penetrating head injuries


Summary: Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.

Top Publications

  1. Reider Groswasser I, Groswasser Z, Ommaya A, Schwab K, Pridgen A, Brown H, et al. Quantitive imaging in late traumatic brain injury. Part I: late imaging parameters in closed and penetrating head injuries. Brain Inj. 2002;16:517-25 pubmed
  2. Agrawal A, Pratap A, Agrawal C, Kumar A, Rupakheti S. Transorbital orbitocranial penetrating injury due to bicycle brake handle in a child. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2007;43:498-500 pubmed
    ..In the present case, a child sustained a penetrating injury with the brake handle of a bicycle due to the accidental fall of the bicycle on him and was managed conservatively...
  3. Williams A, Ling G, Tortella F. Severity level and injury track determine outcome following a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2006;408:183-8 pubmed
  4. Williams A, Wei H, Dave J, Tortella F. Acute and delayed neuroinflammatory response following experimental penetrating ballistic brain injury in the rat. J Neuroinflammation. 2007;4:17 pubmed
    ..Here we characterize and contrast both an acute and delayed phase of inflammation following experimental penetrating ballistic brain injury (PBBI) in rats out to 7 days post-injury...
  5. Elias W, Sansur C, Frysinger R. Sulcal and ventricular trajectories in stereotactic surgery. J Neurosurg. 2009;110:201-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding emphasizes the importance of assiduously planning trajectories and reviewing cases with thorough MR analysis. ..
  6. Splavski B, Vranković D, Saftić R, Muzević D, Kosuta M, Gmajnic R. [Clinical predictors correlated to outcome of war missile penetrating brain injury]. Acta Med Croatica. 2006;60:369-73 pubmed
    ..We assume that early surgery is essential for treatment outcome, although it is not necessary to reoperate for retained fragments. ..
  7. Beltman J, Wilde J. [Diagnostic image (310). A man with a knife in his head]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2007;151:358 pubmed
    ..A 30-year-old man presented with a knife in his head; it had perforated the left temporal area and its point was located in the mouth. After surgical removal of the knife, the patient left the hospital without functional deficits. ..
  8. Martin J, Teff R, Spinella P. Care of pediatric neurosurgical patients in Iraq in 2007: clinical and ethical experience of a field hospital. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010;6:250-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-six of these children were 8 years old or younger. Penetrating head injuries were the most common indication for consultation (22 of 42 patients)...
  9. Cohen J, Rajz G, Itshayek E, Shoshan Y, Umansky F, Gomori J. Endovascular management of traumatic and iatrogenic aneurysms of the pericallosal artery. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg. 2005;102:555-7 pubmed
    Traumatic intracranial aneurysms are rare complications of closed and penetrating head injuries and may also be related to a variety of neurosurgical procedures...

More Information

Publications113 found, 100 shown here

  1. Hoffmann B, Sepehrnia A. Taylored implants for alloplastic cranioplasty--clinical and surgical considerations. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2005;93:127-9 pubmed
    ..Application of this technique is limited by cost, nonetheless it is recommended for extensive reconstruction of the skull. ..
  2. Temkin N. Preventing and treating posttraumatic seizures: the human experience. Epilepsia. 2009;50 Suppl 2:10-3 pubmed publisher
  3. Joly L, Oswald A, Disdet M, Raggueneau J. Difficult endotracheal intubation as a result of penetrating cranio-facial injury by an arrow. Anesth Analg. 2002;94:231-2, table of contents pubmed
    ..Fiberoptic nasal intubation and securing the airway under local anesthesia are described. ..
  4. Hejna P, Safr M. An unusual zip gun suicide--medicolegal and ballistic examination. J Forensic Sci. 2010;55:254-7 pubmed publisher
    ..An undeformed projectile recovered from the victim's head was consistent with the use of the home-made firearm. Following the completion of the investigations and autopsy, the death was classified as a suicide. ..
  5. Pavlidis P, Karakasi M, Birbilis T. Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Screwdriver Assaults: Literature Review and Case Report. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2016;37:291-298 pubmed
    b>Penetrating head injuries due to the use of screwdrivers as wounding agents in acts of interpersonal violence seldom occur...
