geniculate ganglion


Summary: The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.

Top Publications

  1. Breza J, Nikonov A, Contreras R. Response latency to lingual taste stimulation distinguishes neuron types within the geniculate ganglion. J Neurophysiol. 2010;103:1771-84 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to investigate the role of response latency in discrimination of chemical stimuli by geniculate ganglion neurons in the rat...
  2. Krimm R. Mice lacking the p75 receptor fail to acquire a normal complement of taste buds and geniculate ganglion neurons by adulthood. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2006;288:1294-302 pubmed
    ..b>Geniculate ganglion neurons, which provides innervation to fungiform taste buds, express the p75 receptor...
  3. Breza J, Curtis K, Contreras R. Monosodium glutamate but not linoleic acid differentially activates gustatory neurons in the rat geniculate ganglion. Chem Senses. 2007;32:833-46 pubmed, only one study has examined responses to monosodium glutamate (MSG) from gustatory neurons in the rat geniculate ganglion and none to free fatty acids...
  4. Zaidi F, Todd K, Enquist L, Whitehead M. Types of taste circuits synaptically linked to a few geniculate ganglion neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2008;511:753-72 pubmed publisher
    ..the central circuits that are synaptically engaged by very small subsets of the total population of geniculate ganglion cells to test the hypothesis that taste ganglion cells are heterogeneous in terms of their central ..
  5. Tsuzuki K, Noguchi K, Mohri D, Yasuno H, Umemoto M, Shimobayashi C, et al. Expression of activating transcription factor 3 and growth-associated protein 43 in the rat geniculate ganglion neurons after chorda tympani injury. Acta Otolaryngol. 2002;122:161-7 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of damage in the geniculate ganglion and its target organ as a result of chorda tympani (CT) injury...
  6. Capelle H, Nakamura M, Lenarz T, Brandis A, Haubitz B, Krauss J. Cavernous angioma of the geniculate ganglion. J Neurosurg. 2008;109:893-6 pubmed publisher
    Intracranial extraaxial cavernous angiomas are rare vascular malformations. Their occurrence at the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve within the temporal bone is exceptional...
  7. Grose C, Bonthius D, Afifi A. Chickenpox and the geniculate ganglion: facial nerve palsy, Ramsay Hunt syndrome and acyclovir treatment. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21:615-7 pubmed
    ..The site of reactivation from latency is the geniculate ganglion. Virus most likely enters the ganglion during chickenpox, via the sensory branches of the facial nerve ..
  8. Patel A, Krimm R. BDNF is required for the survival of differentiated geniculate ganglion neurons. Dev Biol. 2010;340:419-29 pubmed publisher
    In mice lacking functional brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the number of geniculate ganglion neurons, which innervate taste buds, is reduced by one-half...
  9. Katsura H, Tsuzuki K, Noguchi K, Sakagami M. Differential expression of capsaicin-, menthol-, and mustard oil-sensitive receptors in naive rat geniculate ganglion neurons. Chem Senses. 2006;31:681-8 pubmed
    The roles of capsaicin, menthol, and mustard oils and their receptors in geniculate ganglion (GG) neurons still remain to be elucidated. These receptors belong to the transient receptor potential (TRP) family...

More Information


  1. Breza J, Curtis K, Contreras R. Temperature modulates taste responsiveness and stimulates gustatory neurons in the rat geniculate ganglion. J Neurophysiol. 2006;95:674-85 pubmed
    ..In anesthetized rats, we characterized the single-cell responses of geniculate ganglion neurons to 0.5 M sucrose, 0.1 M NaCl, 0.01 M citric acid, and 0...
  2. Quina L, Tempest L, Hsu Y, Cox T, Turner E. Hmx1 is required for the normal development of somatosensory neurons in the geniculate ganglion. Dev Biol. 2012;365:152-63 pubmed
    ..mouse embryos possess only a vestigial posterior auricular nerve, and general somatosensory neurons in the geniculate ganglion are greatly reduced by mid-gestation...
  3. Tachibana T, Orita Y, Nishizaki K. Anterior Displacement of the Geniculate Ganglion. J Int Adv Otol. 2016;12:113-5 pubmed publisher
    ..During the operation, this patient showed an unusual position of the geniculate ganglion. We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) images targeting the ear of the present case after the operation...
