trigeminal ganglion


Summary: The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.

Top Publications

  1. Neeb L, Hellen P, Boehnke C, Hoffmann J, Schuh Hofer S, Dirnagl U, et al. IL-1? stimulates COX-2 dependent PGE? synthesis and CGRP release in rat trigeminal ganglia cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17360 pubmed publisher
    ..The trigeminal ganglion and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are crucial components in the pathophysiology of primary ..
  2. Takeda M, Tsuboi Y, Kitagawa J, Nakagawa K, Iwata K, Matsumoto S. Potassium channels as a potential therapeutic target for trigeminal neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Mol Pain. 2011;7:5 pubmed publisher
    ..pain animal models, particularly the relationship between changes in Kv channels and the excitability of trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons...
  3. Iliff J, Fairbanks S, Balkowiec A, Alkayed N. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids are endogenous regulators of vasoactive neuropeptide release from trigeminal ganglion neurons. J Neurochem. 2010;115:1530-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously described the expression of cytochrome P450-2J epoxygenase in rat trigeminal ganglion neurons and that EETs signaling is involved in cerebrovascular dilation resulting from perivascular nerve ..
  4. Allen S, Hamrah P, Gate D, Mott K, Mantopoulos D, Zheng L, et al. The role of LAT in increased CD8+ T cell exhaustion in trigeminal ganglia of mice latently infected with herpes simplex virus 1. J Virol. 2011;85:4184-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results may suggest that both PD-1 and Tim-3 are mediators of CD8(+) T cell exhaustion and latency in HSV-1 infection. ..
  5. Gracheva E, Ingolia N, Kelly Y, Cordero Morales J, Hollopeter G, Chesler A, et al. Molecular basis of infrared detection by snakes. Nature. 2010;464:1006-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings illustrate the broad evolutionary tuning of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as thermosensors in the vertebrate nervous system. ..
  6. Iwata K, Miyachi S, Imanishi M, Tsuboi Y, Kitagawa J, Teramoto K, et al. Ascending multisynaptic pathways from the trigeminal ganglion to the anterior cingulate cortex. Exp Neurol. 2011;227:69-78 pubmed publisher
    By means of retrograde transneuronal transport of rabies virus, ascending multisynaptic pathways from the trigeminal ganglion (TG) to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were identified in the rat...
  7. Fioretti B, Catacuzzeno L, Sforna L, Gerke Duncan M, van den Maagdenberg A, Franciolini F, et al. Trigeminal ganglion neuron subtype-specific alterations of Ca(V)2.1 calcium current and excitability in a Cacna1a mouse model of migraine. J Physiol. 2011;589:5879-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we studied the calcium currents and excitability properties of two subpopulations of small-diameter trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons from adult wild-type (WT) and R192Q FHM1 knockin (KI) mice: capsaicin-sensitive neurons ..
  8. Rothermel M, Ng B, Grabska Barwinska A, Hatt H, Jancke D. Nasal chemosensory-stimulation evoked activity patterns in the rat trigeminal ganglion visualized by in vivo voltage-sensitive dye imaging. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26158 pubmed publisher
    ..known about the representation of volatile chemical stimuli at an early stage in the trigeminal system, the trigeminal ganglion (TG), which contains neurons directly projecting to the nasal cavity...
  9. Matsumoto S, Yoshida S, Takahashi M, Saiki C, Takeda M. The roles of I(D), I(A) and I(K) in the electrophysiological functions of small diameter rat trigeminal ganglion neurons. Curr Mol Pharmacol. 2010;3:30-6 pubmed
    ..inactivating transient K+ current (I(A)) and dominant sustained K+ current (I(K)), in small-diameter rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons...

More Information


  1. Senzaki K, Ozaki S, Yoshikawa M, Ito Y, Shiga T. Runx3 is required for the specification of TrkC-expressing mechanoreceptive trigeminal ganglion neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;43:296-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Runx3 is also expressed in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons...