  6. Bhatjiwale M, Goel A, Muzumdar D. Transnasal intracranial entry of a flying wire fragment. Br J Neurosurg. 2001;15:256-8 pubmed
    ..He soon found that his left nostril was hit and blood trickled from the site. Unsuspected on investigation, a small fragment of the wire was found within the brain. The sequence of events is reported. ..
  7. Roth J, Mayo A, Elran H, Razon N, Kluger Y. Brain injuries caused by spherical bolts. J Neurosurg. 2005;102:864-9 pubmed
    ..Penetrating spherical bolts to the brain may be lethal. Nevertheless, they have unique ballistics that cause highly delineated anatomical damage and minor neurological deficits. ..
  8. Gonzalez Cruz J, Cardenas R, Nanda A. Penetrating orbitocranial injury to the sella: case report and review of the literature. J La State Med Soc. 2007;159:310, 312, 314 pubmed
    ..Broad spectrum antibiotic coverage and early detection and replacement of any hormone deficiency should be instituted. ..
  9. Sabel M, Felsberg J, Messing Jünger M, Neuen Jacob E, Piek J. Glioblastoma multiforme at the site of metal splinter injury: a coincidence? Case report. J Neurosurg. 1999;91:1041-4 pubmed
    ..The temporal and local association of metal splinter injury with chronic abscess, scar formation, and malignant glioma is highly suggestive of a causal relationship between trauma and the development of a malignant brain tumor. ..
  10. Isakov V, Babakhanian A, Tamberg D. [Injuries inflicted by non-barrel self-defense guns]. Sud Med Ekspert. 2005;48:32-4 pubmed
  11. Turkcuoglu P, Aydoğan S. Intracranial foreign body in a globe-perforating injury. Can J Ophthalmol. 2006;41:504-5 pubmed
    ..A high index of suspicion is required to detect an intracranial foreign body in ocular injuries. Orbital CT must be included in preoperative evaluation of these patients and cranial sections must also be examined carefully. ..
  12. Koenigs M, Barbey A, Postle B, Grafman J. Superior parietal cortex is critical for the manipulation of information in working memory. J Neurosci. 2009;29:14980-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that superior parietal cortex is critically important for the manipulation of information in working memory. ..
  13. Mahoney P, Carr D, Delaney R, Hunt N, Harrison S, Breeze J, et al. Does preliminary optimisation of an anatomically correct skull-brain model using simple simulants produce clinically realistic ballistic injury fracture patterns?. Int J Legal Med. 2017;131:1043-1053 pubmed publisher
    ..Limitations of the model include the skull being manufactured in two parts and the lack of a realistic skin layer. Further work is ongoing to address these. ..
  14. Stockmann P, Vairaktaris E, Fenner M, Tudor C, Neukam F, Nkenke E. Conventional radiographs: are they still the standard in localization of projectiles?. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;104:e71-5 pubmed
    ..The use of reference markers should be considered a standard procedure for the localization of radiopaque foreign bodies in the head and neck. ..
  15. Mitilian D, Charon B, Brunelle F, Di Rocco F. Removal of a chopstick out of the cavernous sinus, pons, and cerebellar vermis through the superior orbital fissure. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2009;151:1295-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The foreign body was successfully pulled out in one piece surgically...
  16. Amirjamshidi A, Ghasvini A, Alimohammadi M, Abbassioun K. Attempting homicide by inserting sewing needle into the brain Report of 6 cases and review of literature. Surg Neurol. 2009;72:635-41; discussion 641 pubmed publisher
    ..This may deliver some evidences to the literature regarding management of further cases encountered by neurosurgeons...
  17. Thali M, Schweitzer W, Yen K, Vock P, Ozdoba C, Spielvogel E, et al. New horizons in forensic radiology: the 60-second digital autopsy-full-body examination of a gunshot victim by multislice computed tomography. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2003;24:22-7 pubmed
    ..The "digital autopsy," even when postprocessing time was added, was more rapid than the classic forensic autopsy and, based on the nondestructive approach, offered certain advantages in comparison with the forensic autopsy. ..
  18. von See C, Bormann K, Schumann P, Goetz F, Gellrich N, Rücker M. Forensic imaging of projectiles using cone-beam computed tomography. Forensic Sci Int. 2009;190:38-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, it is superior to MDCT in detecting structural hard-tissue damage in the immediate vicinity of high-density metal projectiles and in identifying the precise location of a projectile in the body. ..
