spiral ganglion

Summary

Summary: The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.

Top Publications

  1. Rusznák Z, Szucs G. Spiral ganglion neurones: an overview of morphology, firing behaviour, ionic channels and function. Pflugers Arch. 2009;457:1303-25 pubmed publisher
    The spiral ganglion cells provide the afferent innervation of the hair cells of the organ of Corti...
  2. Pettingill L, Richardson R, Wise A, O Leary S, Shepherd R. Neurotrophic factors and neural prostheses: potential clinical applications based upon findings in the auditory system. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2007;54:1138-48 pubmed
    b>Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are the target cells of the cochlear implant, a neural prosthesis designed to provide important auditory cues to severely or profoundly deaf patients...
  3. Kong W, Yin Z, Fan G, Li D, Huang X. Time sequence of auditory nerve and spiral ganglion cell degeneration following chronic kanamycin-induced deafness in the guinea pig. Brain Res. 2010;1331:28-38 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the time sequence of morphological changes of the spiral ganglion cell (SGC) and auditory nerve (AN) following chronic kanamycin-induced deafness...
  4. Agterberg M, Versnel H, de Groot J, Smoorenburg G, Albers F, Klis S. Morphological changes in spiral ganglion cells after intracochlear application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in deafened guinea pigs. Hear Res. 2008;244:25-34 pubmed publisher
    When guinea pigs are deafened with ototoxic drugs spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) degenerate progressively. Application of neurotrophins can prevent this process...
  5. Park D, So H, Lee J, Park H, Lee Y, Cho J, et al. Simvastatin treatment induces morphology alterations and apoptosis in murine cochlear neuronal cells. Acta Otolaryngol. 2009;129:166-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Cultured mouse cochlear neuroblasts (VOT-33) and primary rat cochlear explants containing spiral ganglion neurons were treated with simvastatin in the absence or presence of mevalonate...
  6. Miller J, Le Prell C, Prieskorn D, Wys N, Altschuler R. Delayed neurotrophin treatment following deafness rescues spiral ganglion cells from death and promotes regrowth of auditory nerve peripheral processes: effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and fibroblast growth factor. J Neurosci Res. 2007;85:1959-69 pubmed
    ..Survival of auditory nerve somata (spiral ganglion neurons) was assessed from midmodiolar sections...
  7. Matsuoka A, Kondo T, Miyamoto R, Hashino E. Enhanced survival of bone-marrow-derived pluripotent stem cells in an animal model of auditory neuropathy. Laryngoscope. 2007;117:1629-35 pubmed
    The loss of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) is one of the major causes of profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL)...
  8. Lang H, Schulte B, Goddard J, Hedrick M, Schulte J, Wei L, et al. Transplantation of mouse embryonic stem cells into the cochlea of an auditory-neuropathy animal model: effects of timing after injury. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2008;9:225-40 pubmed publisher
    Application of ouabain to the round window membrane of the gerbil selectively induces the death of most spiral ganglion neurons and thus provides an excellent model for investigating the survival and differentiation of embryonic stem ..
  9. Kada S, Nakagawa T, Ito J. A mouse model for degeneration of the spiral ligament. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2009;10:161-72 pubmed publisher
    ..a reduction of around 50% in the EP along with a significant loss of SL fibrocytes, although degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons and hair cells was still present in certain regions...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Wei Y, Xiao H, Jiang Y, Yang C, Zheng N. [Low dose of ouabain protects injury of spiral ganglion neurons in vitro]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2009;23:27-31 pubmed
    To evaluate the protective effect of low dose ouabain on injury of cultured spiral ganglion neurons evoked by trophic factors deprived and to explore the mechanism...
  2. Renton J, Xu N, Clark J, Hansen M. Interaction of neurotrophin signaling with Bcl-2 localized to the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum on spiral ganglion neuron survival and neurite growth. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:2239-51 pubmed publisher
    Enhanced spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) survival and regeneration of peripheral axons following deafness will likely enhance the efficacy of cochlear implants. Overexpression of Bcl-2 prevents SGN death but inhibits neurite growth...
  3. Flores Otero J, Davis R. Synaptic proteins are tonotopically graded in postnatal and adult type I and type II spiral ganglion neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:1455-75 pubmed publisher
    ..and immunocytochemical characterizations have shown that this principle also applies to neurons of the spiral ganglion, as evidenced by distinctly different firing features and synaptic protein distributions of neurons that ..
