visual pathways


Summary: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.

Top Publications

  1. Puthussery T, Venkataramani S, Gayet Primo J, Smith R, Taylor W. NaV1.1 channels in axon initial segments of bipolar cells augment input to magnocellular visual pathways in the primate retina. J Neurosci. 2013;33:16045-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the results demonstrate that selective expression of voltage-gated channels contributes to the establishment of parallel processing in the major visual pathways of the primate retina.
  2. Patterson C, Wissig S, Kohn A. Adaptation disrupts motion integration in the primate dorsal stream. Neuron. 2014;81:674-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the effects of adaptation cascade through the visual system, derailing the downstream representation of distinct stimulus attributes. ..
  3. Li P, Zhu S, Chen M, Han C, Xu H, Hu J, et al. A motion direction preference map in monkey V4. Neuron. 2013;78:376-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that, in contrast to the classical view, motion information is also processed in ventral pathway regions such as area V4. ..
  4. Cecere R, Bertini C, Ladavas E. Differential contribution of cortical and subcortical visual pathways to the implicit processing of emotional faces: a tDCS study. J Neurosci. 2013;33:6469-75 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect might reflect an adaptive mechanism implemented by the brain to quickly react to potential threats before their conscious identification. ..
  5. Bridge H, Thomas O, Minini L, Cavina Pratesi C, Milner A, Parker A. Structural and functional changes across the visual cortex of a patient with visual form agnosia. J Neurosci. 2013;33:12779-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also highlight for DF the cortical routes through which visual information is able to pass to support her well-documented abilities to use visual information to guide actions. ..
  6. Keil A, Miskovic V, Gray M, Martinovic J. Luminance, but not chromatic visual pathways, mediate amplification of conditioned danger signals in human visual cortex. Eur J Neurosci. 2013;38:3356-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, luminance information is necessary to establish amplification of learned danger signals in hierarchically early regions of the visual system. ..
  7. Nassi J, Lomber S, Born R. Corticocortical feedback contributes to surround suppression in V1 of the alert primate. J Neurosci. 2013;33:8504-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide direct evidence that feedback contributes to surround suppression, which is an important source of contextual influences essential to vision...
  8. Thomas C, Kveraga K, Huberle E, Karnath H, Bar M. Enabling global processing in simultanagnosia by psychophysical biasing of visual pathways. Brain. 2012;135:1578-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings advance our understanding of the relationship between visuospatial attention and perception and reveal the neural mechanism mediating the disposition to see the 'forest before the trees'. ..
  9. Marshel J, KAYE A, Nauhaus I, Callaway E. Anterior-posterior direction opponency in the superficial mouse lateral geniculate nucleus. Neuron. 2012;76:713-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they support recent conjecture that cortical direction and orientation selectivity emerge in part from a previously undescribed motion-selective retinogeniculate pathway. ..

More Information


  1. Gebhardt C, Bastmeyer M, Weth F. Balancing of ephrin/Eph forward and reverse signaling as the driving force of adaptive topographic mapping. Development. 2012;139:335-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonetheless, it is based on a single constraint of topographic growth cone navigation: the balancing of ephrin-A/EphA forward and reverse signaling. ..
  2. Ala Laurila P, Greschner M, Chichilnisky E, Rieke F. Cone photoreceptor contributions to noise and correlations in the retinal output. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:1309-16 pubmed publisher
    ..picture emerges: cone noise, traversing the retina through diverse pathways, accounts for most of the noise and correlations in the retinal output and constrains how higher centers exploit signals carried by parallel visual pathways.
  3. Rokszin A, Márkus Z, Braunitzer G, Berenyi A, Benedek G, Nagy A. Visual pathways serving motion detection in the mammalian brain. Sensors (Basel). 2010;10:3218-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Special attention is paid to the ascending tectofugal system that may serve for detection of the visual environment during self-motion. ..
  4. De Pasquale R, Sherman S. Synaptic properties of corticocortical connections between the primary and secondary visual cortical areas in the mouse. J Neurosci. 2011;31:16494-506 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest a common pattern to the functional organization of corticocortical connectivity in the mouse cortex. ..
  5. Robles E, Filosa A, Baier H. Precise lamination of retinal axons generates multiple parallel input pathways in the tectum. J Neurosci. 2013;33:5027-39 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that lamina-specific sorting of retinal inputs provides an anatomical blueprint for the integration of visual features in the tectum. ..
  6. Moore B, Kiley C, Sun C, Usrey W. Rapid plasticity of visual responses in the adult lateral geniculate nucleus. Neuron. 2011;71:812-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest there is greater divergence of retinogeniculate connections than previously recognized and that functionally silent, nonspecific retinal inputs can serve as a substrate for rapid plasticity in the adult. ..