  19. Salar G, Costella G, Mottaran R, Mattana M, Gazzola L, Munari M. Multiple craniocerebral injuries from penetrating nails. Case illustration. J Neurosurg. 2004;100:963 pubmed
  20. Bilotta F, Rosa G, Delfini R, Pinto R, Fiorani B. Unrecognized periorbital penetrating nail in the brain: case report. Am J Emerg Med. 2007;25:198-9 pubmed
  21. Onyekwe L, Ohaegbulam S. Penetrating orbito-cranial and ocular cow-horn injuries. Niger J Clin Pract. 2007;10:177-9 pubmed
    ..This uncommon cause of unilateral visual loss can be prevented if slaughtering of cows are done by trained and appropriately equipped personnel. ..
  22. Spencer A. John F Kennedy's tracheostomy. J Am Coll Surg. 2006;202:857-8 pubmed
  23. Zdravkovic M, Milic M, Stojanovic M, Kostov M. Three cases of death caused by shots from blank cartridge. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2009;30:403-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The cases demonstrate that the gas pressure from the exploding propellant of blank cartridge is powerful enough to penetrate the thoracic wall and the skull. ..
  24. Trivelato F, Rezende M, Fonseca L, Bonadio L, Ulhôa A, Abud D. Pipeline embolization device for the treatment of a traumatic intracranial aneurysm in a child. Childs Nerv Syst. 2017;33:869-872 pubmed publisher
    ..In such scenario the use of flow diverter devices would be an alternative approach. Additionally, we discuss the potential advantages and risks of flow diverter deployment inside a developing vessel. ..
  25. Mataro M, Jurado M, Garcia Sanchez C, Barraquer L, Costa Jussà F, Junque C. Long-term effects of bilateral frontal brain lesion: 60 years after injury with an iron bar. Arch Neurol. 2001;58:1139-42 pubmed
    ..In addition to the localization of the lesion, many other factors should be considered in the long-term prognosis of frontal brain injured patients. ..
  26. Iwakura M, Kawaguchi T, Hosoda K, Shibata Y, Komatsu H, Yanagisawa A, et al. Knife blade penetrating stab wound to the brain--case report--. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2005;45:172-5 pubmed
    ..Brain stab wounds cause numerous complications, such as intracranial hemorrhage, injury of important vessels, and infections. Minimal blade movement during removal and precautions to prevent massive hemorrhage are essential. ..
  27. Izci Y, Kayali H, Daneyemez M, Koksel T. Comparison of clinical outcomes between anteroposterior and lateral penetrating craniocerebral gunshot wounds. Emerg Med J. 2005;22:409-10 pubmed
    ..Mortality rate was 25% in the anteroposterior and 83% in the lateral injury group. We found that lateral PCGW is the most devastating type of missile injury to the head. ..
  28. Rothschild M, Schneider V. Gunshot wound to the head with full recovery. Int J Legal Med. 2000;113:349-51 pubmed
    ..He is now working again at his old profession (managing director) and the projectile is still lodged in the right temporal lobe. ..
  29. Horvat A, Schwaiger F, Hager G, Brocker F, Streif R, Knyazev P, et al. A novel role for protein tyrosine phosphatase shp1 in controlling glial activation in the normal and injured nervous system. J Neurosci. 2001;21:865-74 pubmed
    ..These results emphasize that SHP1 as a part of different signaling pathways plays an important role in the global regulation of astrocytic and microglial activation in the normal and injured CNS...
  30. Molin I, Averkin A, Aleksina L, Gorshkov A, Kovalev A. [Forensic and ballistic aspects of gunshot injury of M. I. Kutuzov in 1788]. Sud Med Ekspert. 2002;45:41-6 pubmed
  31. Ordia J. Brain impalement by an angle metal bar. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2009;111:368-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The surgical treatment of the injury and the medical management of complications are described in detail. The patient made a good recovery although he has functional deficits related to the injury to his frontal lobes. ..
  32. Erbayraktar S, Gokmen N, Acar U. Intracranial penetrating injury associated with an intraoperative epidural haematoma caused by a spring-laden pin of a multipoise headrest. Br J Neurosurg. 2001;15:425-8 pubmed
    ..Checking integrity of internal pieces should be performed regularly. Designing intermediary piece and spring as a single piece might increase safety. ..