  4. Guthrie O. Dynamic compartmentalization of DNA repair proteins within spiral ganglion neurons in response to noise stress. Int J Neurosci. 2012;122:757-66 pubmed publisher
    ABSTRACT In response to stress, spiral ganglion neurons may remodel intracellular pools of DNA repair proteins...
  5. Goldwyn J, Bierer S, Bierer J. Modeling the electrode-neuron interface of cochlear implants: effects of neural survival, electrode placement, and the partial tripolar configuration. Hear Res. 2010;268:93-104 pubmed publisher
    ..We examine how two types of local irregularities in the electrode-neuron interface, variations in spiral ganglion nerve density and electrode position within the scala tympani, affect the simulated neural activation ..
  6. Sekerkova G, Zheng L, Mugnaini E, Bartles J. Espin actin-cytoskeletal proteins are in rat type I spiral ganglion neurons and include splice-isoforms with a functional nuclear localization signal. J Comp Neurol. 2008;509:661-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report a novel localization of espins to a large proportion of rat type I spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and their projections to the cochlear nucleus (CN)...
  7. Shibata S, Cortez S, Beyer L, Wiler J, Di Polo A, Pfingst B, et al. Transgenic BDNF induces nerve fiber regrowth into the auditory epithelium in deaf cochleae. Exp Neurol. 2010;223:464-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The process of neurotrophin-induced neuronal regeneration is accompanied by significant preservation of the spiral ganglion cells...
  8. Makary C, Shin J, Kujawa S, Liberman M, Merchant S. Age-related primary cochlear neuronal degeneration in human temporal bones. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2011;12:711-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the primary loss of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) in human ears, neuronal counts were performed in 100 temporal bones from 100 individuals, aged ..
  9. Tritsch N, Bergles D. Developmental regulation of spontaneous activity in the Mammalian cochlea. J Neurosci. 2010;30:1539-50 pubmed publisher
    ..ATP, which depolarizes inner hair cells (IHCs), leading to bursts of action potentials in postsynaptic spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs)...
  10. Bao J, Ohlemiller K. Age-related loss of spiral ganglion neurons. Hear Res. 2010;264:93-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are the relay station for auditory information between hair cells and central nervous system...
  11. Barclay M, Julien J, Ryan A, Housley G. Type III intermediate filament peripherin inhibits neuritogenesis in type II spiral ganglion neurons in vitro. Neurosci Lett. 2010;478:51-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The exclusive expression of peripherin in a sub-population of primary auditory neurons, the type II spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) prompted our investigation of the effect of peripherin gene deletion (pphKO) on these neurons...
  12. Kao S, Kempfle J, Jensen J, Perez Fernandez D, Lysaght A, Edge A, et al. Loss of osteoprotegerin expression in the inner ear causes degeneration of the cochlear nerve and sensorineural hearing loss. Neurobiol Dis. 2013;56:25-33 pubmed publisher
    ..It also activated ERK, sensitized spiral ganglion cells (SGC) to apoptosis, and inhibited proliferation and survival of cochlear stem cells in vitro, which ..
  13. Chen Z, Peppi M, Kujawa S, Sewell W. Regulated expression of surface AMPA receptors reduces excitotoxicity in auditory neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:1152-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These included vacuolization in the nerve terminals and spiral ganglion as well as irreversible auditory brain stem response threshold shifts...
  14. Liu W, Bostrom M, Kinnefors A, Linthicum F, Rask Andersen H. Expression of myelin basic protein in the human auditory nerve - an immunohistochemical and comparative study. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2012;39:18-24 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to analyse the expression and distribution of myelin basic protein (MBP or Myelin A1 protein) in the human spiral ganglion and auditory nerve.
  15. García Hernández S, Potashner S, Morest D. Role of fibroblast growth factor 8 in neurite outgrowth from spiral ganglion neurons in vitro. Brain Res. 2013;1529:39-45 pubmed publisher
    ..and promote regrowth of neural processes, the role of fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) in mammalian spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) neurite outgrowth has not been examined...
  16. Snyder R, Sinex D. Immediate changes in tuning of inferior colliculus neurons following acute lesions of cat spiral ganglion. J Neurophysiol. 2002;87:434-52 pubmed
    In previous studies, we demonstrated that acute lesions the spiral ganglion (SG), the cells of origin of the auditory nerve (AN), change the frequency organization of the inferior colliculus central nucleus (ICC) and primary auditory ..
