spina bifida occulta

Summary

Summary: A common congenital midline defect of fusion of the vertebral arch without protrusion of the spinal cord or meninges. The lesion is also covered by skin. L5 and S1 are the most common vertebrae involved. The condition may be associated with an overlying area of hyperpigmented skin, a dermal sinus, or an abnormal patch of hair. The majority of individuals with this malformation are asymptomatic although there is an increased incidence of tethered cord syndrome and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)

Top Publications

  1. Gan Y, Sgouros S, Walsh A, Hockley A. Diastematomyelia in children: treatment outcome and natural history of associated syringomyelia. Childs Nerv Syst. 2007;23:515-9 pubmed
    ..To quantify the long-term outcome of children with diastematomyelia and the implication of syringomyelia in the natural history...
  2. Briner W. The effect of GABA receptor ligands in experimental spina bifida occulta. BMC Pharmacol. 2001;1:2 pubmed
    ..Normal saline was used as a control and valproic acid (600 mg/kg) as a positive control. The embryos were analyzed for the presence of a spina bifida like NTD...
  3. Lee Y, Solomon L, Rühli F, Schiess R, Ohrström L, Sullivan T, et al. Confirmation of microevolutionary increase in spina bifida occulta among Swiss birth cohorts. Eur Spine J. 2011;20:776-80 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies on the prevalence of spina bifida occulta have indicated a microevolutionary increase in its frequency and possible population differences in the prevalence of the condition...
  4. Miyazato M, Sugaya K, Nishijima S, Owan T, Ogawa Y. Location of spina bifida occulta and ultrasonographic bladder abnormalities predict the outcome of treatment for primary nocturnal enuresis in children. Int J Urol. 2007;14:33-8 pubmed
    We examined whether the existence of spina bifida occulta or ultrasonographic bladder abnormalities was related to the outcome of treatment for primary nocturnal enuresis in children.
  5. Yuan Z, Cheng W, Hou A, Wang W, Zhang S, Liu D, et al. Constipation is associated with spina bifida occulta in children. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;6:1348-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Spina bifida occulta (SBO) is a common developmental variant. The aim of this study was to re-examine the possible association between SBO and constipation in children.
  6. Nejat F, Radmanesh F, Ansari S, Tajik P, Kajbafzadeh A, El Khashab M. Spina bifida occulta: is it a predictor of underlying spinal cord abnormality in patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction?. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2008;1:114-7 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the importance of spina bifida occulta in radiographs of children with lower urinary tract or bowel dysfunction.
  7. Samuel M, Boddy S. Is spina bifida occulta associated with lower urinary tract dysfunction in children?. J Urol. 2004;171:2664-6 pubmed
    ..malformations of the central nervous system 46% are abnormalities of the spinal cord, which includes spina bifida occulta. The occurrence and significance of spina bifida occulta in children with lower urinary tract and bowel ..
  8. Sairyo K, Goel V, Vadapalli S, Vishnubhotla S, Biyani A, Ebraheim N, et al. Biomechanical comparison of lumbar spine with or without spina bifida occulta. A finite element analysis. Spinal Cord. 2006;44:440-4 pubmed
    ..Biomechanical study using finite element model (FEM) of lumbar spine...
  9. Kumar P, Aneja S, Kumar R, Taluja V. Spina bifida occulta in functional enuresis. Indian J Pediatr. 2005;72:223-5 pubmed
    To study incidence of spina bifida occulta in nocturnal enuresis cases and to compare outcome of enuresis with spina bifida occulta and enuresis without spina bifida occulta.

More Information

Publications62

  1. Van Aalst J, Beuls E, Cornips E, Vanormelingen L, Vandersteen M, Weber J, et al. Anatomy and surgery of the infected dermal sinus of the lower spine. Childs Nerv Syst. 2006;22:1307-15 pubmed
    ..The clinical, radiological, and surgical findings in four cases of an infected dermal sinus located at the lower spine are presented to elucidate the pathological anatomical configuration...