  7. Zhang X, Liu H, Lei Z, Wu Z, Guo A. Lobula-specific visual projection neurons are involved in perception of motion-defined second-order motion in Drosophila. J Exp Biol. 2013;216:524-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that visual neuropils deep in the optic lobe and the central brain, whose functional roles in motion processing were previously unclear, may be specifically required for motion-defined motion processing. ..
  8. Dhruv N, Tailby C, Sokol S, Lennie P. Multiple adaptable mechanisms early in the primate visual pathway. J Neurosci. 2011;31:15016-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We could thus infer desensitization of the tuned mechanism by comparing effects obtained with adapting gratings of preferred and null orientation modulated at low temporal frequencies. ..
  9. Keller G, Bonhoeffer T, Hübener M. Sensorimotor mismatch signals in primary visual cortex of the behaving mouse. Neuron. 2012;74:809-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that processing in visual cortex may be based on predictive coding strategies that use motor-related and visual input to detect mismatches between predicted and actual visual feedback. ..
  10. Jin J, Wang Y, Lashgari R, Swadlow H, Alonso J. Faster thalamocortical processing for dark than light visual targets. J Neurosci. 2011;31:17471-9 pubmed publisher
    ON and OFF visual pathways originate in the retina at the synapse between photoreceptor and bipolar cells...
  11. Piscopo D, El Danaf R, Huberman A, Niell C. Diverse visual features encoded in mouse lateral geniculate nucleus. J Neurosci. 2013;33:4642-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings should therefore have a significant impact on our understanding of the computations performed in mouse visual cortex. ..
  12. Nikolaou N, Lowe A, Walker A, Abbas F, Hunter P, Thompson I, et al. Parametric functional maps of visual inputs to the tectum. Neuron. 2012;76:317-324 pubmed publisher
  13. Edwards T, Nuschke A, Nern A, Meinertzhagen I. Organization and metamorphosis of glia in the Drosophila visual system. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:2067-85 pubmed publisher
  14. Kravitz D, Saleem K, Baker C, Ungerleider L, Mishkin M. The ventral visual pathway: an expanded neural framework for the processing of object quality. Trends Cogn Sci. 2013;17:26-49 pubmed publisher
  15. Takemura H, Ashida H, Amano K, Kitaoka A, Murakami I. Neural correlates of induced motion perception in the human brain. J Neurosci. 2012;32:14344-54 pubmed publisher
  16. Roth M, Helmchen F, Kampa B. Distinct functional properties of primary and posteromedial visual area of mouse neocortex. J Neurosci. 2012;32:9716-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, PM is tuned for cardinal orientations, high SFs, and low speed and is further located between V1 and the retrosplenial cortex consistent with a role in processing natural scenes during spatial navigation. ..
  17. Warner C, Kwan W, Bourne J. The early maturation of visual cortical area MT is dependent on input from the retinorecipient medial portion of the inferior pulvinar. J Neurosci. 2012;32:17073-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, from soon after birth to adulthood, there was a dynamic shift in the ratio of input from these three structures to area MT, with an increasing dominance of the direct V1 afference...
  18. Gozli D, West G, Pratt J. Hand position alters vision by biasing processing through different visual pathways. Cognition. 2012;124:244-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that altered visual processing near the hands may be due to changes in the contribution of the two visual pathways.
  19. Roe A, Chelazzi L, Connor C, Conway B, Fujita I, Gallant J, et al. Toward a unified theory of visual area V4. Neuron. 2012;74:12-29 pubmed publisher
  20. Crandall S, Cox C. Local dendrodendritic inhibition regulates fast synaptic transmission in visual thalamus. J Neurosci. 2012;32:2513-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, local stimulation of interneuron dendrites did not result in global excitation, supporting the notion that these interneurons can operate as multiplexors, containing numerous independently operating input-output devices. ..
  21. Fernandez D, Pasquini L, Dorfman D, Aldana Marcos H, Rosenstein R. Early distal axonopathy of the visual pathway in experimental diabetes. Am J Pathol. 2012;180:303-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results suggest that axoglial alterations at the distal portion of the optic nerve could be the first structural change in the diabetic visual pathway. ..
  22. Takemura S, Karuppudurai T, Ting C, Lu Z, Lee C, Meinertzhagen I. Cholinergic circuits integrate neighboring visual signals in a Drosophila motion detection pathway. Curr Biol. 2011;21:2077-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Tm2 integrates sign-conserving inputs from neighboring columns to mediate the detection of front-to-back motion generated during forward motion. ..
