Summary: A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.

Top Publications

  1. Brierley D, Blanc E, Reddy O, Vijayraghavan K, Williams D. Dendritic targeting in the leg neuropil of Drosophila: the role of midline signalling molecules in generating a myotopic map. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000199 pubmed publisher
    ..generates different leg motoneuron subtypes, starting with those innervating proximal targets and medial neuropil regions and producing progeny that innervate distal muscle targets and lateral neuropil later in the lineage...
  2. Judkins A, Ellison D. Ependymoblastoma: dear, damned, distracting diagnosis, farewell!*. Brain Pathol. 2010;20:133-9 pubmed publisher
    ..feature and were present in 11/14 (79%) tumors, eight (73%) of which were embryonal tumors with abundant areas of neuropil-like differentiation...
  3. Dunham C, Sugo E, Tobias V, Wills E, Perry A. Embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes (ETANTR): report of a case with prominent neurocytic differentiation. J Neurooncol. 2007;84:91-8 pubmed year later, and tissue from that resection proved to be diagnostic for an embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes (ETANTR)...
  4. Gessi M, Marani C, Geddes J, Arcella A, Cenacchi G, Giangaspero F. Ependymoma with neuropil-like islands: a case report with diagnostic and histogenetic implications. Acta Neuropathol. 2005;109:231-4 pubmed
    We describe a case of ependymoma with neuronal differentiation in form of neuropil-like islands. A 6-year-old boy presented at clinical examination for a short history of headaches and vomiting...
  5. Kerchner G, Berdnik D, Shen J, Bernstein J, Fenesy M, Deutsch G, et al. APOE ?4 worsens hippocampal CA1 apical neuropil atrophy and episodic memory. Neurology. 2014;82:691-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Using high-resolution structural MRI, we endeavored to study the relationships among APOE ?4, hippocampal subfield and stratal anatomy, and episodic memory...
  6. Loesel R. Comparative morphology of central neuropils in the brain of arthropods and its evolutionary and functional implications. Acta Biol Hung. 2004;55:39-51 pubmed
    ..suggesting that central complexes in both groups are homologous structures derived from a basal ancestral neuropil. This ancestral archetype of the central complex (lacking the protocerebral bridge) might be represented in the ..
  7. Kerr J, Greenberg D, Helmchen F. Imaging input and output of neocortical networks in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:14063-8 pubmed
    ..Besides astroglial and neuronal calcium transients, we found spontaneous calcium signals in the neuropil that were tightly correlated to the electrocorticogram...
  8. Sinakevitch I, Niwa M, Strausfeld N. Octopamine-like immunoreactivity in the honey bee and cockroach: comparable organization in the brain and subesophageal ganglion. J Comp Neurol. 2005;488:233-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The present observations are discussed with respect to possible roles of octopamine in sensory integration and association...
  9. Wang C, Zhou H, McGuire J, Cerullo V, Lee B, Li S, et al. Suppression of neuropil aggregates and neurological symptoms by an intracellular antibody implicates the cytoplasmic toxicity of mutant huntingtin. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:803-16 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the contribution of cytoplasmic mutant huntingtin and its aggregates in neuronal processes (neuropil aggregates) has not been rigorously explored...

More Information


  1. Tremblay M, Fugère V, Tsui J, Schohl A, Tavakoli A, Travençolo B, et al. Regulation of radial glial motility by visual experience. J Neurosci. 2009;29:14066-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Structurally, radial glia extended and retracted many filopodial processes within the tectal neuropil over minutes...
  2. Varela N, Avilla J, Gemeno C, Anton S. Ordinary glomeruli in the antennal lobe of male and female tortricid moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) process sex pheromone and host-plant volatiles. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:637-45 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the absence of recorded pheromone responses in the Cu needs to be confirmed. ..
  3. Harzsch S, Rieger V, Krieger J, Seefluth F, Strausfeld N, Hansson B. Transition from marine to terrestrial ecologies: changes in olfactory and tritocerebral neuropils in land-living isopods. Arthropod Struct Dev. 2011;40:244-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence suggests that Isopoda have evolved, and are in the process of evolving, several novel solutions to chemical perception on land and in air. ..
  4. Vargas Barroso V, Larriva Sahd J. A cytological and experimental study of the neuropil and primary olfactory afferences to the piriform cortex. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2013;296:1297-316 pubmed publisher
    ..In rapid-Golgi specimens a set of collaterals from the lateral olfactory tract (i.e., sublayer Ia) to the neuropil of the Layer II (LII) was identified...