  2. Pittman T. Spina bifida occulta. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2008;1:113; discussion 113 pubmed publisher
  3. Chiles W, Kumar U. Massive stone formation in a Kock pouch. J Ark Med Soc. 2003;100:32-3 pubmed
  4. Arai H. [Lumbosacral lipomas]. No Shinkei Geka. 2004;32:1019-26 pubmed
  5. Blatter S, Min K, Huber H, Ramseier L. Spontaneous reduction of spondylolisthesis during growth: a case report. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2012;21:160-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This case report indicates that during growth, spontaneous reversion of vertebral slip in isthmic spondylolisthesis can occur, even without healing of the pars defect...
  6. Metcalfe P, Luerssen T, King S, Kaefer M, Meldrum K, Cain M, et al. Treatment of the occult tethered spinal cord for neuropathic bladder: results of sectioning the filum terminale. J Urol. 2006;176:1826-9; discussion 1830 pubmed
    ..We present a large series with excellent clinical followup, neuroimaging and urodynamic characterization...
  7. Kannu P, Furneaux C, Aftimos S. Familial lipomyelomeningocele: a further report. Am J Med Genet A. 2005;132A:90-2 pubmed
    Lipomyelomeningocele is a form of spina bifida occulta with a distinct pathogenesis that differentiates it from open neural tube defects. Familial forms are rare and the condition may be polygenic...
  8. Akiba S, Nomoto Y, Ooyabu T, Hujimoto Y, Shimada I, Satoh T, et al. [New monitoring method for the pudental nerve during surgery: cases of intraoperative monitoring for lumbo-sacral lipomeningocele]. No Shinkei Geka. 2004;32:223-9 pubmed
    ..The postoperative neurological findings of all five patients were unchanged. We introduce here this new method of intraoperative monitoring for preserving the pudental nerve...
  9. Vital D, Krayenbuhl N, Bozinov O, Holzmann D. Access to the crista galli and the foramen caecum in nasal dermal sinus cysts - lessons learned in a single tertiary care centre. Rhinology. 2013;51:47-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study is to describe the evolution to this approach and compare the results with those achieved with our experience of more traditional techniques...
  10. Cayli S, Kocak A, Onal C. An unusual presentation of occult spinal dysraphism. J Neurosurg Sci. 2002;46:39-41; discussion 41 pubmed
    ..We report a case with bony spur formation on the top of the 5th lumbar vertebra spinose process covered with skin mimicking a meningocel sac. By the help of this bony spur tethered cord could be diagnosed before any neurological deficit...
  11. de Jong L, Van Der Aa F, De Ridder D, Van Calenbergh F. Extrusion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter through an appendicovesicostomy. Br J Neurosurg. 2011;25:115-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Perforation into different organs or through natural or artificial orifices has been described. In this case, the shunt catheter has extruded through a Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy...
  12. Lapsiwala S, Iskandar B. The tethered cord syndrome in adults with spina bifida occulta. Neurol Res. 2004;26:735-40 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we review the major publications that discuss the congenital tethered spinal cord (spina bifida occulta) presenting in adulthood...
  13. Iijima S, Ohzeki T. A rare cutaneous sign of occult spinal dysraphism with tethered spinal cord. World J Pediatr. 2008;4:234 pubmed publisher
  14. Taskaynatan M, Izci Y, Ozgul A, Hazneci B, Dursun H, Kalyon T. Clinical significance of congenital lumbosacral malformations in young male population with prolonged low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005;30:E210-3 pubmed
    ..A prospective clinical investigation...
  15. Aryan H, Jandial R, Farin A, Chen J, Granville R, Levy M. Intradural cranial congenital dermal sinuses: diagnosis and management. Childs Nerv Syst. 2006;22:243-7; discussion 248 pubmed
    ..The congenital dermal sinus (CDS) is a benign tumor-like entity that has unique anatomical and clinical features. We retrospectively examined our data to determine factors associated with adverse outcomes for cranial-based dermal sinuses...
