efferent pathways


Summary: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.

Top Publications

  1. Mulders W, Seluakumaran K, Robertson D. Efferent pathways modulate hyperactivity in inferior colliculus. J Neurosci. 2010;30:9578-87 pubmed publisher
    ..More research is needed to investigate whether these central effects of olivocochlear efferent stimulation are due to central intrinsic circuitry or to coactivation of central efferent collaterals to the cochlear nucleus. ..
  2. Mahfoud F, Bohm M. [Interventional renal sympathetic denervation - a new approach for patients with resistant hypertension]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2010;135:2422-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The randomised controlled Symplicity-HTN-2 trial (results reported at AHA 2010, Nov 13-17) provides important information to determine the role of this new method for the treatment of drug resistant hypertension. ..
  3. Nishimura Y, Isa T. Compensatory changes at the cerebral cortical level after spinal cord injury. Neuroscientist. 2009;15:436-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes in the activation pattern of motor-related areas represent an adaptive strategy for functional compensation after spinal cord injury. ..
  4. Pogosyan A, Gaynor L, Eusebio A, Brown P. Boosting cortical activity at Beta-band frequencies slows movement in humans. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1637-41 pubmed publisher
  5. Zhao W, Dhar S. The effect of contralateral acoustic stimulation on spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2010;11:53-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to clinically available measures of the MEM reflex, we have incorporated a sensitive laboratory technique to monitor the MEM reflex in our subjects, allowing us to interpret the results with greater confidence. ..
  6. Feurra M, Bianco G, Santarnecchi E, Del Testa M, Rossi A, Rossi S. Frequency-dependent tuning of the human motor system induced by transcranial oscillatory potentials. J Neurosci. 2011;31:12165-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results help clarifying the functional significance of the 20 Hz idling ? rhythm of sensorimotor regions and suggest potential clinical applications of this approach. ..
  7. Nakamura K, Morrison S. Central efferent pathways for cold-defensive and febrile shivering. J Physiol. 2011;589:3641-58 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide the interesting notion that, under the demand for increasing levels of heat production, parallel central efferent pathways control the somatic and sympathetic motor systems to drive thermogenesis.
  8. Maison S, Vetter D, Liberman M. A novel effect of cochlear efferents: in vivo response enhancement does not require alpha9 cholinergic receptors. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97:3269-78 pubmed
  9. Jordan L, Liu J, Hedlund P, Akay T, Pearson K. Descending command systems for the initiation of locomotion in mammals. Brain Res Rev. 2008;57:183-91 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the PPR is the source of a descending 5-HT command pathway that activates the CPG via 5-HT(7) and 5-HT(2A) receptors. Further experiments are necessary to define the putative glutamatergic, DA, and NA command pathways. ..

More Information


  1. Riddle C, Edgley S, Baker S. Direct and indirect connections with upper limb motoneurons from the primate reticulospinal tract. J Neurosci. 2009;29:4993-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Reticulospinal neurons are therefore in a position to influence upper limb muscle activity after damage to the corticospinal system as may occur in stroke or spinal cord injury, and may be a target site for therapeutic interventions. ..
  2. Li W, Roberts A, Soffe S. Locomotor rhythm maintenance: electrical coupling among premotor excitatory interneurons in the brainstem and spinal cord of young Xenopus tadpoles. J Physiol. 2009;587:1677-93 pubmed publisher
  3. Long M, Fee M. Using temperature to analyse temporal dynamics in the songbird motor pathway. Nature. 2008;456:189-94 pubmed publisher
  4. Raposo A, Moss H, Stamatakis E, Tyler L. Modulation of motor and premotor cortices by actions, action words and action sentences. Neuropsychologia. 2009;47:388-96 pubmed publisher
  5. Leone D, Srinivasan K, Chen B, Alcamo E, McConnell S. The determination of projection neuron identity in the developing cerebral cortex. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2008;18:28-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular mechanisms by which Satb2 regulates gene expression involves long-term epigenetic changes in chromatin configuration, which may enable cell fate decisions to be maintained during development. ..