  33. Cox M, Whittaker D, Martinez C, Fox C, Feuerstein I, Gillespie D. Traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the head and neck: early endovascular intervention. J Vasc Surg. 2007;46:1227-33 pubmed
    ..Pseudoaneurysms are the most frequent finding on delayed evaluation and can result in life-threatening episodes of rebleeding...
  34. Groen A. [Skid marks]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2008;152:577-8 pubmed
  35. Shear D, Williams A, Sharrow K, Lu X, Tortella F. Neuroprotective profile of dextromethorphan in an experimental model of penetrating ballistic-like brain injury. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009;94:56-62 pubmed publisher
  36. Muzumdar D, Higgins M, Ventureyra E. Intrauterine penetrating direct fetal head trauma following gunshot injury: a case report and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst. 2006;22:398-402 pubmed
    ..The pathogenesis, management, and medicolegal issues pertaining to the above case are discussed, and the relevant literature is briefly reviewed. ..
  37. Leach P, Rutherford S, Pickett G, Thorne J. An unusual cause of light headedness. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2005;147:1301 pubmed
  38. Gloulou F, Allouche M, Khelil M, Bekir O, Banasr A, Zhioua M, et al. Unusual suicides with band saws: two case reports and a literature review. Forensic Sci Int. 2009;183:e7-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We summarize the findings of the death scene investigations, the pertinent autopsy findings, and also summarize the world literature pertaining to suicide committed with power saws. ..
  39. Sarkar D, Demma A, Stulz D, Hsue G. Expect the unexpected: two cases of penetrating head and neck trauma from Operation Iraqi Freedom. Ear Nose Throat J. 2009;88:E19-21 pubmed
    ..S. soldier with a round lodged in her right superolateral orbit. Both cases were transferred to combat support hospitals for further treatment after our initial assessment and treatment, and both had successful outcomes. ..
  40. Tsuei Y, Sun M, Lee H, Chiang M, Leu C, Cheng W, et al. Civilian gunshot wounds to the brain. J Chin Med Assoc. 2005;68:126-30 pubmed
    ..We present our experience with 16 patients who sustained gunshot wounds to the brain, and then identify factors determining the respective outcomes...
  41. Abdoli A, Amirjamshidi A. Work-related penetrating head trauma caused by industrial grinder tool. Arch Iran Med. 2009;12:496-8 pubmed
    ..Skill and experience of the general neurosurgeons can handle the cases properly but prevention of such incidents using safer and guarded instruments should be stressed to manufacturers. ..
  42. Shields L, Hunsaker J, Stewart D. Russian roulette and risk-taking behavior: a medical examiner study. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2008;29:32-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the presumed intent of the risky act is to survive, Russian roulette is deemed to be suicide, which is based on a comprehensive understanding of the inherently deliberate, volitional actions of the decedent. ..
  43. Bell R, Mossop C, Dirks M, Stephens F, Mulligan L, Ecker R, et al. Early decompressive craniectomy for severe penetrating and closed head injury during wartime. Neurosurg Focus. 2010;28:E1 pubmed publisher
  44. Sanaei Zadeh H, Aghakhani K, Saidi H. Orbito-cerebral penetrating knife-wound. J Clin Forensic Med. 2006;13:146-7 pubmed
    ..An orbit-cerebral knife wound is described. Reasons for variation in outcome art discussed...
  45. Miyamoto S, Ide T, Takemura N. Risks and causes of cervical cord and medulla oblongata injuries due to acupuncture. World Neurosurg. 2010;73:735-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Embedded needles in the brain should be urgently removed if possible. Both embedded needle acupuncture and self-acupuncture are extremely dangerous and hazardous to health. ..
  46. Voisin M, Sasikumar S, Russell J, Zadeh G. One and a half syndrome following penetrating head injury: Case report. J Clin Neurosci. 2017;41:88-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This case demonstrates the importance of the clinical exam, and its benefit in localizing imaging findings and guiding treatment. ..
  47. Bayston R, de Louvois J, Brown E, Johnston R, Lees P, Pople I. Use of antibiotics in penetrating craniocerebral injuries. "Infection in Neurosurgery" Working Party of British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Lancet. 2000;355:1813-7 pubmed
    ..Broad-spectrum antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for both military and civilian PCCI, Including those due to sports or recreational injuries...
