sensory ganglia


Summary: Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.

Top Publications

  1. Yang H, Mitchell K, Keller J, Iadarola M. Peripheral inflammation increases Scya2 expression in sensory ganglia and cytokine and endothelial related gene expression in inflamed tissue. J Neurochem. 2007;103:1628-43 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with the idea that monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 at the site of peripheral injury and/or in DRG is involved in inflammatory hyperalgesia. ..
  2. Takano Maruyama M, Chen Y, Gaufo G. Placodal sensory ganglia coordinate the formation of the cranial visceral motor pathway. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:1155-61 pubmed publisher
  3. Dun S, Brailoiu G, Gao X, Brailoiu E, Arterburn J, Prossnitz E, et al. Expression of estrogen receptor GPR30 in the rat spinal cord and in autonomic and sensory ganglia. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:1610-9 pubmed publisher
  4. Erschbamer M, Hofstetter C, Olson L. RhoA, RhoB, RhoC, Rac1, Cdc42, and Tc10 mRNA levels in spinal cord, sensory ganglia, and corticospinal tract neurons and long-lasting specific changes following spinal cord injury. J Comp Neurol. 2005;484:224-33 pubmed
    ..Here we mapped mRNA expression patterns of RhoA, B, and C, Rac1, Cdc42, and Tc10 in spinal cord, sensory ganglia, and sensorimotor cortex in uninjured rats, and following spinal cord injury or sham laminectomy...
  5. Hüfner K, Arbusow V, Himmelein S, Derfuss T, Sinicina I, Strupp M, et al. The prevalence of human herpesvirus 6 in human sensory ganglia and its co-occurrence with alpha-herpesviruses. J Neurovirol. 2007;13:462-7 pubmed
    ..Using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the authors determined the distribution of HHV-6 in human sensory ganglia. HHV-6 was present in 30% of trigeminal, 40% of geniculate, 25% of vestibular, and 55% of dorsal root ganglia...
  6. Sperber S, Saxena V, Hatch G, Ekker M. Zebrafish dlx2a contributes to hindbrain neural crest survival, is necessary for differentiation of sensory ganglia and functions with dlx1a in maturation of the arch cartilage elements. Dev Biol. 2008;314:59-70 pubmed
    ..Defects in the differentiation of ectomesenchymal derivatives, including sensory ganglia and cartilage elements, indicate a role for dlx2a in specification and maintenance of cranial neural crest.
  7. McBride P, Beekes M. Pathological PrP is abundant in sympathetic and sensory ganglia of hamsters fed with scrapie. Neurosci Lett. 1999;265:135-8 pubmed
    ..This finding suggests that, after oral challenge, TSE infectious agent uses neural pathways and ganglia of the peripheral nervous system to reach target sites in the CNS. ..
  8. Farinas I, Wilkinson G, Backus C, Reichardt L, Patapoutian A. Characterization of neurotrophin and Trk receptor functions in developing sensory ganglia: direct NT-3 activation of TrkB neurons in vivo. Neuron. 1998;21:325-34 pubmed
    Spinal sensory ganglia have been shown to contain neuronal subpopulations with different functions and neurotrophin dependencies...
  9. Kozaki Y, Kambe F, Hayashi Y, Ohmori S, Seo H, Kumazawa T, et al. Molecular cloning of prostaglandin EP3 receptors from canine sensory ganglia and their facilitatory action on bradykinin-induced mobilization of intracellular calcium. J Neurochem. 2007;100:1636-47 pubmed
    ..A protein kinase A inhibitor mimicked the effect of EP3 agonist. These results demonstrate that the activation of EP3 restores the response to BK by attenuating the desensitization of BK B2 receptor activity via Gi protein. ..