  2. Hatch R, Jennings E, Ivanusic J. Peripheral hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels contribute to inflammation-induced hypersensitivity of the rat temporomandibular joint. Eur J Pain. 2013;17:972-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, we investigated HCN channel involvement in inflammatory pain of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)...
  3. Cady R, Durham P. Cocoa-enriched diets enhance expression of phosphatases and decrease expression of inflammatory molecules in trigeminal ganglion neurons. Brain Res. 2010;1323:18-32 pubmed publisher
    ..was to determine the effects of a cocoa-enriched diet on the expression of key inflammatory proteins in trigeminal ganglion neurons under basal and inflammatory conditions...
  4. Tao J, Liu P, Xiao Z, Zhao H, Gerber B, Cao Y. Effects of familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 mutation T666M on voltage-gated calcium channel activities in trigeminal ganglion neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2012;107:1666-80 pubmed publisher
    ..of T666M, the most frequently occurring FHM-1 mutation, on VGCC currents and neuronal excitability in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. We expressed human wild-type and T666M Ca(V)2.1 subunits in cultured TG neurons from Ca(V)2...
  5. Edelmayer R, Le L, Yan J, Wei X, Nassini R, Materazzi S, et al. Activation of TRPA1 on dural afferents: a potential mechanism of headache pain. Pain. 2012;153:1949-58 pubmed publisher
    ..2 TRPA1 agonists, mustard oil (MO), and the environmental irritant umbellulone (UMB) on dural-projecting trigeminal ganglion neurons...
  6. Villa G, Ceruti S, Zanardelli M, Magni G, Jasmin L, Ohara P, et al. Temporomandibular joint inflammation activates glial and immune cells in both the trigeminal ganglia and in the spinal trigeminal nucleus. Mol Pain. 2010;6:89 pubmed publisher
  7. Luebbert M, Radtke D, Wodarski R, Damann N, Hatt H, Wetzel C. Direct activation of transient receptor potential V1 by nickel ions. Pflugers Arch. 2010;459:737-50 pubmed publisher
    ..are able to induce non-specific cation currents in a capsaicin-sensitive population of cultured mouse trigeminal ganglion neurons...
  8. Du T, Zhou G, Roizman B. HSV-1 gene expression from reactivated ganglia is disordered and concurrent with suppression of latency-associated transcript and miRNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:18820-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the patterns of accumulation of LATs and miRNAs reflect many different stages in the infection of neurons. ..
  9. Held K, Junker A, Dornmair K, Meinl E, Sinicina I, Brandt T, et al. Expression of herpes simplex virus 1-encoded microRNAs in human trigeminal ganglia and their relation to local T-cell infiltrates. J Virol. 2011;85:9680-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that the majority of LAT(+) neurons is not directly controlled by T cells. However, miRNA expression in every latently infected neuron would provide an additional checkpoint before viral replication is initiated. ..
  10. Lee J, Saloman J, Weiland G, Auh Q, Chung M, Ro J. Functional interactions between NMDA receptors and TRPV1 in trigeminal sensory neurons mediate mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat masseter muscle. Pain. 2012;153:1514-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These data offer novel mechanisms by which 2 ligand-gated channels in sensory neurons interact and reinforce the notion that TRPV1 functions as a signal integrator under pathological conditions...
  11. Capuano A, De Corato A, Lisi L, Tringali G, Navarra P, Dello Russo C. Proinflammatory-activated trigeminal satellite cells promote neuronal sensitization: relevance for migraine pathology. Mol Pain. 2009;5:43 pubmed publisher
    ..The responsiveness of IL-1beta to CGRP creates the potential for a positive feedback loop and, thus, a plurality of targets for therapeutic intervention in migraine. ..
  12. Franceschini A, Vilotti S, Ferrari M, van den Maagdenberg A, Nistri A, Fabbretti E. TNF? levels and macrophages expression reflect an inflammatory potential of trigeminal ganglia in a mouse model of familial hemiplegic migraine. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e52394 pubmed publisher
    Latent changes in trigeminal ganglion structure and function resembling inflammatory conditions may predispose to acute attacks of migraine pain...