  17. Chen Z, Kujawa S, Sewell W. Auditory sensitivity regulation via rapid changes in expression of surface AMPA receptors. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:1238-40 pubmed
    ..Thus we show that AMPA receptor cycling is important for optimizing synaptic transfer at one of the most exacting synapses in the body. ..
  18. Scheper V, Paasche G, Miller J, Warnecke A, Berkingali N, Lenarz T, et al. Effects of delayed treatment with combined GDNF and continuous electrical stimulation on spiral ganglion cell survival in deafened guinea pigs. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:1389-99 pubmed publisher
    Electrical stimulation (ES) of spiral ganglion cells (SGC) via a cochlear implant is the standard treatment for profound sensor neural hearing loss...
  19. Wang Q, Green S. Functional role of neurotrophin-3 in synapse regeneration by spiral ganglion neurons on inner hair cells after excitotoxic trauma in vitro. J Neurosci. 2011;31:7938-49 pubmed publisher
    b>Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are postsynaptic to hair cells and project to the brainstem...
  20. Lang H, Li M, Kilpatrick L, Zhu J, Samuvel D, Krug E, et al. Sox2 up-regulation and glial cell proliferation following degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons in the adult mouse inner ear. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2011;12:151-71 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, glial cell responses to spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) degeneration were evaluated using a murine model of auditory neuropathy...
  21. Chen Z, Kujawa S, Sewell W. Functional roles of high-affinity glutamate transporters in cochlear afferent synaptic transmission in the mouse. J Neurophysiol. 2010;103:2581-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Glutamate transporters located near the synapse and in spiral ganglion neurons are thought to maintain low synaptic levels of glutamate...
  22. Klein M, Schmidt C, Kastenbauer S, Paul R, Kirschning C, Wagner H, et al. MyD88-dependent immune response contributes to hearing loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:1189-93 pubmed
    ..After recovery, hearing loss was still evident, and spiral ganglion neuronal loss, hair cell damage, and fibrocytic occlusion of the cochlea were observed...
  23. Greenwood D, Jagger D, Huang L, Hoya N, Thorne P, Wildman S, et al. P2X receptor signaling inhibits BDNF-mediated spiral ganglion neuron development in the neonatal rat cochlea. Development. 2007;134:1407-17 pubmed
    Type I and type II spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) innervate the inner and outer hair cells of the cochlea, respectively...
  24. Bakondi G, Por A, Kovacs I, Szucs G, Rusznák Z. Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated, cation non-selective channel subunit expression pattern of guinea-pig spiral ganglion cells. Neuroscience. 2009;158:1469-77 pubmed publisher
    ..non-specific cationic current (I(h)) plays important roles in determining the membrane characteristics of the spiral ganglion cells (SGCs), neither the exact types of the hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated, cation non-..
  25. Hansen M, Vijapurkar U, Koland J, Green S. Reciprocal signaling between spiral ganglion neurons and Schwann cells involves neuregulin and neurotrophins. Hear Res. 2001;161:87-98 pubmed
    To investigate the role of neuron-glial cell interactions in the auditory nerve, we asked whether spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) express neuregulin and whether neuregulin regulates proliferation and/or neurotrophin expression in spiral ..
  26. Leake P, Stakhovskaya O, Hetherington A, Rebscher S, Bonham B. Effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and electrical stimulation on survival and function of cochlear spiral ganglion neurons in deafened, developing cats. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2013;14:187-211 pubmed publisher
    ..support and neural activity are required for normal postnatal development and survival of cochlear spiral ganglion (SG) neurons...
  27. Jeong S, Kim L, Hur D, Bae W, Kim J, Lee J. Gentamicin-induced spiral ganglion cell death: apoptosis mediated by ROS and the JNK signaling pathway. Acta Otolaryngol. 2010;130:670-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ROS) and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway may be involved in secondary apoptosis of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) induced by intracochlear gentamicin injection...
  28. Yang T, Kersigo J, Jahan I, Pan N, Fritzsch B. The molecular basis of making spiral ganglion neurons and connecting them to hair cells of the organ of Corti. Hear Res. 2011;278:21-33 pubmed publisher
    The bipolar spiral ganglion neurons apparently delaminate from the growing cochlear duct and migrate to Rosenthal's canal...
  29. Rejali D, Lee V, Abrashkin K, Humayun N, Swiderski D, Raphael Y. Cochlear implants and ex vivo BDNF gene therapy protect spiral ganglion neurons. Hear Res. 2007;228:180-7 pubmed
    b>Spiral ganglion neurons often degenerate in the deaf ear, compromising the function of cochlear implants...