  23. Jarosiewicz B, Schummers J, Malik W, Brown E, Sur M. Functional biases in visual cortex neurons with identified projections to higher cortical targets. Curr Biol. 2012;22:269-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These projection cell groups, and hence the higher-order visual areas to which they project, likely obtain their functional properties not from biased retinogeniculate inputs but from highly specific circuitry within the cortex. ..
  24. Collins C, Leitch D, Wong P, Kaas J, Herculano Houzel S. Faster scaling of visual neurons in cortical areas relative to subcortical structures in non-human primate brains. Brain Struct Funct. 2013;218:805-16 pubmed publisher
  25. Striem Amit E, Dakwar O, Reich L, Amedi A. The large-scale organization of "visual" streams emerges without visual experience. Cereb Cortex. 2012;22:1698-709 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the view that the brain is organized into task-specific but sensory modality-independent operators...
  26. Gras Combe G, Moritz Gasser S, Herbet G, Duffau H. Intraoperative subcortical electrical mapping of optic radiations in awake surgery for glioma involving visual pathways. J Neurosurg. 2012;117:466-73 pubmed publisher
    ..series of awake surgeries for cerebral glioma with intrasurgical identification and preservation of visual pathways using subcortical electrical mapping...
  27. Kietzmann T, Swisher J, Konig P, Tong F. Prevalence of selectivity for mirror-symmetric views of faces in the ventral and dorsal visual pathways. J Neurosci. 2012;32:11763-72 pubmed publisher
  28. Vidne M, Ahmadian Y, Shlens J, Pillow J, Kulkarni J, Litke A, et al. Modeling the impact of common noise inputs on the network activity of retinal ganglion cells. J Comput Neurosci. 2012;33:97-121 pubmed publisher
    ..The common-noise model produces Bayesian decoding performance as accurate as that of a model with direct coupling, but with significantly more robustness to spike timing perturbations. ..
  29. Laing R, Bock A, Lasiene J, Olavarria J. Role of retinal input on the development of striate-extrastriate patterns of connections in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:3256-76 pubmed publisher
  30. Zhang J, Ackman J, Xu H, Crair M. Visual map development depends on the temporal pattern of binocular activity in mice. Nat Neurosci. 2011;15:298-307 pubmed publisher
  31. Marshel J, Garrett M, Nauhaus I, Callaway E. Functional specialization of seven mouse visual cortical areas. Neuron. 2011;72:1040-54 pubmed publisher
  32. Dolgonos S, Ayyala H, Evinger C. Light-induced trigeminal sensitization without central visual pathways: another mechanism for photophobia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:7852-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors investigated whether trigeminal sensitization occurs in response to bright light with the retina disconnected from the rest of the central nervous system by optic nerve section...
  33. Borst A, Euler T. Seeing things in motion: models, circuits, and mechanisms. Neuron. 2011;71:974-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review recent progress made in this area with an emphasis on insects and the vertebrate retina. ..
  34. Gutierrez Ibanez C, Iwaniuk A, Lisney T, Wylie D. Comparative study of visual pathways in owls (Aves: Strigiformes). Brain Behav Evol. 2013;81:27-39 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we compare the relative size of nuclei in the main visual pathways in nine species of owl that exhibit a wide range of activity patterns...
  35. Atallah B, Bruns W, Carandini M, Scanziani M. Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons linearly transform cortical responses to visual stimuli. Neuron. 2012;73:159-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that PV cells are ideally suited to modulate cortical gain and establish a causal relationship between a select neuron type and specific computations performed by the cortex during sensory processing. ..
  36. Gabriel J, Trivedi C, Maurer C, Ryu S, Bollmann J. Layer-specific targeting of direction-selective neurons in the zebrafish optic tectum. Neuron. 2012;76:1147-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, different directions are represented in different layers, which suggests a simple mechanism for how tectal neurons acquire directional tuning in a nascent circuit. ..
  37. Koch S, Dela Cruz C, Hnasko T, Edwards R, Huberman A, Ullian E. Pathway-specific genetic attenuation of glutamate release alters select features of competition-based visual circuit refinement. Neuron. 2011;71:235-42 pubmed publisher
  38. Hüfner K, Strupp M, Smith P, Brandt T, Jahn K. Spatial separation of visual and vestibular processing in the human hippocampal formation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1233:177-86 pubmed publisher
  39. Mann K, Wang M, Luu S, Ohler S, Hakeda Suzuki S, Suzuki T. A putative tyrosine phosphorylation site of the cell surface receptor Golden goal is involved in synaptic layer selection in the visual system. Development. 2012;139:760-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose the model that a constant phosphorylation signal is antagonized by a presumably temporal dephosphorylation signal, which creates a permissive signal that controls developmental timing in axon targeting. ..
