treating people with NTSI. ..
  31. Sheahan P, Walsh R, Walsh M, Costello R. Hyperresponsiveness of congestive nasal reflexes in allergic rhinitis. Rhinology. 2006;44:68-73 pubmed
    ..Significant differences were present between normal and SAR subjects. Congestive reflexes are present in normal and allergic subjects. Congestive hyperresponsiveness is present in allergic rhinitis. ..
  32. Spinosa J, de Bisschop E, Laurençon J, Kuhn G, Dubuisson J, Riederer B. [Sacral staged reflexes to localize the pudendal compression: an anatomical validation of the concept]. Rev Med Suisse. 2006;2:2416-8, 2420-1 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it seems feasible, by using the differences of staged sacral reflexes, to better localize the compressive neuropathy, with a stimulation of the clitoris and by recording latencies of different muscles. ..
  33. Lo Y, Ratnagopal P. Cortico-hypoglossal and corticospinal conduction abnormality in Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2007;109:523-5 pubmed
    ..It further supports the presence of protean manifestations in anti-GQ1b IgG antibody-positive spectrum of disorders. ..
  34. Heruti R. Conversion motor paralysis disorder. South Med J. 2006;99:327-8 pubmed
  35. Nakajima T, Wasaka T, Kida T, Nishimura Y, Fumoto M, Sakamoto M, et al. Changes in somatosensory evoked potentials and Hoffmann reflexes during fast isometric contraction of foot plantarflexor in humans. Percept Mot Skills. 2006;103:847-60 pubmed
  36. De Beer L, Stokroos R, Kingma H. Intratympanic gentamicin therapy for intractable Ménière's disease. Acta Otolaryngol. 2007;127:605-12 pubmed
    ..Only 1 injection was necessary in 49.1% of the patients, the remaining 50.9% needed 2, 3, 4, 6 or 10 injections, always with a time interval of a minimum of 27 days. ..
  37. Heman Ackah Y, Pernell K, Goding G. The laryngeal chemoreflex: an evaluation of the normoxic response. Laryngoscope. 2009;119:370-9 pubmed publisher
  38. Eitner S, Wichmann M, Holst S. "Hypnopuncture"--a dental-emergency treatment concept for patients with a distinctive gag reflex. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2005;53:60-73 pubmed
    ..Necessary and effective therapeutic measures from both acupuncture and hypnosis are portrayed...
  39. Thompson D, Rutter M, Rudolph C, Willging J, Cotton R. Altered laryngeal sensation: a potential cause of apnea of infancy. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2005;114:258-63 pubmed
    ..This closure may play a role in infant apnea. ..
  40. Podnar S. The penilo-cavernosus reflex: comparison of different stimulation techniques. Neurourol Urodyn. 2008;27:244-8 pubmed
    ..Because of the high elicitability of responses, the lower stimulation strength required, and the opportunity to measure sensory and reflex thresholds, the authors' preference is to use double pulse electrical stimulation. ..
  41. Jiménez Caballero P. Stiff person syndrome: presentation of a case with repetitive complex discharges in electromiograms. Neurologist. 2009;15:227-9 pubmed publisher
    ..They could produce the complex repetitive discharges when released from the inhibition mediated by GABAergic neurons. ..
  42. Jeffery S, Butler J, McKenzie D, Wang L, Gandevia S. Brief airway occlusion produces prolonged reflex inhibition of inspiratory muscles in obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep. 2006;29:321-8 pubmed
    ..These changes may reflect adaptation in central respiratory paths due to repetitive loading during sleep. ..
  43. Goldstein D, Holmes C, Imrich R. Clinical laboratory evaluation of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy: Preliminary observations. Auton Neurosci. 2009;146:18-21 pubmed publisher
    ..PAF entails cardiac sympathetic denervation, whereas cardiac sympathetic neuroimaging by thoracic 6-[(18)F]fluorodopamine scanning indicates intact myocardial sympathetic innervation in AAG. ..
  44. Asensio Pinilla E, Udina E, Jaramillo J, Navarro X. Electrical stimulation combined with exercise increase axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. Exp Neurol. 2009;219:258-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The facilitation of the monosynaptic H reflex in the injured limb was reduced in all treated groups, suggesting that the maintenance of activity helps to prevent the development of hyperreflexia. ..
  45. Bhidayasiri R, Perlman S, Pulst S, Geschwind D. Late-onset Friedreich ataxia: phenotypic analysis, magnetic resonance imaging findings, and review of the literature. Arch Neurol. 2005;62:1865-9 pubmed
    ..In contrast to previous studies, cerebellar vermian atrophy is not an uncommon finding. ..