  5. Kirschner S, Kleineidam C, Zube C, Rybak J, Grunewald B, Rossler W. Dual olfactory pathway in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. J Comp Neurol. 2006;499:933-52 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that olfactory input in the honeybee is processed via two separate, mainly uPN pathways to the MB calyx and LH and several pathways to the lateral protocerebrum. ..
  6. Cajigas I, Tushev G, Will T, Tom Dieck S, Fuerst N, Schuman E. The local transcriptome in the synaptic neuropil revealed by deep sequencing and high-resolution imaging. Neuron. 2012;74:453-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we use deep sequencing to identify the mRNAs resident in the synaptic neuropil in the hippocampus...
  7. Younossi Hartenstein A, Nguyen B, Shy D, Hartenstein V. Embryonic origin of the Drosophila brain neuropile. J Comp Neurol. 2006;497:981-98 pubmed
    ..This suggests that spatial information residing within neurons, rather than glial cells, specifies the location and initial shape of neuropile compartments. ..
  8. Pereanu W, Hartenstein V. Neural lineages of the Drosophila brain: a three-dimensional digital atlas of the pattern of lineage location and projection at the late larval stage. J Neurosci. 2006;26:5534-53 pubmed
    ..Third, the atlas can serve as a repository for genes expressed in lineage-specific patterns. ..
  9. Sprecher S, Cardona A, Hartenstein V. The Drosophila larval visual system: high-resolution analysis of a simple visual neuropil. Dev Biol. 2011;358:33-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The visual system of the fruit fly larva represents a simple visual system (larval optic neuropil, LON) that consists of 12 PRs falling into two classes: blue-senstive PRs expressing Rhodopsin 5 (Rh5) and green-..
  10. Strausfeld N, Strausfeld C, Loesel R, Rowell D, Stowe S. Arthropod phylogeny: onychophoran brain organization suggests an archaic relationship with a chelicerate stem lineage. Proc Biol Sci. 2006;273:1857-66 pubmed
    ..Neuroanatomical evidence suggests that the organization of the onychophoran brain is similar to that of the brains of chelicerates. ..
  11. Featherstone D, Rushton E, Rohrbough J, Liebl F, Karr J, Sheng Q, et al. An essential Drosophila glutamate receptor subunit that functions in both central neuropil and neuromuscular junction. J Neurosci. 2005;25:3199-208 pubmed
    ..quot; GluRIID is expressed in the postsynaptic domain of the NMJ, as well as widely throughout the synaptic neuropil of the CNS...
  12. Fraum T, Barak S, Pack S, Lonser R, Fine H, Quezado M, et al. Spinal cord glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands with 1p/19q deletion in an adult with low-grade cerebral oligodendroglioma. J Neurooncol. 2012;107:421-6 pubmed publisher
    Glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands (GTNI) is considered a rare variant of astrocytoma, characterized by discrete aggregates of cells expressing neuronal markers that punctuate a GFAP-positive glial background...
  13. Tallaksen Greene S, Crouse A, Hunter J, Detloff P, Albin R. Neuronal intranuclear inclusions and neuropil aggregates in HdhCAG(150) knockin mice. Neuroscience. 2005;131:843-52 pubmed
    We studied the development of neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs), neuropil aggregates (NAs), and expression of expanded repeat polyglutamine protein in the HdhCAG(150) knockin mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD)...
  14. Sinakevitch I, Douglass J, Scholtz G, Loesel R, Strausfeld N. Conserved and convergent organization in the optic lobes of insects and isopods, with reference to other crustacean taxa. J Comp Neurol. 2003;467:150-72 pubmed
    ..However, in certain insects, the lobula is accompanied by a tectum-like fourth neuropil, the lobula plate, characterized by wide-field tangential neurons and linked to the medulla by uncrossed axons...
  15. Bayraktar O, Boone J, Drummond M, Doe C. Drosophila type II neuroblast lineages keep Prospero levels low to generate large clones that contribute to the adult brain central complex. Neural Dev. 2010;5:26 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we use 9D11 lineage tracing to show that type II lineages generate both small-field and large-field neurons within the adult central complex, a brain region required for locomotion, flight, and visual pattern memory. ..
  16. Schröter U, Malun D, Menzel R. Innervation pattern of suboesophageal ventral unpaired median neurones in the honeybee brain. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;327:647-67 pubmed
    ..In addition, we describe one labial unpaired median neurone with a dorsal cell body, DUMlb1. The possible homology between the honeybee VUM neurones and the unpaired median neurones in other insects is discussed. ..