  13. Okumura M, Iwata K, Yasuda K, Inoue K, Shinoda M, Honda K, et al. Alternation of gene expression in trigeminal ganglion neurons following complete Freund's adjuvant or capsaicin injection into the rat face. J Mol Neurosci. 2010;42:200-9 pubmed publisher
    The hyperexcitability of trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons following inflammation or C-fiber stimulation is known to be involved in a variety of changes in gene expression in TG neurons, resulting in pain abnormalities in orofacial ..
  14. Kim H, Kim K, Li H, Chung G, Park C, Kim J, et al. Selectively targeting pain in the trigeminal system. Pain. 2010;150:29-40 pubmed publisher
    ..QX-314 alone failed to block voltage-gated sodium channel currents (I(Na)) and action potentials (APs) in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons...
  15. Vause C, Durham P. Calcitonin gene-related peptide differentially regulates gene and protein expression in trigeminal glia cells: findings from array analysis. Neurosci Lett. 2010;473:163-7 pubmed publisher
    ..gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a multifunctional neuropeptide implicated in inflammatory diseases involving trigeminal ganglion nerve activation...
  16. Schöbel N, Radtke D, Lübbert M, Gisselmann G, Lehmann R, Cichy A, et al. Trigeminal ganglion neurons of mice show intracellular chloride accumulation and chloride-dependent amplification of capsaicin-induced responses. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48005 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our results strongly argue for a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-)-dependent signal amplification mechanism in TG neurons that requires intracellular Cl(-) accumulation by NKCC1 and the activation of CaCCs. ..
  17. Cady R, Glenn J, Smith K, Durham P. Calcitonin gene-related peptide promotes cellular changes in trigeminal neurons and glia implicated in peripheral and central sensitization. Mol Pain. 2011;7:94 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our findings, we propose that inhibition of CGRP-mediated activation of trigeminal neurons and glial cells with selective non-peptide CGRP receptor antagonists would be beneficial in the treatment of TMD. ..
  18. Dykes I, Lanier J, Eng S, Turner E. Brn3a regulates neuronal subtype specification in the trigeminal ganglion by promoting Runx expression during sensory differentiation. Neural Dev. 2010;5:3 pubmed publisher
    ..genes; here we describe a second major role for Brn3a in the specification of sensory subtypes in the trigeminal ganglion (TG)...
  19. Tarsa L, Bałkowiec Iskra E, Kratochvil F, Jenkins V, McLean A, Brown A, et al. Tooth pulp inflammation increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in rodent trigeminal ganglion neurons. Neuroscience. 2010;167:1205-15 pubmed publisher
    Nociceptive pathways with first-order neurons located in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) provide sensory innervation to the head, and are responsible for a number of common chronic pain conditions, including migraines, temporomandibular ..
  20. Kunkler P, Ballard C, Oxford G, Hurley J. TRPA1 receptors mediate environmental irritant-induced meningeal vasodilatation. Pain. 2011;152:38-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that these events contribute to headache associated with environmental irritants. ..
  21. Jasmin L, Vit J, Bhargava A, Ohara P. Can satellite glial cells be therapeutic targets for pain control?. Neuron Glia Biol. 2010;6:63-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together these data suggest that SGCs may play a role in the genesis or maintenance of pain and open a range of new possibilities for curing neuropathic pain. ..
  22. Li L, Liu C, Chen L, Chen L. Hypotonicity modulates tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current in trigeminal ganglion neurons. Mol Pain. 2011;7:27 pubmed publisher
    ..tested the effect of hypotonicity on tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current (TTX-S current) in cultured trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. Our data show that after hypotonic treatment, TTX-S current was increased...
  23. Kim Y, Son J, Kim T, Paik S, Dai Y, Noguchi K, et al. Expression of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) in the rat trigeminal sensory afferents and spinal dorsal horn. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:687-98 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this issue, we characterized the TRPA1-positive (+) neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and investigated the distribution of TRPA1(+) afferent fibers and their synaptic connectivity within ..