  46. Gerwig M, Esser A, Guberina H, Frings M, Kolb F, Forsting M, et al. Trace eyeblink conditioning in patients with cerebellar degeneration: comparison of short and long trace intervals. Exp Brain Res. 2008;187:85-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a long trace interval, the cerebellum appears to be less important. ..
  47. Zubkov A, Wijdicks E. Plantar flexion and flexion synergy in brain death. Neurology. 2008;70:e74 pubmed publisher
  48. Akaogi Y, Asahina M, Yamanaka Y, Koyama Y, Hattori T. Sudomotor, skin vasomotor, and cardiovascular reflexes in 3 clinical forms of Lewy body disease. Neurology. 2009;73:59-65 pubmed publisher
  49. Elkelini M, Hassouna M. Canadian experience in sacral neuromodulation. Urol Clin North Am. 2005;32:41-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, local anesthesia instead of general anesthesia allows faster patient recovery and reduces complications. Finally, sacral neuromodulation offers a modality in the management of patients with voiding dysfunction. ..
  50. Fountoulakis K, Siamouli M, Kaprinis G, Fotiou F. Changes in the pupil reflex arc in depressive patients. J Affect Disord. 2005;87:341-2 pubmed
  51. Adorni A, Lussignoli G, Geroldi C, Zanetti O. Extensive brain calcification and dementia in postsurgical hypoparathyroidism. Neurology. 2005;65:1501 pubmed
  52. Schlapbach L, Sozzo A, Ramelli G, Bianchetti M. Severe normotensive metabolic alkalosis in a 2-month-old boy with hyperekplexia. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2006;29:238-9 pubmed
    ..4 mmol/L, chloride 77 mmol/L, pH 7.55, carbon dioxide tension 56.3 mmHg and bicarbonate 48.0 mmol/L. After parenteral rehydration and treatment with clonazepam, laboratory parameters normalized. ..
  53. Maturo S, Brennan J. Baroreflex failure: a rare complication of carotid paraganglioma surgery. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:829-30 pubmed
  54. Gregory M, Guzauskas G, Edgar T, Clarkson K, Srivastava A, Holden K. A novel GLRA1 mutation associated with an atypical hyperekplexia phenotype. J Child Neurol. 2008;23:1433-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The 7-year-old child recently reponded well to a benzodiazepine. Future studies are warranted to examine whether this new missense mutation is solely responsible for this atypical phenotype. ..
  55. Hermann B, Seidenberg M, Sears L, Hansen R, Bayless K, Rutecki P, et al. Cerebellar atrophy in temporal lobe epilepsy affects procedural memory. Neurology. 2004;63:2129-31 pubmed
    ..These findings provide support for the hypothesis that cerebellar atrophy in epilepsy affects procedural memory. ..
  56. Nout Y, Leedy G, Beattie M, Bresnahan J. Alterations in eliminative and sexual reflexes after spinal cord injury: defecatory function and development of spasticity in pelvic floor musculature. Prog Brain Res. 2006;152:359-72 pubmed
    ..Advances and continued improvement in the use of current animal models of spinal cord injury should encourage and increase the laboratory work devoted to this relatively neglected area of experimental spinal cord injury. ..
  57. Bresolin N, Zucca C, Pecori A. Efficacy and tolerability of eperisone and baclofen in spastic palsy: a double-blind randomized trial. Adv Ther. 2009;26:563-73 pubmed publisher
    ..However, eperisone might be associated with some additional clinical benefits when compared with baclofen. ..
  58. Voerman G, Gregoric M, Hermens H. Neurophysiological methods for the assessment of spasticity: the Hoffmann reflex, the tendon reflex, and the stretch reflex. Disabil Rehabil. 2005;27:33-68 pubmed
    ..It is recommended to perform combined neurophysiological-biomechanical assessment of spasticity during active, functional movement. ..
  59. Ramsey D, Smithard D, Donaldson N, Kalra L. Is the gag reflex useful in the management of swallowing problems in acute stroke?. Dysphagia. 2005;20:105-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the gag reflex is as specific as but less sensitive than the BSA in detecting dysphagia in acute stroke patients. An intact gag may be protective against longer-term swallowing problems and the need for enteral feeding...