  17. Yasuyama K, Meinertzhagen I, Schürmann F. Synaptic connections of cholinergic antennal lobe relay neurons innervating the lateral horn neuropile in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster. J Comp Neurol. 2003;466:299-315 pubmed
    ..The significance of the postsynaptic neurites of the ChAT PNs is discussed; either local or other interneurons might connect the ChAT PNs within the LH, or PNs might receive inputs arising from outside the LH. ..
  18. Larriva Sahd J. The accessory olfactory bulb in the adult rat: a cytological study of its cell types, neuropil, neuronal modules, and interactions with the main olfactory system. J Comp Neurol. 2008;510:309-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The second layer, or glomerular layer, is also divided by a conspicuous invagination of the neuropil of the ECL at the junction of the rostral and caudal halves...
  19. Górska Andrzejak J, Salvaterra P, Meinertzhagen I, Krzeptowski W, Görlich A, Pyza E. Cyclical expression of Na+/K+-ATPase in the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster. J Insect Physiol. 2009;55:459-68 pubmed publisher
    ..There, GFP expression occurs in medulla neuropil glia (MNGl), which express the clock gene per, and which closely contact the terminals of clock neurons ..
  20. Gessi M, Giangaspero F, Lauriola L, Gardiman M, Scheithauer B, Halliday W, et al. Embryonal tumors with abundant neuropil and true rosettes: a distinctive CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009;33:211-7 pubmed publisher
    ..features of ependymoblastoma and neuroblastoma, a lesion referred to as "embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes" (ETANTR)...
  21. Barbashina V, Salazar P, Ladanyi M, Rosenblum M, Edgar M. Glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands (GTNI): a report of 8 cases with chromosome 1p/19q deletion analysis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2007;31:1196-202 pubmed
    Glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands (GTNI) is a rare neoplasm harboring circumscribed loci of neuronal differentiation and diffusely infiltrating astroglial and oligodendrocytelike components...
  22. Ances B, Vitaliani R, Taylor R, Liebeskind D, Voloschin A, Houghton D, et al. Treatment-responsive limbic encephalitis identified by neuropil antibodies: MRI and PET correlates. Brain. 2005;128:1764-77 pubmed
    ..detection of antibodies to cell surface or synaptic proteins demonstrated that six patients had antibodies to the neuropil of hippocampus or cerebellum, and one to intraneuronal antigens...
  23. Awasaki T, Lai S, Ito K, Lee T. Organization and postembryonic development of glial cells in the adult central brain of Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2008;28:13742-53 pubmed publisher
    ..It lays an essential foundation for studying glia development and function in the Drosophila brain. ..
  24. Taylor R, Qi J, Talaga A, Ma T, Pan L, Bartholomew C, et al. Asymmetric inhibition of Ulk2 causes left-right differences in habenular neuropil formation. J Neurosci. 2011;31:9869-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The habenular nuclei of zebrafish are robustly asymmetric, with dense elaboration of neuropil only in the left lateral subnucleus...
  25. Sinakevitch I, Strausfeld N. Comparison of octopamine-like immunoreactivity in the brains of the fruit fly and blow fly. J Comp Neurol. 2006;494:460-75 pubmed
    ..The results are also discussed with respect to recent studies on octopamine-immunoreactive organization in honey bees and cockroaches and the suggested roles of octopamine in sensory processing, learning, and memory...
  26. Wilensky A, Baldwin D, Christie A, Graubard K. Stereotyped neuropil branching of an identified stomatogastric motor neuron. J Comp Neurol. 2003;466:554-63 pubmed
    Anatomical studies of the crab stomatogastric ganglion (STG) have suggested only minimal organization within the neuropil of this structure...
  27. Górska Andrzejak J, Makuch R, Stefan J, Görlich A, Semik D, Pyza E. Circadian expression of the presynaptic active zone protein Bruchpilot in the lamina of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Neurobiol. 2013;73:14-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study we show that in the first optic neuropil (lamina) of Drosophila melanogaster, a presynaptic active zone protein Bruchpilot (BRP) exhibits a circadian ..
  28. Damulewicz M, Pyza E. The clock input to the first optic neuropil of Drosophila melanogaster expressing neuronal circadian plasticity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21258 pubmed publisher
    In the first optic neuropil (lamina) of the fly's visual system, two interneurons, L1 and L2 monopolar cells, and epithelial glial cells show circadian rhythms in morphological plasticity...