  24. Nakajima E, Walkup R, Fujii A, Shearer T, Azuma M. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide induces neurite outgrowth in cultured monkey trigeminal ganglion cells: involvement of receptor PAC1. Mol Vis. 2013;19:174-83 pubmed
    ..Follistatin was upregulated by PACAP-27 during the culture period. PACAP enhanced secretion of tear proteins. Our data suggested PAC1 activation is involved in TgN neurite outgrowth...
  25. Ceruti S, Villa G, Fumagalli M, Colombo L, Magni G, Zanardelli M, et al. Calcitonin gene-related peptide-mediated enhancement of purinergic neuron/glia communication by the algogenic factor bradykinin in mouse trigeminal ganglia from wild-type and R192Q Cav2.1 Knock-in mice: implications for basic mechanisms of migraine p. J Neurosci. 2011;31:3638-49 pubmed publisher
    Within the trigeminal ganglion, crosstalk between neurons and satellite glial cells (SGCs) contributes to neuronal sensitization and transduction of painful stimuli, including migraine pain, at least partly through activation of ..
  26. Kushnir R, Cherkas P, Hanani M. Peripheral inflammation upregulates P2X receptor expression in satellite glial cells of mouse trigeminal ganglia: a calcium imaging study. Neuropharmacology. 2011;61:739-46 pubmed publisher
    ..A similar observation was made in the intact trigeminal ganglion after infra-orbital nerve axotomy...
  27. Gnanasekaran A, Sundukova M, Hullugundi S, Birsa N, Bianchini G, Hsueh Y, et al. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) is a new intracellular modulator of P2X3 receptors. J Neurochem. 2013;126:102-12 pubmed publisher
    ..As CASK-mediated control of P2X3 receptors was dependent on the receptor activation state, CASK represents an intracellular gateway to regulate purinergic nociceptive signaling. ..
  28. Katagiri A, Shinoda M, Honda K, Toyofuku A, Sessle B, Iwata K. Satellite glial cell P2Y12 receptor in the trigeminal ganglion is involved in lingual neuropathic pain mechanisms in rats. Mol Pain. 2012;8:23 pubmed publisher
    ..stimulation of the tongue, P2Y12R and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistries in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) in a rat model of unilateral lingual nerve crush (LNC) to evaluate role of P2Y12R in SGC in lingual ..
  29. Franceschini A, Nair A, Bele T, van den Maagdenberg A, Nistri A, Fabbretti E. Functional crosstalk in culture between macrophages and trigeminal sensory neurons of a mouse genetic model of migraine. BMC Neurosci. 2012;13:143 pubmed publisher
    Enhanced activity of trigeminal ganglion neurons is thought to underlie neuronal sensitization facilitating the onset of chronic pain attacks, including migraine...
  30. Chen Y, Williams S, McNulty A, Hong J, Lee S, Rothfusz N, et al. Temporomandibular joint pain: a critical role for Trpv4 in the trigeminal ganglion. Pain. 2013;154:1295-304 pubmed publisher
    ..the pathogenetic contributions of the calcium-permeable TRPV4 ion channel, robustly expressed in the trigeminal ganglion sensory neurons, to TMJ inflammation and pain behavior...
  31. Allavena R, Desai B, Goodwin D, Khodai T, Bright H. Pathologic and virologic characterization of neuroinvasion by HSV-2 in a mouse encephalitis model. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2011;70:724-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the primary route for HSV-2 neuroinvasion after intranasal infection is via the trigeminal pathway, ultimately leading to infection of the brainstem and meningoencephalitis...
  32. Borsani E, Giovannozzi S, Boninsegna R, Rezzani R, Labanca M, Tschabitscher M, et al. Nitroxidergic system in human trigeminal ganglia neurons: a quantitative evaluation. Acta Histochem. 2010;112:444-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The iNOS immunolabelling was very faint in all neuronal types. Since the nitroxidergic system is well represented in human trigeminal ganglia, this study indicates that it could play a relevant role in trigeminal neurotransmission. ..