  4. Yamamoto K, Ishimaru Y, Ohmoto M, Matsumoto I, Asakura T, Abe K. Genetic tracing of the gustatory neural pathway originating from Pkd1l3-expressing type III taste cells in circumvallate and foliate papillae. J Neurochem. 2011;119:497-506 pubmed publisher
    ..WGA signals were also observed in a small population of neurons in the geniculate ganglion (GG)...
  5. Jittapiromsak P, Sabuncuoglu H, Deshmukh P, Nakaji P, Spetzler R, Preul M. Greater superficial petrosal nerve dissection: back to front or front to back?. Neurosurgery. 2009;64:253-8; discussion 258-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The temporal dura can be elevated safely with a front-to-back technique to preserve the GSPN and to help maintain the physiological integrity of the facial nerve. ..
  6. Serences J, Yantis S. Selective visual attention and perceptual coherence. Trends Cogn Sci. 2006;10:38-45 pubmed
  7. Ames J, Levi J, Johnston D, Drake C, Willcox T, O Reilly R. Atypical presentation of geniculate ganglion venous malformation in a child: conductive hearing loss without facial weakness. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;76:1214-6 pubmed publisher
    We describe an unusual presentation of geniculate ganglion venous malformation, a rare facial nerve lesion, emphasizing the importance of the differential diagnosis, imaging characteristics, and controversies in management...
  8. Azad T, Veeravagu A, Corrales C, Chow K, Fischbein N, Harris O. Abducens Nerve Avulsion and Facial Nerve Palsy After Temporal Bone Fracture: A Rare Concomitance of Injuries. World Neurosurg. 2016;88:689.e5-8 pubmed publisher
    Avulsion of the abducens nerve in the setting of geniculate ganglion injury after temporal bone fracture is unreported previously...
  9. Anton E. Less common MRI findings in ramsay hunt syndrome type I. Ear Nose Throat J. 2007;86:649; author reply 649-50 pubmed
  10. Farbman A, Brann J, Rozenblat A, Rochlin M, Weiler E, Bhattacharyya M. Developmental expression of neurotrophin receptor genes in rat geniculate ganglion neurons. J Neurocytol. 2004;33:331-43 pubmed
    ..4) The pattern of neurotrophin receptor gene expression changed during development. (5) p75 expression occurred infrequently--in only 7 of the 212 neurons that gave a signal for any receptor. ..
  11. Burmeister H, Baltzer P, Volk G, Klingner C, Kraft A, Dietzel M, et al. Evaluation of the early phase of Bell's palsy using 3 T MRI. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2011;268:1493-500 pubmed publisher
    ..001). SIIP was highest in the premeatal segment compared to the geniculate ganglion (P < 0.001)...
  12. Kisaki H, Hato N, Mizobuchi M, Honda N, Takahashi H, Wakisaka H, et al. Role of T-lymphocyte subsets in facial nerve paralysis owing to the reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1. Acta Otolaryngol. 2005;125:316-21 pubmed
    ..HSV-1 DNA was detected in 50% of the mice in both models. Histopathologically, neurons were destroyed in parts of the GG and numerous virus particles were seen in the surviving neurons. ..
  13. Grigaliunas A, Bradley R, Maccallum D, Mistretta C. Distinctive neurophysiological properties of embryonic trigeminal and geniculate neurons in culture. J Neurophysiol. 2002;88:2058-74 pubmed
    ..action potential, and ion channel characteristics demonstrate clear differences between trigeminal and geniculate ganglion neurons at an embryonic stage when target tissues are innervated but receptor organs have not developed or ..
  14. Al Hadlaq S, Bradley R, MacCallum D, Mistretta C. Embryonic geniculate ganglion neurons in culture have neurotrophin-specific electrophysiological properties. Neuroscience. 2003;118:145-59 pubmed
    b>Geniculate ganglion neurons provide a major source of innervation to mammalian taste organs, including taste buds in the soft palate and in fungiform papillae on the anterior two thirds of the tongue...
  15. Gartner M, Bossart W, Linder T. Herpes virus and Ménière's disease. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2008;70:28-31; discussion 31 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results, reactivation of HSV1 and VZV in the vestibular ganglion does not seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of MD. ..
  16. Zaidi F, Whitehead M. Discrete innervation of murine taste buds by peripheral taste neurons. J Neurosci. 2006;26:8243-53 pubmed
    ..single fungiform taste buds with lipophilic retrograde neuroanatomical markers, the number of labeled geniculate ganglion cells innervating single buds on the tongue were identified...