  29. Ignell R, Dekker T, Ghaninia M, Hansson B. Neuronal architecture of the mosquito deutocerebrum. J Comp Neurol. 2005;493:207-40 pubmed
    ..Within the antennal nerve a specific neuropil containing early, bouton-like ramifications of receptor neurons is described...
  30. Menalled L, Sison J, Dragatsis I, Zeitlin S, Chesselet M. Time course of early motor and neuropathological anomalies in a knock-in mouse model of Huntington's disease with 140 CAG repeats. J Comp Neurol. 2003;465:11-26 pubmed
    ..These consisted of nuclear staining for huntingtin and huntingtin-containing nuclear and neuropil aggregates that first appeared in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, and olfactory tubercle...
  31. Strausfeld N. Brain organization and the origin of insects: an assessment. Proc Biol Sci. 2009;276:1929-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Neural organization in brain centres, comprising olfactory pathways, optic lobes and a central neuropil that is thought to play a cardinal role in multi-joint movement, support affinities between insects and ..
  32. Wolff G, Harzsch S, Hansson B, Brown S, STRAUSFELD N. Neuronal organization of the hemiellipsoid body of the land hermit crab, Coenobita clypeatus: correspondence with the mushroom body ground pattern. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:2824-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that crustaceans, insects, and other groups of arthropods share an ancestral neuronal ground pattern that is specific to their second-order olfactory centers...
  33. Kurylas A, Ott S, Schachtner J, Elphick M, Williams L, Homberg U. Localization of nitric oxide synthase in the central complex and surrounding midbrain neuropils of the locust Schistocerca gregaria. J Comp Neurol. 2005;484:206-23 pubmed
    ..About 470 neuronal cell bodies in the locust midbrain were NADPHd-positive positive, and nearly all major neuropil centers contained dense, sharply stained arborizations...
  34. Nevin L, Taylor M, Baier H. Hardwiring of fine synaptic layers in the zebrafish visual pathway. Neural Dev. 2008;3:36 pubmed publisher
    ..two stratified areas of the zebrafish visual pathway, the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the retina and the neuropil of the optic tectum, and determined if activity is required for their organization...
  35. Zlatic M, Li F, Strigini M, Grueber W, Bate M. Positional cues in the Drosophila nerve cord: semaphorins pattern the dorso-ventral axis. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000135 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our findings support the idea that axons are delivered to particular regions of the neuropile by their responses to systems of positional cues in each dimension. ..
  36. Polanska M, Yasuda A, Harzsch S. Immunolocalisation of crustacean-SIFamide in the median brain and eyestalk neuropils of the marbled crayfish. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;330:331-44 pubmed
    ..Taken together, we suggest an important role of crustacean-SIFamidergic neurons in processing high-order, multimodal input in the crayfish brain. ..
  37. Boerner J, Duch C. Average shape standard atlas for the adult Drosophila ventral nerve cord. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:2437-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The standard is based on an average adult Drosophila VNC neuropil as labeled in 24 whole-mount preparations with the commercially available antibody (nc82) recognizing the ..
  38. Hoffmann K, Wirmer A, Kunst M, Gocht D, Heinrich R. Muscarinic excitation in grasshopper song control circuits is limited by acetylcholinesterase activity. Zoolog Sci. 2007;24:1028-35 pubmed
    ..In addition, basal muscarinic excitation in the central body neuropil seems to determine the general motivation of a grasshopper to stridulate...
  39. Gos T, Günther K, Bielau H, Dobrowolny H, Mawrin C, Trubner K, et al. Suicide and depression in the quantitative analysis of glutamic acid decarboxylase-Immunoreactive neuropil. J Affect Disord. 2009;113:45-55 pubmed publisher
    ..the medial dorsal and lateral dorsal thalamic nuclei, with consecutive determination of GAD-immunoreactive (-ir) neuropil relative density...
  40. Mishchenko Y, Hu T, Spacek J, Mendenhall J, Harris K, Chklovskii D. Ultrastructural analysis of hippocampal neuropil from the connectomics perspective. Neuron. 2010;67:1009-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it will be difficult to predict synaptic connectivity using data sets missing ultrastructural details that distinguish between axo-dendritic touches and bona fide synapses...
  41. Buccoliero A, Castiglione F, Rossi Degl Innocenti D, Franchi A, Paglierani M, Sanzo M, et al. Embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes: morphological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and molecular study of a case showing features of medulloepithelioma and areas of mesenchymal and epithelial differentiation. Neuropathology. 2010;30:84-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes is a recently recognized rare tumor...