  48. Hotz G, Stewart K, Petrin D, Villanueva P, Cohn S, Nedd K, et al. Neurobehavioural outcomes of penetrating and tangential gunshot wounds to the head. Brain Inj. 2000;14:649-57 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to compare penetrating and tangential gunshot wounds to the head with regards to demographic, neurobehavioural and clinical outcome measures...
  49. Boodhoo H, Nadvi S, Nathoo N. Longstanding retained foreign bodies in the cranium: a short case report. Cent Afr J Med. 2001;47:182-4 pubmed
    ..This report emphasizes the importance of maintaining clinical suspicion in mild head injured patients presenting with open scalp wounds, and the value of skull radiographs...
  50. Yen K, Thali M, Kneubuehl B, Peschel O, Zollinger U, Dirnhofer R. Blood-spatter patterns: hands hold clues for the forensic reconstruction of the sequence of events. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2003;24:132-40 pubmed
    ..Therefore, in shooting incidents, analysis and documentation of blood-spatter findings on the hands is recommended before hands are tested for gunpowder residue or wrapped for the transport of the body...
  51. Cernak I. Animal models of head trauma. NeuroRx. 2005;2:410-22 pubmed
    ..Thus, a search continues for new animal models, which would more closely mimic the highly heterogeneous nature of human TBI, and address key factors in treatment optimization...
  52. Kieser J, Bernal V, Gonzalez P, Birch W, Turmaine M, Ichim I. Analysis of experimental cranial skin wounding from screwdriver trauma. Int J Legal Med. 2008;122:179-87 pubmed
    ..SEM evaluation of wounds created by a new and worn straight-head screwdrivers shows that the outline of the worn screwdriver head is reflected in the shape of the wound it created...
  53. Tudor M, Tudor L, Tudor K, Buca A, Cambi Sapunar L, Carija R, et al. [Unusual open craniocerebral injury caused by sickle's tip]. Acta Med Croatica. 2008;62:85-8 pubmed
    ..Broad spectrum antibiotics were administered after antitetanic prophylaxis. Postoperative course was uneventful especially regarding infection. One year after the accident she goes normaly to school...
  54. Nilsson L, Bales K, DiCarlo G, Gordon M, Morgan D, Paul S, et al. Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin promotes beta-sheet amyloid plaque deposition in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci. 2001;21:1444-51 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that ACT promotes amyloid deposition and provide a specific mechanism by which inflammation and the subsequent upregulation of astrocytic ACT expression in AD brain contributes to AD pathogenesis...
  55. Onizuka M, Kaminogo M, Fujita H, Irie N, Shibata S. [Penetrating head injury caused by an icepick]. No Shinkei Geka. 2001;29:1101-5 pubmed
    ..The icepick was removed completely without difficulty. In penetrating head injuries, early assessment with cerebral angiography to determine the extent of vascular injury is useful for ..
  56. Suzuki H, Saitoh K, Inoue S, Hirabayashi Y, Seo N. Rapid sequence induction for penetrating head injury from a chopstick in a paediatric patient. Paediatr Anaesth. 2002;12:88-9 pubmed
  57. Mandat T, Potakiewicz Z, Bolewski J, Matuszewska A, Podgorski J. [Posttraumatic visual agnosia and epilepsy as a consequence of gunshot injury to the head. Case report]. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2002;36:403-11 pubmed
    ..During the treatment extremely infrequently occurring posttraumatic visual agnosia and posttraumatic epilepsy were observed. Twenty-two months after operation the patient is independent and professionally active...
  58. Jackowski C, Thali M, Sonnenschein M, Aghayev E, Yen K, Dirnhofer R, et al. Visualization and quantification of air embolism structure by processing postmortem MSCT data. J Forensic Sci. 2004;49:1339-42 pubmed
    ..Excellent 3D visualization of the air within the vascular system was obtained in all cases, and the intravascular gas volume was quantified...
  59. Raul J, Deck C, Meyer F, Geraut A, Willinger R, Ludes B. A finite element model investigation of gunshot injury. Int J Legal Med. 2007;121:143-6 pubmed
    ..In this paper, using a finite element model of the human head, we demonstrate that no incapacitation or backwards hurling can occur from a gunshot fired between the eyes which did not enter the cerebrum...