  6. Orger M, Kampff A, Severi K, Bollmann J, Engert F. Control of visually guided behavior by distinct populations of spinal projection neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:327-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This description of the functional organization of the zebrafish motor system provides a framework for identifying the complete circuit underlying a vertebrate behavior. ..
  7. Schutter D, Hofman D, van Honk J. Fearful faces selectively increase corticospinal motor tract excitability: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Psychophysiology. 2008;45:345-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide the first direct evidence for selective increases in CST excitability to threat and contribute to evolutionary views on emotion and action preparedness. ..
  8. Larsen E, Liberman M. Slow build-up of cochlear suppression during sustained contralateral noise: central modulation of olivocochlear efferents?. Hear Res. 2009;256:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that conventional tests of OC reflex strength may underestimate its magnitude in noisy environments. ..
  9. Schoffelen J, Oostenveld R, Fries P. Imaging the human motor system's beta-band synchronization during isometric contraction. Neuroimage. 2008;41:437-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that during an isometric muscle contraction, several distributed brain regions form a brain-wide beta-band network for motor control. ..
  10. Rocha Muniz C, Mamede Carvallo R, Schochat E. Medial olivocochlear function in children with poor speech-in-noise performance and language disorder. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;96:116-121 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding suggests differences in MOC function among children with typical development and children with poor SIN and language problems. ..
  11. Lee S, Kirigiti M, Lindsley S, Loche A, Madden C, Morrison S, et al. Efferent projections of neuropeptide Y-expressing neurons of the dorsomedial hypothalamus in chronic hyperphagic models. J Comp Neurol. 2013;521:1891-914 pubmed publisher
  12. Vertes R, Hoover W, Rodriguez J. Projections of the central medial nucleus of the thalamus in the rat: node in cortical, striatal and limbic forebrain circuitry. Neuroscience. 2012;219:120-36 pubmed publisher
    ..CM projections to limbic and sensorimotor structures of the rostral forebrain suggest that CM may serve to integrate affective, cognitive and sensorimotor functions for goal-directed behavior. ..
  13. De Felice M, Sanoja R, Wang R, Vera Portocarrero L, Oyarzo J, King T, et al. Engagement of descending inhibition from the rostral ventromedial medulla protects against chronic neuropathic pain. Pain. 2011;152:2701-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Engagement of descending inhibition protects in the transition from acute to chronic pain. These unexpected findings might provide a mechanistic explanation for medications that engage descending inhibition or mimic its consequences. ..
  14. Stepien A, Tripodi M, Arber S. Monosynaptic rabies virus reveals premotor network organization and synaptic specificity of cholinergic partition cells. Neuron. 2010;68:456-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study visualizes the widespread yet precise nature of the connectivity matrix for premotor interneurons and reveals exquisite synaptic specificity for bilaterally projecting cholinergic partition cells. ..
  15. Abdala A, Rybak I, Smith J, Paton J. Abdominal expiratory activity in the rat brainstem-spinal cord in situ: patterns, origins and implications for respiratory rhythm generation. J Physiol. 2009;587:3539-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible interactions of this oscillator with components of the brainstem respiratory network are discussed. ..
  16. Carriot J, Jamali M, Chacron M, Cullen K. Statistics of the vestibular input experienced during natural self-motion: implications for neural processing. J Neurosci. 2014;34:8347-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the unique structure of natural vestibular stimuli will have important consequences on the neural coding strategies used by this essential sensory system to represent self-motion in everyday life. ..
  17. Doménech J, Tormos J, Barrios C, Pascual Leone A. Motor cortical hyperexcitability in idiopathic scoliosis: could focal dystonia be a subclinical etiological factor?. Eur Spine J. 2010;19:223-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Asymmetrical cortical hyperexcitability may play an important role in the pathogenesis of IS and represents an objective neurophysiological finding that could be used clinically. ..
  18. Titelbaum D, Sodha N, Moonis M. Transient hemiglossal denervation during acute internal capsule infarct in the setting of dysarthria-clumsy hand syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010;31:1266-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Awareness of the findings in this case will facilitate appropriate diagnosis, provide neuroanatomic explanation, and prevent misdiagnosis. ..