  60. Schaller B, Buchfelder M. Trigemino-cardiac reflex in skull base surgery: from a better understanding to a better outcome?. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2006;148:1029-31; discussion 1031 pubmed
  61. Luef G, Löscher W. The effect of levetiracetam in startle disease. J Neurol. 2007;254:808-9 pubmed
  62. Khanal S, Sainju R, Adhikari P, Thapa R. Eliciting knee jerk--a new method of reinforcement. Nepal Med Coll J. 2007;9:278-80 pubmed
    ..5%, whereas the sensitivity of newly proposed maneuver was 99.2%. Results of the present study have served to demonstrate that elicitation of knee jerk with newly proposed reinforcement maneuver is the best among all three methods. ..
  63. Strahlendorf J, Schiffer R, Strahlendorf H. Unilateral or "side-locked" migrainous headache with autonomic symptoms linked to night guard use. Headache. 2008;48:1537-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe the headaches were initiated by night guard-initiated irritation of the trigeminal nerve and a trigeminal autonomic reflex resulting in unilateral migrainous headache with autonomic signs. ..
  64. Remes Troche J, De Ocampo S, Valestin J, Rao S. Rectoanal reflexes and sensorimotor response in rectal hyposensitivity. Dis Colon Rectum. 2010;53:1047-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest either disruption of afferent gut-brain pathways or rectal wall dysfunction. These altered features may play a role in the pathogenesis of bowel dysfunction in rectal hyposensitivity. ..
  65. Hillel A, Metzinger R, Nemechek A, Nuss D. Loss of reflex tearing: an expected consequence of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;133:605-10 pubmed
    ..The loss of reflex tearing has not been reported as a consequence of JNA or its surgical treatment. C. ..
  66. Wu H, de Groat W. Maternal separation uncouples reflex from spontaneous voiding in rat pups. J Urol. 2006;175:1148-51 pubmed
    ..This suggests that increased bladder afferent firing can selectively modulate spinal but not supraspinal mechanisms controlling postnatal changes in voiding function. ..
  67. Valle M, Casabona A, Sgarlata R, Garozzo R, Vinci M, Cioni M. The pendulum test as a tool to evaluate passive knee stiffness and viscosity of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2006;7:89 pubmed
    ..This novel application of Wartenberg test could be useful to follow up the effects of pharmacological and rehabilitative interventions in this disease. ..
  68. Gonzalez Darder J, Pesudo Martinez J. [Facial nerve palsy due to cavernous angioma of the petrous bone. Case report]. Neurocirugia (Astur). 2007;18:44-6 pubmed
    ..The lesion was approached and removed through a microsurgical middle fossa extradural approach with a good postoperative recovery (House-Brackmann grade II). ..
  69. Staekenborg S, van der Flier W, van Straaten E, Lane R, Barkhof F, Scheltens P. Neurological signs in relation to type of cerebrovascular disease in vascular dementia. Stroke. 2008;39:317-22 pubmed
  70. Eger K, Jordan B, Habermann S, Zierz S. Beevor's sign in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy: an old sign with new implications. J Neurol. 2010;257:436-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, especially in atypical cases, Beevor's sign might help in the diagnosis of FSHD. ..
  71. Sharma S, Sarna A, Mukhopadhyay S. Neonatal hyperekplexia: the Stiff-Baby syndrome. Indian Pediatr. 2006;43:539-41 pubmed
    ..While the long-term prognosis is relatively benign, sudden death due to severe spasms have been seen in sporadic cases. We report a case of hyperekplexia with some typical and some unusual findings...
  72. Denys P, Ben Smail D, Even Schneider A, Chartier Kastler E. [Genito-sexual dysfunction in patients with a medullary lesion]. J Soc Biol. 2004;198:243-5 pubmed
    ..At this time of life, sexual activity is often at its peak, so that the fertility potential becomes erased. ..
  73. Lambert S, Arras M, Vogt K, Rudolph U. Isoflurane-induced surgical tolerance mediated only in part by beta3-containing GABA(A) receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;516:23-7 pubmed
    ..At high concentrations isoflurane also immobilizes beta3(N265M) mice, indicating that other targets also mediate immobility. Thus, our findings support a multisite model for the immobilizing action of isoflurane. ..
  74. Zhou B, Chen L, Fan D, Zhou D. Clinical features of Hirayama disease in mainland China. Amyotroph Lateral Scler. 2010;11:133-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Hirayama disease is under-recognized in mainland China. ..
  75. Ptak R, Golay L. Temporal dynamics of attentional control settings in patients with spatial neglect. Brain Res. 2006;1092:190-7 pubmed
  76. Kakisaka Y, Haginoya K, Togashi N, Kitamiura T, Uematsu M, Hino Fukuyo N, et al. Neonatal-onset brainstem reticular reflex myoclonus following a prenatal brain insult: generalized myoclonic jerk and a brainstem lesion. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2007;211:303-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, neonatal BRRM arises as a result of severe brainstem injury, and the associated lesions may only be seen temporarily on MRI taken soon after birth. ..