  17. Bruska M, Ulatowska Błaszyk K, Weglowski M, Wozniak W, Piotrowski A. Differentiation of the facio-vestibulocochlear ganglionic complex in human embryos of developmental stages 13-15. Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2009;68:167-73 pubmed
    ..These ganglia are well demarcated in embryos of stage 14. In the last investigated stage (15(th)) the nerve fibres of the ganglia reach the common afferent tract. ..
  18. Parnavelas J, Dinopoulos A, Brecha N. Transient features of tachykinin peptide innervation of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the rabbit during postnatal development. J Comp Neurol. 1997;380:310-8 pubmed
  19. Yamout A, Spec A, Cosmano J, Kashyap M, Rochlin M. Neurotrophic factor receptor expression and in vitro nerve growth of geniculate ganglion neurons that supply divergent nerves. Dev Neurosci. 2005;27:288-98 pubmed
    ..which neurotrophic factors may contribute to the divergence of two peripheral nerves emanating from the geniculate ganglion. We compared receptor mRNA profiles of the neurons that supply the nerves, and also the growth of their ..
  20. Vaid S, Vaid N, Rathod S. Infranuclear facial palsy: importance of imaging the geniculate fossa. Otol Neurotol. 2012;33:1430-8 pubmed publisher
  21. Shea J, Ge X. Delayed facial palsy after stapedectomy. Otol Neurotol. 2001;22:465-70 pubmed
    ..Mechanical irritation of the facial or chorda nerve during operation may trigger the activation. The anti-herpesvirus agent acyclovir may prevent delayed facial palsy after stapedectomy in patients suspected of having this complication. ..
  22. Ringstedt T, Ibanez C, Nosrat C. Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in target invasion in the gustatory system. J Neurosci. 1999;19:3507-18 pubmed
  23. Gluth M, Cohen M, Friedland P, Atlas M. Surgical anatomy of the anterior supralabyrinthine air cell tract. J Laryngol Otol. 2011;125:1009-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The following mean distances were calculated: the labyrinthine segment between the geniculate ganglion and the ampullated end of the superior semicircular canal, 2.33 mm (range 1.75-2...
  24. Patel A, Krimm R. Neurotrophin-4 regulates the survival of gustatory neurons earlier in development using a different mechanism than brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Dev Biol. 2012;365:50-60 pubmed publisher
    The number of neurons in the geniculate ganglion that are available to innervate taste buds is regulated by neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
  25. Vrabec J, Alford R. Quantitative analysis of herpes simplex virus in cranial nerve ganglia. J Neurovirol. 2004;10:216-22 pubmed
    ..There was not a significant correlation among ganglia from the same individual. The results support the hypothesis that neuronal subpopulations have variable susceptibility to HSV infection. ..
  26. Lee H, Lee W. Microsurgical anatomy of the perigeniculate ganglion area as seen from the middle cranial fossa approach. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2003;112:531-3 pubmed
    ..angle between the lines drawn from the malleus head to the vertical crest and from the malleus head to the geniculate ganglion, and the distance from the malleus head to the geniculate ganglion. These were found to be 22...
  27. Tanriover N, Sanus G, Ulu M, Tanriverdi T, Akar Z, Rubino P, et al. Middle fossa approach: microsurgical anatomy and surgical technique from the neurosurgical perspective. Surg Neurol. 2009;71:586-96; discussion 596 pubmed publisher
  28. Li Y, Dai C. A retrospective study on facial nerve schwannomas: a disease with a high risk of misdiagnosis and hearing loss. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;274:3359-3366 pubmed publisher
    ..4 mm. A tendency of multisegment involvement was observed in 29 FNS cases. Geniculate ganglion and tympanic segments were the most commonly involved segments...
  29. Arbusow V, Derfuss T, Held K, Himmelein S, Strupp M, Gurkov R, et al. Latency of herpes simplex virus type-1 in human geniculate and vestibular ganglia is associated with infiltration of CD8+ T cells. J Med Virol. 2010;82:1917-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Colocalization of latent HSV-1 and CD8+ T cells in geniculate and vestibular ganglia supports further the hypothesis that HSV-1 reactivation is possible in these ganglia and is the cause of Bell's palsy and vestibular neuritis. ..
  30. Zhu S, Pyatkevich Y. Ramsay Hunt syndrome type II. Neurology. 2014;82:1664 pubmed publisher
    ..Reactivation in the geniculate ganglion or facial nerve is uncommon and typically causes tongue and auricular lesions or facial palsy and was ..