  33. Cho H, Staikopoulos V, Ivanusic J, Jennings E. Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide gated 4 (HCN4) protein is expressed in a subset of rat dorsal root and trigeminal ganglion neurons. Cell Tissue Res. 2009;338:171-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This population was not insignificant, comprising 5% of TG neurons and 2% of DRG neurons. ..
  34. Rusu M, Pop F, Hostiuc S, Dermengiu D, Lală A, Ion D, et al. The human trigeminal ganglion: c-kit positive neurons and interstitial cells. Ann Anat. 2011;193:403-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We also intended to establish whether, and which non-neuronal cells also label with c-kit in the trigeminal ganglion. Human adult trigeminal ganglia from eight cadavers were processed for immunohistochemistry on paraffin ..
  35. Bertke A, Swanson S, Chen J, Imai Y, Kinchington P, Margolis T. A5-positive primary sensory neurons are nonpermissive for productive infection with herpes simplex virus 1 in vitro. J Virol. 2011;85:6669-77 pubmed publisher
    ..the establishment of HSV latency in specific subtypes of neurons, cultured dissociated adult murine trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons were assessed for relative permissiveness for productive infection...
  36. Feng X, Zhou Y, Meng X, Qi F, Chen W, Jiang X, et al. Hydrogen sulfide increases excitability through suppression of sustained potassium channel currents of rat trigeminal ganglion neurons. Mol Pain. 2013;9:4 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role and mechanism for H2S in nociceptive processing in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neuron remains unknown...
  37. Akiyama T, Carstens M, Carstens E. Facial injections of pruritogens and algogens excite partly overlapping populations of primary and second-order trigeminal neurons in mice. J Neurophysiol. 2010;104:2442-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Calcium imaging of primary sensory trigeminal ganglion (TG) cells showed that 15.4% responded to histamine, 5...
  38. Eftekhari S, Salvatore C, Calamari A, Kane S, Tajti J, Edvinsson L. Differential distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide and its receptor components in the human trigeminal ganglion. Neuroscience. 2010;169:683-96 pubmed publisher
    ..calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP) 1 in the human trigeminal ganglion using immunohistochemistry and compare with that of rat...
  39. Takeda M, Kitagawa J, Nasu M, Takahashi M, Iwata K, Matsumoto S. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor acutely modulates the excitability of rat small-diameter trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating facial skin. Brain Behav Immun. 2010;24:72-82 pubmed publisher
    ..aim of the present study was to investigate whether GDNF acutely modulates the excitability of adult rat trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons that innervate the facial skin by using perforated-patch clamping, retrograde-labeling and ..
  40. Vandewauw I, Owsianik G, Voets T. Systematic and quantitative mRNA expression analysis of TRP channel genes at the single trigeminal and dorsal root ganglion level in mouse. BMC Neurosci. 2013;14:21 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also provides for the first time a comparative mRNA distribution profile in TG and DRG along the entire vertebral column for the mammalian TRP channel family. ..
  41. Meents J, Neeb L, Reuter U. TRPV1 in migraine pathophysiology. Trends Mol Med. 2010;16:153-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We argue that antagonising TRPV1 sensitisation is a promising approach and should receive more attention in future research as well as in the development of anti-migraine drugs. ..
  42. Tibano A, de Siqueira S, da Nóbrega J, Teixeira M. Cardiovascular response during trigeminal ganglion compression for trigeminal neuralgia according to the use of local anesthetics. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2010;152:1347-51 pubmed publisher
    ..There was an increase in the HR in the control group during the procedure (p = 0.017). The use of local anesthetics during the trigeminal balloon compression for TN can have a preventive role for the risk of cardiovascular events. ..