  19. Nakamura T, Onaga T, Kitazawa T. Ghrelin stimulates gastric motility of the guinea pig through activation of a capsaicin-sensitive neural pathway: in vivo and in vitro functional studies. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;22:446-52, e107 pubmed publisher
    ..Peripheral ghrelin receptors on enteric nitrergic nerves might affect the ghrelin-induced gastric action by releasing nitric oxide. ..
  20. Wersinger E, Fuchs P. Modulation of hair cell efferents. Hear Res. 2011;279:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that short-term plasticity contributes to effective cholinergic inhibition of hair cells. ..
  21. Giassi A, Duarte T, Ellis W, Maler L. Organization of the gymnotiform fish pallium in relation to learning and memory: II. Extrinsic connections. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:3338-68 pubmed publisher
  22. Maruthy S, Kumar U, Gnanateja G. Functional Interplay Between the Putative Measures of Rostral and Caudal Efferent Regulation of Speech Perception in Noise. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2017;18:635-648 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the functional relationship between two efferent systems: the rostral and caudal efferent pathways and their individual influences on speech perception in noise...
  23. Sreenivasa M, Ayusawa K, Nakamura Y. Modeling and Identification of a Realistic Spiking Neural Network and Musculoskeletal Model of the Human Arm, and an Application to the Stretch Reflex. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2016;24:591-602 pubmed publisher
    ..This additional layer of detail in neuromuscular models has important relevance to the research communities of rehabilitation and clinical movement analysis by providing a mathematical approach to studying neuromuscular pathology. ..
  24. Nonnekes J, Oude Nijhuis L, de Niet M, de Bot S, Pasman J, van de Warrenburg B, et al. StartReact restores reaction time in HSP: evidence for subcortical release of a motor program. J Neurosci. 2014;34:275-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These delayed onsets in HSP were normalized when the imperative stimulus was combined with a SAS, presumably through release of a subcortically stored motor program conveyed by the preserved reticulospinal tract. ..
  25. Pastelín C, Juarez R, Damaser M, Cruz Y. Neural pathways of somatic and visceral reflexes of the external urethral sphincter in female rats. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:3120-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Physiology and anatomy of the different neural pathways that regulate EUS activity are important to consider when inducing nerve damage to create models of urinary incontinence. ..
  26. Madison R, Sofroniew M, Robinson G. Schwann cell influence on motor neuron regeneration accuracy. Neuroscience. 2009;163:213-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Manipulating the relative levels of these sources of influence resulted in predictable projection patterns of motor neurons into the terminal pathway either to skin or to muscle. ..
  27. Bolbecker A, Lim Kessler C, Li J, Swan A, Lewis A, Fleets J, et al. Visual efference neuromodulates retinal timing: in vivo roles of octopamine, substance P, circadian phase, and efferent activation in Limulus. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:1132-8 pubmed publisher
    ..But these infiltration data go further and strongly suggest that substance P may also be released into the lateral eye at night, thereby accelerating the ERG's onset in addition to increasing its amplitude. ..
  28. Yasin I, Drga V, Plack C. Estimating peripheral gain and compression using fixed-duration masking curves. J Acoust Soc Am. 2013;133:4145-55 pubmed publisher
  29. Coveliers H, Meyer M, Gharagozloo F, Wisselink W. Selective sympathectomy for hyperhidrosis: technique of robotic transthoracic selective postganglionic efferent sympathectomy. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2013;43:428-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed this technique using robotic technology in 55 patients. There was complete relief of hyperhidrosis in 53/55 (96%) patients, partial relief in 2/55 (4%) patients and a compensatory hyperhidrosis rate of 7%. ..
  30. Carlsen A, Maslovat D, Franks I. Preparation for voluntary movement in healthy and clinical populations: evidence from startle. Clin Neurophysiol. 2012;123:21-33 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, a secondary focus is to review previous hypotheses and introduce an updated model of how the SAS may interact with response preparation and initiation channels from a neurophysiological perspective. ..