  31. Hess R, Thompson B, Gole G, Mullen K. The amblyopic deficit and its relationship to geniculo-cortical processing streams. J Neurophysiol. 2010;104:475-83 pubmed publisher
  32. Albrecht D, Broser M, Kruger H, Bader M. Effects of angiotensin II and IV on geniculate activity in nontransgenic and transgenic rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997;332:53-63 pubmed
    ..There were no significant differences in the effects of angiotensins in the various strains of rats, except for the latencies of the neuronal responses to the iontophoretic ejection of angiotensins. ..
  33. Huang E, Liu W, Fritzsch B, Bianchi L, Reichardt L, Xiang M. Brn3a is a transcriptional regulator of soma size, target field innervation and axon pathfinding of inner ear sensory neurons. Development. 2001;128:2421-32 pubmed
    ..Thus, Brn3a must control additional downstream genes that are required for axon pathfinding. ..
  34. Sollars S, Hill D. In vivo recordings from rat geniculate ganglia: taste response properties of individual greater superficial petrosal and chorda tympani neurones. J Physiol. 2005;564:877-93 pubmed
    ..The geniculate ganglion is the location of the somata of two of these nerves, the greater superficial petrosal (GSP) and the chorda ..
  35. Patel A, Huang T, Krimm R. Lingual and palatal gustatory afferents each depend on both BDNF and NT-4, but the dependence is greater for lingual than palatal afferents. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:3290-301 pubmed publisher
    Neurons of the geniculate ganglion innervate taste buds located in two spatially distinct targets, the tongue and palate. About 50% of these neurons die in Bdnf(-/-) mice and Ntf4/5(-/-) mice...
  36. Dvoryanchikov G, Hernández D, Roebber J, Hill D, Roper S, Chaudhari N. Transcriptomes and neurotransmitter profiles of classes of gustatory and somatosensory neurons in the geniculate ganglion. Nat Commun. 2017;8:760 pubmed publisher
    ..The mouse geniculate ganglion contains chemosensory neurons innervating lingual and palatal taste buds and somatosensory neurons ..
  37. Li Y, Chen C, Wu K, Kuo H, Wu H. Recurrent Streptococcus Pneumoniae 23 F meningitis due to cerebrospinal fluid leakage from the ear cannel: a case report. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15:195 pubmed publisher
    ..CT (HRCT) reports showed focal enlargement of the right facial nerve canal, erosion of the bony canal at geniculate ganglion and tympanic segment with tiny high-density spots...
  38. Osawa S, Rhoton A, Tanriover N, Shimizu S, Fujii K. Microsurgical anatomy and surgical exposure of the petrous segment of the internal carotid artery. Neurosurgery. 2008;63:210-38; discussion 239 pubmed publisher
    ..The most frequent branch was a periosteal artery. An understanding of the complex relationships of the petrous carotid provides the basis for surgically accessing any 1 or more of its 5 segments. ..
  39. Qiu J, Qiao L, Chen F, Huang W, Wang J. [Otoendoscopic tympanic segment and ganglion geniculi of facial nerve decompression via the attic approach]. Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi. 2002;16:338-9 pubmed
    ..It is a mini-invasive approach for facial nerve decompression. ..
  40. Wu A, Dvoryanchikov G, Pereira E, Chaudhari N, Roper S. Breadth of tuning in taste afferent neurons varies with stimulus strength. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8171 pubmed publisher
    ..We used mice expressing GCaMP3 in geniculate ganglion sensory neurons to investigate taste-evoked activity...
  41. Bento R, Pirana S, Sweet R, Castillo A, Brito Neto R. The role of the middle fossa approach in the management of traumatic facial paralysis. Ear Nose Throat J. 2004;83:817-23 pubmed
    ..the tympanic and mastoid segments via a transmastoid approach followed by decompression of the geniculate ganglion and the distal half of the labyrinthine segment via a middle fossa approach...
  42. Petit Lacour M, Marsot Dupuch K, Hadj Rabia M, Sterkers O, Bobin S, Doyon D, et al. Hemangioma of the porus acusticus. Impact of imaging studies: case reports. Neuroradiology. 2001;43:1102-7 pubmed
    Hemangiomas are tumors. Hemangiomas near the geniculate ganglion or in the internal acoustic meatus are well known but rare. We present two cases of hemangiomas located at the porus acusticus, an even more rare site...