  43. Dieterle A, Fischer M, Link A, Neuhuber W, Messlinger K. Increase in CGRP- and nNOS-immunoreactive neurons in the rat trigeminal ganglion after infusion of an NO donor. Cephalalgia. 2011;31:31-42 pubmed publisher
    ..neurons were increased after GTN infusion compared to saline treatment in all parts of the trigeminal ganglion (CGRP) or restricted to the ophthalmic region (nNOS)...
  44. Held K, Eiglmeier I, Himmelein S, Sinicina I, Brandt T, Theil D, et al. Clonal expansions of CD8? T cells in latently HSV-1-infected human trigeminal ganglia. J Neurovirol. 2012;18:62-8 pubmed publisher
    ..No clone appeared in more than one subject. Similar clones were present in the right and the left TG of two subjects. This indicates that these T cells are primed in the periphery and recognise the same antigen in the TG of both sides. ..
  45. Villa G, Fumagalli M, Verderio C, Abbracchio M, Ceruti S. Expression and contribution of satellite glial cells purinoceptors to pain transmission in sensory ganglia: an update. Neuron Glia Biol. 2010;6:31-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may have relevant implications for the development of new therapeutic strategies for chronic pain treatment. ..
  46. Takeda M, Takahashi M, Hara N, Matsumoto S. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor modulates the excitability of nociceptive trigeminal ganglion neurons via a paracrine mechanism following inflammation. Brain Behav Immun. 2013;28:100-7 pubmed publisher
    ..cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) enhances the neuronal excitability of adult rat small-diameter trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons, which innervate the facial skin in the absence of neuropathic and inflammatory conditions...
  47. Kuroda H, Shibukawa Y, Soya M, Masamura A, Kasahara M, Tazaki M, et al. Expression of P2X? and P2X? receptors in rat trigeminal ganglion neurons. Neuroreport. 2012;23:752-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the contribution of P2X? and/or P2X(2/3) receptors toward the pain mechanism is well described in trigeminal ganglion neurons, the expression of other subtypes of P2X receptor remains to be clarified...
  48. Aita M, Byers M, Chavkin C, Xu M. Trigeminal injury causes kappa opioid-dependent allodynic, glial and immune cell responses in mice. Mol Pain. 2010;6:8 pubmed publisher
    ..trigeminal afferent pathway: trigeminal nucleus principalis (Vp), trigeminal root entry zone (TREZ), and trigeminal ganglion (TG)...
  49. Ivanusic J, Kwok M, Jennings E. Peripheral targets of 5-HT(1D) receptor immunoreactive trigeminal ganglion neurons. Headache. 2011;51:744-51 pubmed publisher
  50. Nassini R, Materazzi S, Vriens J, Prenen J, Benemei S, De Siena G, et al. The 'headache tree' via umbellulone and TRPA1 activates the trigeminovascular system. Brain. 2012;135:376-90 pubmed publisher
    ..selectively stimulated transient receptor potential ankyrin 1-expressing HEK293 cells and rat trigeminal ganglion neurons, but not untransfected cells or neurons in the presence of the selective transient receptor ..
  51. Messlinger K, Lennerz J, Eberhardt M, Fischer M. CGRP and NO in the trigeminal system: mechanisms and role in headache generation. Headache. 2012;52:1411-27 pubmed publisher immunolocalization of CGRP receptor components on 3 trigeminovascular levels: cranial dura mater, trigeminal ganglion, and spinal trigeminal nucleus...
  52. Allen S, Mott K, Zandian M, Ghiasi H. Immunization with different viral antigens alters the pattern of T cell exhaustion and latency in herpes simplex virus type 1-infected mice. J Virol. 2010;84:12315-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have shown for the first time that both PD-1 and Tim-3 contribute to T cell exhaustion and an increase of latency in the TG of latently infected mice. ..
  53. Vriens J, Owsianik G, Hofmann T, Philipp S, Stab J, Chen X, et al. TRPM3 is a nociceptor channel involved in the detection of noxious heat. Neuron. 2011;70:482-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments reveal an unanticipated role for TRPM3 as a thermosensitive nociceptor channel implicated in the detection of noxious heat. ..