  30. Zilberstein Y, Liberman M, Corfas G. Inner hair cells are not required for survival of spiral ganglion neurons in the adult cochlea. J Neurosci. 2012;32:405-10 pubmed publisher
    Studies of sensorineural hearing loss have long suggested that survival of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) depends on trophic support provided by their peripheral targets, the inner hair cells (IHCs): following ototoxic drugs or acoustic ..
  31. MULLEN L, Pak K, Chavez E, Kondo K, Brand Y, Ryan A. Ras/p38 and PI3K/Akt but not Mek/Erk signaling mediate BDNF-induced neurite formation on neonatal cochlear spiral ganglion explants. Brain Res. 2012;1430:25-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In the cochlea, spiral ganglion (SG) neuron survival is strongly dependent upon neurotrophic input, including brain-derived neurotrophic ..
  32. Agterberg M, Versnel H, van Dijk L, de Groot J, Klis S. Enhanced survival of spiral ganglion cells after cessation of treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor in deafened guinea pigs. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2009;10:355-67 pubmed publisher
    Exogenous delivery of neurotrophic factors into the cochlea of deafened animals rescues spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) from degeneration...
  33. Shah S, Kang Y, Christensen B, Feng A, Kollmar R. Expression of Wnt receptors in adult spiral ganglion neurons: frizzled 9 localization at growth cones of regenerating neurites. Neuroscience. 2009;164:478-87 pubmed publisher
    Little is known about signaling pathways, besides those of neurotrophic factors, that are operational in adult spiral ganglion neurons...
  34. Fu Y, Ding D, Jiang H, Salvi R. Ouabain-induced cochlear degeneration in rat. Neurotox Res. 2012;22:158-69 pubmed publisher
    Ouabain, a potent inhibitor of the Na+/K+-ATPase pump, selectively destroys spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in gerbils and mice, whereas in guinea pigs it preferentially damages cochlear hair cells...
  35. Lv P, Wei D, Yamoah E. Kv7-type channel currents in spiral ganglion neurons: involvement in sensorineural hearing loss. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:34699-707 pubmed publisher
    ..in DFNA2, an autosomal dominant version of progressive hearing loss, involves degeneration of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) from basal to apical cochlea, manifesting as high-to-low frequency hearing loss, and has been ..
  36. Song B, Li Y, Han D. Delayed electrical stimulation and BDNF application following induced deafness in rats. Acta Otolaryngol. 2009;129:142-54 pubmed publisher
    ..ES) and continuous intracochlear administration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) enhance spiral ganglion cell (SGC) body and peripheral process survival and improve auditory sensitivity...
  37. Wu J, Liu B, Fan J, Zhu Q, Wu J. Study of protective effect on rat cochlear spiral ganglion after blast exposure by adenovirus-mediated human ?-nerve growth factor gene. Am J Otolaryngol. 2011;32:8-12 pubmed publisher
    To study whether adenovirus-mediated human ?-nerve growth factor (Ad-hNGF?) gene has any protective effect on rat cochlear spiral ganglion after blast exposure.
  38. Barclay M, Ryan A, Housley G. Type I vs type II spiral ganglion neurons exhibit differential survival and neuritogenesis during cochlear development. Neural Dev. 2011;6:33 pubmed publisher
    ..In the mammalian cochlea, the refinement of spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) innervation to the inner hair cells (by type I SGNs) and the outer hair cells (by type II SGNs) ..
  39. Potrusil T, Wenger C, Glueckert R, Schrott Fischer A, Rattay F. Morphometric classification and spatial organization of spiral ganglion neurons in the human cochlea: consequences for single fiber response to electrical stimulation. Neuroscience. 2012;214:120-35 pubmed publisher
    The unique, unmyelinated perikarya of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) in the human cochlea are often arranged in functional units covered by common satellite glial cells...
  40. McLean W, Smith K, Glowatzki E, Pyott S. Distribution of the Na,K-ATPase alpha subunit in the rat spiral ganglion and organ of corti. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2009;10:37-49 pubmed publisher
    ..particular subsets of neurons or supporting cells in whole mount preparations of the organ of Corti and spiral ganglion. We found that the NKA alpha 3 is abundantly expressed within the membranes of the spiral ganglion somata, ..
  41. Leake P, Hradek G, Hetherington A, Stakhovskaya O. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes cochlear spiral ganglion cell survival and function in deafened, developing cats. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:1526-45 pubmed publisher
    Postnatal development and survival of spiral ganglion (SG) neurons depend on both neural activity and neurotrophic support...