  40. Reynaud A, Masson G, Chavane F. Dynamics of local input normalization result from balanced short- and long-range intracortical interactions in area V1. J Neurosci. 2012;32:12558-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that divisive normalization, a fundamental canonical computation, should be considered as a dynamic process. ..
  41. Gabbott P, Stewart M. Visual deprivation alters dendritic bundle architecture in layer 4 of rat visual cortex. Neuroscience. 2012;207:65-77 pubmed publisher
  42. DiCarlo J, Zoccolan D, Rust N. How does the brain solve visual object recognition?. Neuron. 2012;73:415-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that understanding this algorithm will require using neuronal and psychophysical data to sift through many computational models, each based on building blocks of small, canonical subnetworks with a common functional goal. ..
  43. Bock A, Kroenke C, Taber E, Olavarria J. Retinal input influences the size and corticocortical connectivity of visual cortex during postnatal development in the ferret. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:914-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the critical period during which the eyes influence the development of callosal patterns, but not the size of visual cortex, ends by P20 in the ferret. ..
  44. Bosman C, Schoffelen J, Brunet N, Oostenveld R, Bastos A, Womelsdorf T, et al. Attentional stimulus selection through selective synchronization between monkey visual areas. Neuron. 2012;75:875-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Gamma-mediated interareal influences were predominantly directed from V1 to V4. We propose that selective synchronization renders relevant input effective, thereby modulating effective connectivity...
  45. Lord S, Archibald N, Mosimann U, Burn D, Rochester L. Dorsal rather than ventral visual pathways discriminate freezing status in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2012;18:1094-6 pubmed publisher
    ..77 p < 0.05] (1-way ANCOVA). Results indicate a preferential dysfunction of dorsal occipito-parietal pathways in FOG, independent of disease severity, attentional deficit, and contrast sensitivity. ..
  46. Huot P, Johnston T, Visanji N, Darr T, Pires D, Hazrati L, et al. Increased levels of 5-HT1A receptor binding in ventral visual pathways in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2012;27:735-42 pubmed publisher
    ..5-HT(2A) receptors are increased in ventral visual pathways in PD patients with visual hallucinations, and we hypothesized that 5-HT(1A) receptors were also involved in ..
  47. Grimes W. Amacrine cell-mediated input to bipolar cells: variations on a common mechanistic theme. Vis Neurosci. 2012;29:41-9 pubmed publisher
  48. Andermann M, Kerlin A, Roumis D, Glickfeld L, Reid R. Functional specialization of mouse higher visual cortical areas. Neuron. 2011;72:1025-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings, we predict that area AL helps guide behaviors involving fast-moving stimuli (e.g., optic flow), while area PM helps guide behaviors involving slow-moving objects. ..
  49. Glickfeld L, Andermann M, Bonin V, Reid R. Cortico-cortical projections in mouse visual cortex are functionally target specific. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:219-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, transmission of specific information to downstream targets may be a general feature of cortico-cortical communication. ..
  50. Martin K, Schröder S. Functional heterogeneity in neighboring neurons of cat primary visual cortex in response to both artificial and natural stimuli. J Neurosci. 2013;33:7325-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have relevance for our understanding of the processing of natural stimuli in a functionally heterogeneous cortical network. ..
  51. Carreras F, Medina J, Ruiz Lozano M, Carreras I, Castro J. Virtual tissue engineering and optic pathways: plotting the course of the axons in the retinal nerve fiber layer. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:3107-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our model is able to simulate basic data of the early optic pathways including certain singularities and to mimic mechanisms operating during development, such as timing and fasciculation. ..
  52. Kulkarni A, Ertekin D, Lee C, Hummel T. Birth order dependent growth cone segregation determines synaptic layer identity in the Drosophila visual system. elife. 2016;5:e13715 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we demonstrate that birth order dependent pre-patterning of afferent growth cones is an essential pre-requisite for the identification of synaptic partner neurons during visual map formation in Drosophila. ..
  53. Tang Z, Wu L, Xiao Z, Sun X, Feng X, Chen Q, et al. Manganese-enhanced MR imaging (MEMRI) combined with electrophysiology in the study of cross-modal plasticity in binocularly blind rats. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017;61:12-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggested that MEMRI combined with electrophysiology can show changes in the auditory and visual pathways of binocularly blind rats and demonstrate the generation of an auditory compensatory pathway.