  16. Lulla C, Hegde A, Shah J, Sheth J. Early antenatal diagnosis of spina bifida presenting with a "step" in the posterior contour of an 8-week embryo. J Clin Ultrasound. 2008;36:384-6 pubmed
    ..The presence of a "step" in the fetal contour must alert the sonologist to the possibility of spina bifida. To our knowledge, this is the earliest antenatal diagnosis of spina bifida...
  17. Amirjamshidi A, Abbassioun K, Shirani Bidabadi M. Skin-covered midline spinal anomalies: a report of four rare cases with a discussion on their genesis and milestones in surgical management. Childs Nerv Syst. 2006;22:460-5 pubmed
  18. Paik N. Bilateral cervical spondylolysis of C7. Spine J. 2010;10:e10-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The sixth cervical vertebra (C6) is the level most commonly affected. Cases involving C2, C3, C4, or C5 have also been reported. However, to date, no case of C7 spondylolysis has been reported...
  19. Martínez Lage J, Pérez Espejo M, Tortosa J, Ros De San Pedro J, Ruiz Espejo A. Hydrocephalus in intraspinal dermoids and dermal sinuses: the spectrum of an uncommon association in children. Childs Nerv Syst. 2006;22:698-703 pubmed
    ..The accepted mechanisms for this association seem to be well established. On the contrary, hydrocephalus in the context of intraspinal dermoids has been rarely recognized and its pathogenetic mechanism appears to be different...
  20. Qi S, Zheng J, Lu Z, Li K, Chen L, Xiao X. Lateral buttock and postanal congenital dermal sinus tract. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45:e23-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulate that this disease may not always have a connection with the central nervous system, and our cases may provide examples of anal fistulas of congenital etiology in infants...
  21. Jiang Y, Xi Y, Ye X, Xu G, He H, Zhu Y. A cervical myelopathy caused by invaginated anomaly of laminae of the axis in spina bifida occulta with hypoplasia of the atlas: case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:E351-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A case report and review of previous literature are presented...
  22. Kanev P, Salazar J. Unusual CNS infection from a subtorcular dermal sinus. Acta Paediatr. 2010;99:627-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Cultures obtained from CSF and posterior fossa subdural empyema were positive for both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. To the authors's knowledge, this is the first such report...
  23. Tufan K, Cekinmez M, Sener L, Erdogan B. Infected lumbar dermoid cyst presenting with tetraparesis secondary to holocord central lesion. J Child Neurol. 2008;23:934-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The pathomechanism of holocord central lesion is discussed herein...
  24. Panigrahi I, Saxena A, Marwaha R. Congenital scoliosis, supernumerary nipples and spina bifida occulta. Clin Dysmorphol. 2008;17:215-8 pubmed publisher
  25. Hama S, Takata Y, Sakai T, Higashino K, Abe M, Nagamachi A, et al. Sacral fatigue fractures in children with sacral spina bifida occulta. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2016;25:278-82 pubmed publisher
    In this report, we present two cases of 9-year-old children with spina bifida occulta (SBO) of the sacrum, who were diagnosed with sacral fatigue fractures...
  26. Kalra V, Palaksha H. Incidental spina bifida occulta in functional enuresis observed during laser reflexo therapy. J Child Neurol. 1999;14:541-3 pubmed
    ..preceding a trial of laser reflexo therapy in functional enuretic children aged 7 to 10 years spina bifida occulta was observed in 86.6% of subjects. The lesions were predominantly at the L5-6 level...
  27. Wu Y, Croen L, Henning L, Najjar D, Schembri M, Croughan M. Potential association between infertility and spinal neural tube defects in offspring. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2006;76:718-22 pubmed
    ..We examined the possible association between infertility and spinal neural tube defects (NTDs)...
  28. van der Meulen W, Hoving E, Staal Schreinemacher A, Begeer J. Analysis of different treatment modalities of tethered cord syndrome. Childs Nerv Syst. 2002;18:513-7 pubmed
    ..Although MRI has improved the diagnosis of tethered cord, many controversies still exist in the treatment of tethered cord syndrome (TCS). Especially the indications for and timing of surgical release have remained topics of discussion...