  42. Leake P, Stakhovskaya O, Hradek G, Hetherington A. Factors influencing neurotrophic effects of electrical stimulation in the deafened developing auditory system. Hear Res. 2008;242:86-99 pubmed publisher
    ..that electrical stimulation from a cochlear implant (CI) may help prevent degeneration of the cochlear spiral ganglion (SG) neurons after deafness...
  43. Oshima K, Teo D, Senn P, Starlinger V, Heller S. LIF promotes neurogenesis and maintains neural precursors in cell populations derived from spiral ganglion stem cells. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:112 pubmed
    ..with the ability to form clonal floating colonies (spheres) were recently isolated from the neonatal murine spiral ganglion. To further examine the features of inner ear-derived neural stem cells and their derivatives, we ..
  44. Barrionuevo F, Naumann A, Bagheri Fam S, Speth V, Taketo M, Scherer G, et al. Sox9 is required for invagination of the otic placode in mice. Dev Biol. 2008;317:213-24 pubmed publisher
  45. Brors D, Hansen S, Mlynski R, Volkenstein S, Aletsee C, Sendtner M, et al. Spiral ganglion outgrowth and hearing development in p75-deficient mice. Audiol Neurootol. 2008;13:388-95 pubmed publisher
    ..the terminal neuronal development of the mammalian cochlea the onset of hearing and the in vitro response of spiral ganglion neurites to neurotrophin 3 (NT-3), which is known to play a critical role during neonatal inner ear ..
  46. Maruyama J, Miller J, Ulfendahl M. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and antioxidants preserve the electrical responsiveness of the spiral ganglion neurons after experimentally induced deafness. Neurobiol Dis. 2008;29:14-21 pubmed
    ..However, the functionality of cochlear implants depends on the integrity of the auditory spiral ganglion neurons...
  47. Flores Otero J, Xue H, Davis R. Reciprocal regulation of presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins in bipolar spiral ganglion neurons by neurotrophins. J Neurosci. 2007;27:14023-34 pubmed
    ..In the peripheral auditory system, we have shown previously that the intrinsic firing features of spiral ganglion neurons are influenced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3)...
  48. Wang S, Furusho M, D Sa C, Kuwada S, Conti L, Morest D, et al. Inactivation of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling in myelinating glial cells results in significant loss of adult spiral ganglion neurons accompanied by age-related hearing impairment. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:3428-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The hearing impairment was accompanied by significant loss of myelinated spiral ganglion neurons...
  49. Evans A, Thompson B, Wallace G, Millard R, O Leary S, Clark G, et al. Promoting neurite outgrowth from spiral ganglion neuron explants using polypyrrole/BDNF-coated electrodes. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2009;91:241-50 pubmed publisher
    ..and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) from hair cells in the cochlea is essential for the survival of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs)...
  50. Jones T, Leake P, Snyder R, Stakhovskaya O, Bonham B. Spontaneous discharge patterns in cochlear spiral ganglion cells before the onset of hearing in cats. J Neurophysiol. 2007;98:1898-908 pubmed
    ..Significant refinement of the central projections from the spiral ganglion to the cochlear nucleus occurs during this neonatal period...
  51. Liu Z, Owen T, Zhang L, Zuo J. Dynamic expression pattern of Sonic hedgehog in developing cochlear spiral ganglion neurons. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:1674-83 pubmed publisher
    ..By analyzing Shh(CreEGFP/+) mice, we found that Shh was first expressed in all cochlear spiral ganglion neurons by embryonic day 13.5, after which its expression gradually decreased from base to apex...
  52. Coate T, Raft S, Zhao X, Ryan A, Crenshaw E, Kelley M. Otic mesenchyme cells regulate spiral ganglion axon fasciculation through a Pou3f4/EphA4 signaling pathway. Neuron. 2012;73:49-63 pubmed publisher
    Peripheral axons from auditory spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) form an elaborate series of radially and spirally oriented projections that interpret complex aspects of the auditory environment...
  53. Maricich S, Xia A, Mathes E, Wang V, Oghalai J, Fritzsch B, et al. Atoh1-lineal neurons are required for hearing and for the survival of neurons in the spiral ganglion and brainstem accessory auditory nuclei. J Neurosci. 2009;29:11123-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, Egr2; Atoh1(CKO) mice lose spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea and AAN neurons during the first 3 d of life, revealing a novel critical period in the ..