  77. Felipe L, Cunha L, Cunha F, Cintra M, Gonçalves D. [Presbyvertigo as a cause of dizziness in elderly]. Pro Fono. 2008;20:99-103 pubmed
    ..Metabolic, psychiatric, disautonomic, orthopedic, visual and proprioceptive disturbances may be the cause of dizziness in aged individuals who present normal vestibular evaluation. ..
  78. Sonoo M, Katayama A, Miura T, Shimizu T, Inoue K. Tibial nerve SEPs localized the lesion site in a patient with early tabes dorsalis. Neurology. 2005;64:1452-4 pubmed
    ..Based on the comparison with normative data and stimulation at different intensities, the authors conclude that only the slower conducting antidromic motor volleys are preserved, whereas the dorsal root is damaged at its distal end...
  79. Erman T, Tuna M, Göçer A, Idan F, Akgul E, Zorludemir S. Postoperative radicular neuroma. Case report. Neurosurg Focus. 2001;11:ecp pubmed
    ..In this study the authors evaluate a patient who had undergone surgery for lumbar disc herniation and suffered intractable pain. A traumatic radicular neuroma is demonstrated and the pertinent literature is presented. ..
  80. Rath G, Dash H, Prabhakar H, Pandia M. Cardiorespiratory arrest during trigeminal rhizolysis. Anaesthesia. 2007;62:971-2 pubmed
  81. Tabaee A, Murry T, Zschommler A, Desloge R. Flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with sensory testing in patients with unilateral vocal fold immobility: incidence and pathophysiology of aspiration. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:565-9 pubmed
    ..The pathophysiology of dysphagia is multifactorial with decreased sensation and limitation of airway protective mechanisms both acting as contributing factors. ..
  82. Garcia Alias G, Valero Cabre A, Lopez Vales R, Forés J, Verdú E, Navarro X. Differential motor and electrophysiological outcome in rats with mid-thoracic or high lumbar incomplete spinal cord injuries. Brain Res. 2006;1108:195-204 pubmed
    ..The causes of this anatomical difference may be attributed to damage inflicted on the central pattern generator of locomotion resulting in dysfunction of lumbar motoneurons and altered spinal reflexes modulation. ..
  83. Strickberger S. Scientific statement on the evaluation of syncope: response to editorial comment. Clin Auton Res. 2006;16:369-70 pubmed
  84. Neziri A, Curatolo M, Bergadano A, Petersen Felix S, Dickenson A, Arendt Nielsen L, et al. New method for quantification and statistical analysis of nociceptive reflex receptive fields in humans. J Neurosci Methods. 2009;178:24-30 pubmed publisher
    ..It may be utilized as a new diagnostic tool for central hypersensitivity and quantification of therapeutic interventions. ..
  85. Arms L, Girard B, Vizzard M. Expression and function of CXCL12/CXCR4 in rat urinary bladder with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;298:F589-600 pubmed publisher
    ..01) increases in intercontraction interval, bladder capacity, and void volume. These results suggest a role for CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling in both normal micturition and with bladder hyperreflexia following bladder inflammation. ..
  86. England J, Gronseth G, Franklin G, Miller R, Asbury A, Carter G, et al. Distal symmetric polyneuropathy: a definition for clinical research: report of the American Academy of Neurology, the American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine, and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Neurology. 2005;64:199-207 pubmed
    ..The inclusion of this formalized case definition in clinical and epidemiologic research studies will ensure greater consistency of case selection...
  87. Nicotra A, Asahina M, Young T, Mathias C. Heat-provoked skin vasodilatation in innervated and denervated trunk dermatomes in human spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2006;44:222-6 pubmed
    ..This may aid the classification of the SCI lesions, as the autonomic component currently is not included in the accepted American Spinal Injury Association scoring. ..
  88. Huffman D, Pietrosimone B, Grindstaff T, Hart J, Saliba S, Ingersoll C. Effects of menthol-based counterirritant on quadriceps motoneuron-pool excitability. J Sport Rehabil. 2010;19:30-40 pubmed
    ..32, 5 min = .37 +/- .27, 15 min = .37 +/- .27, 25 min = .37 +/- .29, 35 min = .35 +/- .28). No significant Group x Time interaction or group differences in Hmax:Mmax were found. Menthol did not affect quadriceps MNPE in healthy subjects. ..
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