  29. Ucar D, Omeroglu H, Eren A, Inan M, Baktir A, Aksoy M, et al. Occult spinal dysraphism and its association with hip dysplasia in females. Int Orthop. 2003;27:70-2 pubmed
    ..In males, there was no significant difference between the recorded findings in the two groups. In females with hip dysplasia, occult spinal dysraphism seems to be fairly common...
  30. Mayo Moldes M, Villalaín Pérez C, Moreno Gázquez A, Angel Ricart A. [Obstetric epidural analgesia in a case of spinal bifida occulta]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2004;51:404-5 pubmed
  31. Holschbach V, Lattrich C, Ortmann O, Muller A, Germer U. Upper abdominal cysts in first trimester fetuses. Ultraschall Med. 2012;33:E372-E373 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, one should be aware that postnatal gastrointestinal complications have been described in a few cases, even if the cyst had resolved spontaneously in utero...
  32. Nayeemuddin M, Richards P, Ahmed E. The imaging and management of nonconsecutive pars interarticularis defects: a case report and review of literature. Spine J. 2011;11:1157-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiple-level spondylolysis involving consecutive lower lumbar segments are rare. Several authors have reported failure of conservative treatment in the management of multiple-level pars fractures...
  33. Kanev P. Congenital malformations of the skull and meninges. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2007;40:9-26, v pubmed
    ..The reconstruction of meningoencephaloceles and craniosynostosis are challenging procedures that transform the child's appearance. The embryology, clinical presentation, and surgical management of these malformations are reviewed...
  34. Wallace D, Tress B, Kwan P. Radiologically atypical congenital posterior fossa dermoid cyst presenting late in life. J Clin Neurosci. 2008;15:835-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Pathological study revealed a dermoid cyst. Post-operatively, her hydrocephalus persisted and a ventriculo-atrial shunt was inserted with excellent functional recovery...
  35. Morimoto K, Takemoto O, Nakamura H, Takeuchi M. Spinal dermal sinus associated with intramedullary abscess and dermoid. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2003;39:225-6 pubmed
  36. Harris S, Ross A. Detecting an undiagnosed case of nonsyndromic facial dysmorphism using geometric morphometrics. J Forensic Sci. 2008;53:1308-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Results show significant differences suggesting a nonsyndromic form of craniosynostosis...
  37. Viskova H, Calda P, Zizka Z, Vaneckova M, Hoza D, Zuntova A. Prenatal diagnosis of occipital dermal sinus associated with hemangioma using ultrasound and MRI. Case report. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2006;21:232-4 pubmed
    ..We report a case of prenatal diagnosis and postpartum management of a subcutaneous tumor without intracranial communication...
  38. Hogendorf A, Kosińska Urbańska M, Borowiec M, Antosik K, Wyka K, Młynarski W. Atypical phenotypic features among carriers of a novel Q248X nonsense mutation in the HNF1B gene. Endokrynol Pol. 2015;66:15-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The index subject was a 13-year-old boy with metabolic syndrome, spina bifida occulta, posterior urethral valves, congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction, and a family history of diabetes ..
  39. Raqbi F, Zerah M, Bodemer C, Lenoir G. [Dermoid cysts revealed by meningitis with medullary compression]. Arch Pediatr. 2001;8:499-503 pubmed
    ..In these sites, the sinus tracts communicate with the dura in 90% of cases, leading to an important risk of meningitis...
  40. Carrillo F, Cubero A, Aladro Y, Hernández Gallego J. [Acute paraparesis associated with dorsal diastematomyelia in an adult]. Rev Neurol. 1996;24:290-2 pubmed
  41. Mooney J, Hall J, Emans J, Millis M, Kasser J. Spinal deformity associated with neurenteric cysts in children. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1994;19:1445-50 pubmed
    ..Little is known regarding the natural history of these cysts and associated spinal deformity in children. Five patients with these cysts managed at the authors' institution from 1955 to 1993 were reviewed...