  31. Cortes M, Thickbroom G, Valls Sole J, Pascual Leone A, Edwards D. Spinal associative stimulation: a non-invasive stimulation paradigm to modulate spinal excitability. Clin Neurophysiol. 2011;122:2254-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Spinal associative stimulation may have potential for neuromodulation in spinal cord injury patients. ..
  32. Normandin J, Murphy A. Excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus paragigantocellularis facilitate male sexual behavior but attenuate female sexual behavior in rats. Neuroscience. 2011;175:212-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This work has important implications for the understanding and treatment of sexual dysfunction in people including delayed/premature ejaculation, involuntary vaginal spasms, and pain during intercourse. ..
  33. Tuchina O, Zhukov V, Meyer Rochow V. Afferent and efferent pathways in the visual system of the freshwater snail Planorbarius corneus. Dongwuxue Yanjiu. 2011;32:403-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These fibres belong to those central neurons which send their axons to the ipsilateral eye only. They form abundant varicoses in the eye cup and nuclear layer of the retina, and possibly help to regulate retinal sensitivity to light. ..
  34. Coynel D, Marrelec G, Perlbarg V, Pélégrini Issac M, van de Moortele P, Ugurbil K, et al. Dynamics of motor-related functional integration during motor sequence learning. Neuroimage. 2010;49:759-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are in line with the hypothesis that information is transferred from the associative/premotor circuit to the sensorimotor circuit during the course of motor learning. ..
  35. Pavaine J, Young J, Morgan B, Shroff M, Raybaud C, Taylor M. Diffusion tensor imaging-based assessment of white matter tracts and visual-motor outcomes in very preterm neonates. Neuroradiology. 2016;58:301-10 pubmed publisher
    ..DTI measures of the PLIC and OR were affected by injury in VPT neonates. These findings seen shortly after birth did not always translate into long-term motor and visual-motor impairments suggesting compensatory mechanisms. ..
  36. Li J, Liu J, Liang J, Zhang H, Zhao J, Rieth C, et al. Effective connectivities of cortical regions for top-down face processing: a dynamic causal modeling study. Brain Res. 2010;1340:40-51 pubmed publisher
  37. Yoshimoto M, Yamamoto N. Ascending general visceral sensory pathways from the brainstem to the forebrain in a cichlid fish, Oreochromis (Tilapia) niloticus. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:3570-603 pubmed publisher
    ..The SVN was found to receive fibers from the ventral telencephalon as well. Therefore, the present study indicates that most of the general visceral structures in the forebrain are reciprocally connected with the brainstem centers. ..
  38. Mori F, Nakajima K. [Cortical control in locomotion]. Brain Nerve. 2010;62:1139-47 pubmed
    ..Multi-comparative interdisciplinary studies should be initiated to reveal the CNS mechanisms involved in the control of Bp upright standing and locomotion in humans and non-human primate models. ..
  39. Sala F, Manganotti P, Grossauer S, Tramontanto V, Mazza C, Gerosa M. Intraoperative neurophysiology of the motor system in children: a tailored approach. Childs Nerv Syst. 2010;26:473-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The principles of development and maturation of the motor system, and especially of the CT, are reviewed focusing on clinical studies with transcranial magnetical stimulation. ..
  40. Gordon P, Cheng B, Katz I, Mitsumoto H, Rowland L. Clinical features that distinguish PLS, upper motor neuron-dominant ALS, and typical ALS. Neurology. 2009;72:1948-52 pubmed publisher
  41. Bjerre L, Andersen A, Hagelskjær M, Ge N, Mørch C, Andersen O. Dynamic tuning of human withdrawal reflex receptive fields during cognitive attention and distraction tasks. Eur J Pain. 2011;15:816-21 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The size of the RRF area was modulated by the cognitive state demonstrating a link between the cognitive activity and the descending control on spinal withdrawal reflex pathways. ..