  43. Matsumoto I, Emori Y, Ninomiya Y, Abe K. A comparative study of three cranial sensory ganglia projecting into the oral cavity: in situ hybridization analyses of neurotrophin receptors and thermosensitive cation channels. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2001;93:105-12 pubmed
    ..It is also concluded that TG and a portion of PG project several types of somatosensory nerves. This is consistent with the finding that GG and a portion of PG project gustatory nerves. ..
  44. Farbman A, Guagliardo N, Sollars S, Hill D. Each sensory nerve arising from the geniculate ganglion expresses a unique fingerprint of neurotrophin and neurotrophin receptor genes. J Neurosci Res. 2004;78:659-67 pubmed
    Neurons in the geniculate ganglion, like those in other sensory ganglia, are dependent on neurotrophins for survival...
  45. Steinhart H, Wigand M, Fahlbusch R, Triebswetter F, Gress H, Iro H. [Facial nerve schwannoma in the inner auditory canal and geniculate ganglion]. HNO. 2003;51:640-5 pubmed
    ..Between 1975 and 2001, we diagnosed 17 cases of facial nerve schwannoma in the inner auditory canal or the geniculate ganglion. All patients were treated surgically...
  46. Wakisaka H, Hato N, Honda N, Takahashi H, Kisaki H, Murakami S, et al. Demyelination associated with HSV-1-induced facial paralysis. Exp Neurol. 2002;178:68-79 pubmed
    ..Immunofluorescence study revealed HSV-1 in the geniculate ganglion, the descending root, and the facial nucleus at this stage...
  47. Kusumi M, Oka H, Aliabadi H, Sato S, Kumabe T. The Appropriate Surgical Approach to a Greater Petrosal Nerve Schwannoma in the Setting of Temporal Lobe Edema. World Neurosurg. 2016;85:364.e5-10 pubmed publisher
    ..GPN schwannomas are very rare lesions. The extradural and intradural middle fossa approach was used to preserve the tumor capsule around the GPN. Using this technique, one can safely protect the geniculate ganglion and the GPN.
  48. Wester J, Merna C, Peng K, Lewis R, Sepahdari A, Ishiyama G, et al. Facial nerve stimulation following cochlear implantation for X-linked stapes gusher syndrome leading to identification of a novel POU3F4 mutation. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;91:121-123 pubmed publisher
    ..and the cochlear implant electrode was found to be protruding into the fallopian canal at the level of the geniculate ganglion. Subsequent genetic analysis demonstrated X-linked deafness type 2 (DFNX2) caused by a novel c...
  49. Runge E, Hoshino N, Biehl M, Ton S, Rochlin M. Neurotrophin-4 is more potent than brain-derived neurotrophic factor in promoting, attracting and suppressing geniculate ganglion neurite outgrowth. Dev Neurosci. 2012;34:389-401 pubmed publisher
    The geniculate ganglion, which provides innervation to taste buds in the anterior tongue and palate, is unique among sensory ganglia in that its neurons depend on both neurotrophin-4 (NT4) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for ..
  50. Wakisaka H, Kobayashi N, Mominoki K, Saito S, Honda N, Hato N, et al. Herpes simplex virus in the vestibular ganglion and the geniculate ganglion-role of loose myelin. J Neurocytol. 2001;30:685-93 pubmed
    ..for HSV-1 particles, or any effects mediated by HSV-1, in the vestibular ganglion as compared with the geniculate ganglion. At the light microscopic level, some neurons with vacuolar changes were observed, mainly in the distal ..
  51. Celik O, Eskiizmir G, Pabuscu Y, Ulkumen B, Toker G. The role of facial canal diameter in the pathogenesis and grade of Bell's palsy: a study by high resolution computed tomography. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;83:261-268 pubmed publisher
    ..of both facial canals (affected and unaffected) of each patient were measured at labyrinthine segment, geniculate ganglion, tympanic segment, second genu, mastoid segment and stylomastoid foramen...
  52. Achilli V, Mignosi S. Facial nerve hemangioma. Otol Neurotol. 2002;23:1003-4 pubmed
  53. Takeda T, Takeda S, Takumida M, Okada T, Kakigi A, Nakatani H, et al. Protective effects of edaravone against ischemia-induced facial palsy. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2008;35:321-7 pubmed
    ..Edaravone suppressed the production of ROS and had a remarkable protective effect against the development of mild to moderate facial palsy. Morphologically, nerve damage was also decreased by edaravone injection. ..