  60. Gallo P, Mazza C, Sala F. Intrauterine head stab wound injury resulting in a growing skull fracture: a case report and literature review. Childs Nerv Syst. 2010;26:377-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Penetrating injuries of the gravid uterus are rare complications of pregnancy with gunshot wounds most common than stab wounds. Fetal head injury is an unusual sequela of these penetrating traumas...
  61. Hoover D, Mahmood A. Ossification of autologous pericranium used in duraplasty. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2001;95:350-2 pubmed
    ..Pericranium is an attractive material for duraplasty; however, its osteogenic potential may interfere with future cranioplasty and cosmesis. This may be especially relevant in young persons...
  62. Ventura F, Blasi C, Celesti R. Suicide with the latest type of slaughterer's gun. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2002;23:326-8 pubmed
  63. Levy M, Sullivan D, Faccio R, Grossman R. A neuroforensic analysis of the wounds of President John F. Kennedy: Part 2--A study of the available evidence, eyewitness correlations, analysis, and conclusions. Neurosurgery. 2004;54:1298-310; discussion 1311-2 pubmed
    ..The final article of the series will relate the wounds to the timing of the shots and the location of the President as his limousine traversed Dealey Plaza and will discuss the sites from which the bullets could have been fired...
  64. Murano T, Mohr A, Lavery R, Lynch C, Homnick A, Livingston D. Civilian craniocerebral gunshot wounds: an update in predicting outcomes. Am Surg. 2005;71:1009-14 pubmed
    ..This is not only important in determining treatment algorithms for physicians but also for appropriate counseling of family members to educate them with regard to patients' outcomes...
  65. Bragg S. Head trauma from a nail gun. J Emerg Nurs. 2006;32:329 pubmed
  66. Kumar A, Singh H, Sharma K. Penetrating head injury from a pedestal fan rotor blade in a child - an unusual case. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2006;42:391-4 pubmed
    b>Penetrating head injuries in children constitute only a small part of the total number of traumatic head injuries seen in casualty...
  67. Winder M, Monteith S, Lightfoot N, Mee E. Penetrating head injury from nailguns: a case series from New Zealand. J Clin Neurosci. 2008;15:18-25 pubmed
    ..Prognostic factors on initial imaging are discussed. The majority of injuries, despite being visually impressive, are associated with minimal neurological impairment...
  68. Kumar A, Shankar R, Pandey R, Keshri V, Singh K, Sharma V. Five years' experience at a single centre of craniocerebral injury from winnowing fan blades. J Clin Neurosci. 2010;17:178-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism and nature of the injuries, operative methods, outcome and methods of prevention are discussed with special reference to the occurrence of this type of injury in the pediatric population...
  69. Makkat S, Vandevenne J, Parizel P, De Schepper A. Multiple growing fractures and cerebral venous anomaly after penetrating injuries: delayed diagnosis in a battered child. Pediatr Radiol. 2001;31:381-3 pubmed
    ..Medical expertise should be more readily available to battered children, and MR imaging is advocated in growing skull fracture to exclude associated post-traumatic brain lesions...
  70. Cameron D. Craniocerebral gunshot injuries. S Afr Med J. 2002;92:9-10; author reply 10 pubmed
  71. Roganovic Z. Missile-caused ulnar nerve injuries: outcomes of 128 repairs. Neurosurgery. 2004;55:1120-9 pubmed
    ..This prospective study presents repair results after missile-caused ulnar nerve ruptures as well as factors influencing the outcomes...
  72. Aslan S, Uzkeser M, Katirci Y, Cakir Z, Bilir O, Bilge F, et al. Air guns: toys or weapons?. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2006;27:260-2 pubmed
    ..The cases indicate that these people had used the guns belonging to their parents for the purpose of suicide. The cases also show that these machines are not innocent...
  73. Finkel M. The neurological consequences of explosives. J Neurol Sci. 2006;249:63-7 pubmed
    ..This article reviews and explains how the ensuing chain of circumstances injures the nervous system, and what examining physicians should anticipate when they treat these patients...
  74. Kim T, Lee J, Moon K, Kwak H, Joo S, Kim J, et al. Penetrating gunshot injuries to the brain. J Trauma. 2007;62:1446-51 pubmed
    ..Civilian gunshot injuries to the brain are relatively rare and study of these injuries has been neglected in South Korea...