  42. Guo W, Wang H, Zou S, Dubner R, Ren K. Chemokine signaling involving chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 plays a role in descending pain facilitation. Neurosci Bull. 2012;28:193-207 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the effect of CCL2 is downstream to IL-1? signaling. The IL-1? and CCL2-CCR2 signaling cascades play a role in neuron-glia-cytokine interactions and the descending facilitation of neuropathic pain. ..
  43. Guiraud D. Interfacing the neural system to restore deficient functions: from theoretical studies to neuroprothesis design. C R Biol. 2012;335:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The described method is the way we choose to face fundamental and tremendous scientific questions in order to provide disabled people with extended autonomy. ..
  44. Fiorio M, Emadi Andani M, Marotta A, Classen J, Tinazzi M. Placebo-induced changes in excitatory and inhibitory corticospinal circuits during motor performance. J Neurosci. 2014;34:3993-4005 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings hint at a top-down, cognitive enhancement of corticospinal excitability as a neural signature of placebo modulation of motor performance. ..
  45. Etoh S, Noma T, Matsumoto S, Kamishita T, Shimodozono M, Ogata A, et al. Stroke patient with mirror movement of the affected hand due to an ipsilateral motor pathway confirmed by transcranial magnetic stimulation: a case report. Int J Neurosci. 2010;120:231-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The mirror movements and motor recovery might have utilized an ipsilateral motor pathway between the unaffected hemisphere and the affected hand. ..
  46. Prats Galino A, Soria G, de Notaris M, Puig J, Pedraza S. Functional anatomy of subcortical circuits issuing from or integrating at the human brainstem. Clin Neurophysiol. 2012;123:4-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This type of neuroanatomic depiction of nuclei and nerve tracts at very high spatial resolution opens new possibilities to analyze the fine structure and circuits of the human brainstem, at least in post-mortem material. ..
  47. Schwartz M, Nguyen A, Warrier D, Palmerston J, Thomas A, Morairty S, et al. Locus Coeruleus and Tuberomammillary Nuclei Ablations Attenuate Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist-Mediated REM Sleep. Eneuro. 2016;3: pubmed publisher
    ..LC NE) system and the posterior hypothalamic histaminergic tuberomammillary nuclei (TMN HA) are important efferent pathways for Hcrt-induced wakefulness. The LC expresses Hcrt receptor 1 (HcrtR1), whereas HcrtR2 is found in the TMN...
  48. Jang S. A review of the ipsilateral motor pathway as a recovery mechanism in patients with stroke. NeuroRehabilitation. 2009;24:315-20 pubmed publisher
  49. Lateef D, Abreu Vieira G, Xiao C, Reitman M. Regulation of body temperature and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis by bombesin receptor subtype-3. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014;306:E681-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The reduced body temperature in Brs3(-/y) mice is due to altered regulation of energy homeostasis affecting higher center regulation of body temperature, rather than an intrinsic defect in brown adipose tissue. ..
  50. Buckner R, Krienen F, Castellanos A, Diaz J, Yeo B. The organization of the human cerebellum estimated by intrinsic functional connectivity. J Neurophysiol. 2011;106:2322-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The orderly topography of the representations suggests that the cerebellum possesses at least two large, homotopic maps of the full cerebrum and possibly a smaller third map. ..
  51. Bhagat S, Carter P. Efferent-induced change in human cochlear compression and its influence on masking of tones. Neurosci Lett. 2010;485:94-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Under certain conditions, decreases in cochlear compression induced by MOC efferent neurons may lead to unmasking of tones presented in noise. ..
  52. Maquet D, Croisier J, Dupont C, Moutschen M, Ansseau M, Zeevaert B, et al. Fibromyalgia and related conditions: electromyogram profile during isometric muscle contraction. Joint Bone Spine. 2010;77:264-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Chronic fatigue syndrome patients had similar EMG findings to those in the healthy controls. The EMG alterations in the patients with depression were consistent with manifestations of psychomotor retardation. ..
  53. Van Soens I, Van Ham L. Assessment of motor pathways by magnetic stimulation in human and veterinary medicine. Vet J. 2011;187:174-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, the basic principles, applications and risk factors of peripheral nerve and motor cortex stimulation in human and veterinary medicine are discussed. ..