  42. Martínez Lage J, Villarejo Ortega F, Galarza M, Felipe Murcia M, Almagro M. [Coccygeal dermal sinus: Clinical relevance and management]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2010;73:352-6 pubmed publisher
    ..With this work we aimed to search for the most relevant clinical features that might indicate an intradural penetration of the lesions and that may advise performing neuroimaging studies and a paediatric neurosurgical consultation...
  43. Roudgari H, Farndon P, Murray A, Hardy C, Miedzybrodzka Z. Is PATCHED an important candidate gene for neural tube defects? Cranial and thoracic neural tube defects in a family with Gorlin syndrome: a case report. Clin Genet. 2012;82:71-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Spina bifida occulta and bifid vertebrae are well recognized in NBCCS, but there appears to be only one report of open spina ..
  44. Fletcher J, Brei T. Introduction: Spina bifida--a multidisciplinary perspective. Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2010;16:1-5 pubmed publisher
  45. Tubbs R, Bui C, Loukas M, Shoja M, Oakes W. The horizontal sacrum as an indicator of the tethered spinal cord in spina bifida aperta and occulta. Neurosurg Focus. 2007;23:E11 pubmed
  46. Arad E, Barnea Y, Gur E, Amir A, Leshem D, Zaretski A, et al. Paravertebral turnover flaps for closure of large spinal defects following tethered cord repair. Ann Plast Surg. 2006;57:642-5 pubmed
    ..We conclude that fascial or myofascial paravertebral turnover flaps provide reliable coverage of difficult defects of the spinal CNS...
  47. Liljenqvist U. [The natural history of congenital defects and deformities of the spine (I)]. Versicherungsmedizin. 2004;56:174-7 pubmed
    ..However, it remains unclear whether this is the case in individuals with a spina bifida occulta. Defects of segmentation or formation alter the biomechanical loading of the spine, especially in cases of ..
  48. Buyse G, Van Calenbergh F, Choux M, Demaerel P, Sciot R, Verpoorten C. Segmental spinal cord hypoplasia and meningocele with preservation of medullary function: case report. Surg Neurol. 2003;59:505-7; discussion 508 pubmed
    ..In very rare dysraphic cases, it is not clear whether the primary abnormalities are in the neural elements, or in the bony elements...
  49. Wilson D, Wyatt D. Ultrastructural defects in the apical neural folds in mutant embryos with spina bifida. Acta Neuropathol. 1989;79:94-100 pubmed
    ..However, it is possible that they represent aberrant putative neural crest cells, as indicated by their location in the transitional zone and by the filopodia and lamellipodia projecting from their luminal surfaces...
  50. Secer M, Muradov J, Dalgic A. Evaluation of congenital lumbosacral malformations and neurological findings in patients with low back pain. Turk Neurosurg. 2009;19:145-8 pubmed
    ..e. spina bifida occulta (SBO) and transitional vertebra (TV)...
  51. Apel K, Sgouros S. Extradural spinal arachnoid cysts associated with spina bifida occulta. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2006;148:221-6 pubmed
    Spinal extradural arachnoid cysts are an uncommon cause of neural compression in children. Even more uncommon is the association of such cysts with spina bifida occulta.
  52. Brender J, Weyer P, Romitti P, Mohanty B, Shinde M, Vuong A, et al. Prenatal nitrate intake from drinking water and selected birth defects in offspring of participants in the national birth defects prevention study. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:1083-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies of prenatal exposure to drinking-water nitrate and birth defects in offspring have not accounted for water consumption patterns or potential interaction with nitrosatable drugs...
  53. Vashi R, Mancini A, Paller A. Primary generalized and localized hypertrichosis in children. Arch Dermatol. 2001;137:877-84 pubmed
    ..To review the causes, presentation, and therapy of primary generalized and localized symmetrical hypertrichosis in children...