  42. Weber P, Kula Eversole E, Pyza E. Circadian control of dendrite morphology in the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4290 pubmed publisher
    In the first optic neuropil (lamina) of the fly's visual system, monopolar cells L1 and L2 and glia show circadian rhythms in morphological plasticity. They change their size and shape during the day and night...
  43. Landgraf M, Sanchez Soriano N, Technau G, Urban J, Prokop A. Charting the Drosophila neuropile: a strategy for the standardised characterisation of genetically amenable neurites. Dev Biol. 2003;260:207-25 pubmed
    ..Using the Fasciclin2-based mapping procedure as a standard (e.g., in a common database) would facilitate studies on the functional architecture of the neuropile and the identification of candiate circuit elements. ..
  44. Stern M, Böger N, Eickhoff R, Lorbeer C, Kerssen U, Ziegler M, et al. Development of nitrergic neurons in the nervous system of the locust embryo. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:1157-75 pubmed publisher
    ..For the CNS, histochemical markers for NOS do not provide conclusive evidence for a developmental role of this enzyme. ..
  45. Frambach I, Rossler W, Winkler M, Schürmann F. F-actin at identified synapses in the mushroom body neuropil of the insect brain. J Comp Neurol. 2004;475:303-14 pubmed
    ..The accumulation of f-actin in KC dendrites is discussed in view of mushroom body plasticity and its potential role in learning and memory formation. ..
  46. La Spina M, Pizzolitto S, Skrap M, Nocerino A, Russo G, Di Cataldo A, et al. Embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes. A new entity or only variations of a parent neoplasms (PNETs)? This is the dilemma. J Neurooncol. 2006;78:317-20 pubmed the pons and mesencephalon, has been histologically classified as an embryonal tumor containing abundant neuropil and true rosettes...
  47. Kinney J, Spacek J, Bartol T, Bajaj C, Harris K, Sejnowski T. Extracellular sheets and tunnels modulate glutamate diffusion in hippocampal neuropil. J Comp Neurol. 2013;521:448-64 pubmed publisher
    Although the extracellular space in the neuropil of the brain is an important channel for volume communication between cells and has other important functions, its morphology on the micron scale has not been analyzed quantitatively owing ..
  48. Brandt R, Rohlfing T, Rybak J, Krofczik S, Maye A, Westerhoff M, et al. Three-dimensional average-shape atlas of the honeybee brain and its applications. J Comp Neurol. 2005;492:1-19 pubmed
    ..lobe, the axon terminals of two identified m-ACT neurons arborize in separate but close areas of the neuropil; and 3) that MB-intrinsic clawed Kenyon cells (type 5), with somata outside the calycal cups, project to the ..
  49. Stemme T, Iliffe T, Bicker G, Harzsch S, Koenemann S. Serotonin immunoreactive interneurons in the brain of the Remipedia: new insights into the phylogenetic affinities of an enigmatic crustacean taxon. BMC Evol Biol. 2012;12:168 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach allows for a comprehensive neuroanatomical comparison with other crustacean and hexapod taxa...
  50. Randlett O, MacDonald R, Yoshimatsu T, Almeida A, Suzuki S, WONG R, et al. Cellular requirements for building a retinal neuropil. Cell Rep. 2013;3:282-90 pubmed publisher
    How synaptic neuropil is formed within the CNS is poorly understood. The retinal inner plexiform layer (IPL) is positioned between the cell bodies of amacrine cells (ACs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs)...
  51. Rodriguez Moncalvo V, Campos A. Genetic dissection of trophic interactions in the larval optic neuropil of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2005;286:549-58 pubmed
    ..These neurons send their axons in a fascicle, the larval optic nerve (LON), which terminates in the larval optic neuropil. The LON is required for the development of a serotonergic arborization originating in the central brain and for ..
  52. Manjila S, Ray A, Hu Y, Cai D, Cohen M, Cohen A. Embryonal tumors with abundant neuropil and true rosettes: 2 illustrative cases and a review of the literature. Neurosurg Focus. 2011;30:E2 pubmed publisher
    Embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes (ETANTR) is a recently identified variant of primitive neuroectodermal tumor, with fewer than 50 cases reported in the literature to date...
  53. Kerchner G, Deutsch G, Zeineh M, Dougherty R, Saranathan M, Rutt B. Hippocampal CA1 apical neuropil atrophy and memory performance in Alzheimer's disease. Neuroimage. 2012;63:194-202 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight a role for 7T hippocampal microstructural imaging in revealing focal structural pathology that correlates with the central cognitive feature of AD...