  75. Allaire M, Manhein M. Suicide by blasting caps: a case study of rare cranial trauma. J Forensic Sci. 2008;53:1313-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this case, cooperation among the law enforcement agency, coroner's investigators, the forensic pathologist, and forensic anthropologists provided a comprehensive death case analysis...
  76. Wertheimer J, Hanks R, Hasenau D. Comparing functional status and community integration in severe penetrating and motor vehicle-related brain injuries. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;89:1983-90 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the functional status of persons surviving a severe penetrating traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting from a gunshot wound who require inpatient rehabilitation...
  77. Hartwig S, Tsokos M, Schmidt S, Byard R. Self-constructed shooting devices utilizing manually-impacted firing-pins (suicide machines). Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2010;31:192-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the unusual and cumbersome nature of the firing mechanism in the reported cases, it is likely that these firearms were specifically manufactured for the purpose of suicide...
  78. Stephens F, Mossop C, Bell R, Tigno T, Rosner M, Kumar A, et al. Cranioplasty complications following wartime decompressive craniectomy. Neurosurg Focus. 2010;28:E3 pubmed publisher
    ..With this situation in mind, the authors of this paper endeavored to review the cranial reconstruction complications encountered in these combat-related injuries...
  79. O Loughlin M, Criddle L. A case of penetrating head trauma in an 8-month-old. J Emerg Nurs. 2003;29:189-90 pubmed
  80. Komolafe E, Olateju O, Adeolu A. Gun burner injury: a peculiar accidental self-inflicted missile head injury. Br J Neurosurg. 2004;18:233-9 pubmed
    ..Accidental injuries from stray bullets are fairly common; however, self-inflicted injuries are usually due to the improper handling of firearms, particularly by novices, suicide attempts and faulty technology of locally made firearms...
  81. Karabatsou K, Kandasamy J, Kandasami J, Rainov N. Self-inflicted penetrating head injury in a patient with manic-depressive disorder. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2005;26:174-6 pubmed
    ..This is a rare case of unusual and complex repetitive self-destructive behavior without apparent suicidal intent. The pertinent literature is reviewed and the surgical and psychiatric implications of such injuries are discussed...
  82. Lauterbach A, Hausmann R, Betz P. Fatal impalement injury of the head due to a curtain rail. Int J Legal Med. 2006;120:380-2 pubmed
    ..According to the calculated data, we conclude that the velocity necessary for penetrating could be reached by throwing the curtain rail...
  83. Lawson Smith M, Smith S, Leach J, Cadoux Hudson T. Lateral medullary syndrome caused by penetrating head injury. J Clin Neurosci. 2006;13:792-4 pubmed
    Herein, we report a rare case of a patient surviving penetrating trauma to the brainstem. Low velocity penetrating head injuries may be occult and are associated with a high incidence of vascular injury.
  84. Peek Asa C, McArthur D, Hovda D, Kraus J. Early predictors of mortality in penetrating compared with closed brain injury. Brain Inj. 2001;15:801-10 pubmed
    ..This study compares mortality amongst persons with penetrating and closed brain injuries and explores the relationship of early predictors of mortality...
  85. Prayer D, Rametsteiner C. [Acute head trauma: diagnostic imaging]. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2001;151:496-501 pubmed
    ..Image interpretation has been performed in the context of typical pathologic effects of trauma and with respect to potential therapy...
  86. Kuhne C, Zettl R, Baume B, Vogt F, Taeger G, Ruchholtz S, et al. [Penetrating gunshot injuries to the head and brain. Diagnosis, management and prognosis]. Unfallchirurg. 2007;110:341-9; quiz 350 pubmed
    ..Debridement of the bullet's path and removal of the projectile are more controversial. Mortality is extremely high after such injuries; if the victim does survive the prognosis is comparable to that following closed cranial injuries...
  87. Liu W, Ma L, Mao B. A delayed frontorbital abscess caused by a penetrating nonmissile foreign body (a bamboo stick). Neurol India. 2009;57:208-10 pubmed publisher
    ..A parietal craniotomy was performed, and the brain abscess was resected along with the foreign body without any damage to the surrounding brain tissue. He also received the appropriate antibiotics. The child made a good recovery...
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    ..The nails were removed with the patient under general anesthesia, and he made an uncomplicated recovery with no neurological deficits...
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    ..This basic knowledge can be applied to better understand the ultimate craniocerebral consequences of ballistic head injuries...