More Information


  1. Casafont I, Bengoechea R, Navascues J, Pena E, Berciano M, Lafarga M. The giant fibrillar center: a nucleolar structure enriched in upstream binding factor (UBF) that appears in transcriptionally more active sensory ganglia neurons. J Struct Biol. 2007;159:451-61 pubmed
    ..distribution and cellular differentiation dynamics of the giant fibrillar centers (GFCs) of nucleoli in rat sensory ganglia neurons...
  2. Ichikawa H, Sugimoto T. The co-expression of VR1 and VRL-1 in the rat vagal sensory ganglia. Brain Res. 2003;980:293-6 pubmed
    ..the vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) and vanilloid receptor 1-like receptor (VRL-1), was performed on the vagal sensory ganglia. In the jugular ganglion, VR1-immunoreactive (IR) neurons were small to medium-sized (range 49.7-1,125...
  3. Ramer M, Murphy P, Richardson P, Bisby M. Spinal nerve lesion-induced mechanoallodynia and adrenergic sprouting in sensory ganglia are attenuated in interleukin-6 knockout mice. Pain. 1998;78:115-21 pubmed
    ..These results imply a facilitatory role for IL-6 in pain and sympathetic sprouting induced by nerve injury, and add to the growing list of roles for IL-6 in neuropathological events. ..
  4. Wang H, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Tessier Lavigne M. Netrin-3, a mouse homolog of human NTN2L, is highly expressed in sensory ganglia and shows differential binding to netrin receptors. J Neurosci. 1999;19:4938-47 pubmed
    ..Netrin-3 is expressed in sensory ganglia, mesenchymal cells, and muscles during the time of peripheral nerve development but is largely excluded from ..
  5. Lamora A, Voigt M. Cranial sensory ganglia neurons require intrinsic N-cadherin function for guidance of afferent fibers to their final targets. Neuroscience. 2009;159:1175-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, by expressing dominant negative cdh2 constructs selectively within cranial sensory ganglia (CSG) neurons, we found that cdh2 function is necessary within the axons to elicit these stereotypic turns, ..
  6. Knaut H, Blader P, Strahle U, Schier A. Assembly of trigeminal sensory ganglia by chemokine signaling. Neuron. 2005;47:653-66 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that ganglion formation depends on the interplay of birthplace, chemokine attraction, cell-cell interaction, and cadherin-mediated adhesion. ..
  7. Ruan H, Moules E, Burnstock G. Changes in P2X3 purinoceptors in sensory ganglia of the mouse during embryonic and postnatal development. Histochem Cell Biol. 2004;122:539-51 pubmed
    The expression of the P2X(3) nucleotide receptor in embryonic day 14-18, postnatal day 1-14 and adult mouse sensory ganglia was examined using immunohistochemistry...
  8. Sekine Aizawa Y, Omori A, Fujita S. MuSC, a novel member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is expressed in neurons of a subset of cranial sensory ganglia in the mouse embryo. Eur J Neurosci. 1998;10:2810-24 pubmed
    In contrast to the spinal sensory ganglia which reiterate a basic organizational and functional unit, each cranial ganglion mediates a distinct sensory modality and exhibits a characteristic pattern of peripheral and central neuronal ..
  9. Tang X, Schmidt T, Perez Leighton C, Kofuji P. Inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir4.1 is responsible for the native inward potassium conductance of satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia. Neuroscience. 2010;166:397-407 pubmed publisher
    Satellite glial cells (SGCs) surround primary afferent neurons in sensory ganglia, and increasing evidence has implicated the K(+) channels of SGCs in affecting or regulating sensory ganglion excitability...
  10. Papka R, Mowa C. Estrogen receptors in the spinal cord, sensory ganglia, and pelvic autonomic ganglia. Int Rev Cytol. 2003;231:91-127 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on estrogen receptors in sensory, autonomic, and spinal cord neurons in locales that are associated with innervation of female reproductive organs. ..
  11. Cao X, Dai X, Parker L, Kreulen D. Differential regulation of NADPH oxidase in sympathetic and sensory Ganglia in deoxycorticosterone acetate salt hypertension. Hypertension. 2007;50:663-71 pubmed
    ..This differential regulation may contribute to unbalanced vasomotor control and enhanced vasoconstriction in the splanchnic circulation. ..
  12. Zerboni L, Sobel R, Ramachandran V, Rajamani J, Ruyechan W, Abendroth A, et al. Expression of varicella-zoster virus immediate-early regulatory protein IE63 in neurons of latently infected human sensory ganglia. J Virol. 2010;84:3421-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Refining estimates of VZV protein expression in neurons is important for developing a hypothesis about the mechanisms by which VZV latency may be maintained. ..
  13. Blake D, Schofield J, Zuellig R, Gorecki D, Phelps S, Barnard E, et al. G-utrophin, the autosomal homologue of dystrophin Dp116, is expressed in sensory ganglia and brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:3697-701 pubmed
    ..During mouse embryogenesis G-utrophin is also seen in the developing sensory ganglia. Our data confirm the close evolutionary relationships between the DMD and utrophin loci; however, the ..
  14. Watanabe M, Mishina M, Inoue Y. Distinct gene expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel subunit in peripheral neurons of the mouse sensory ganglia and adrenal gland. Neurosci Lett. 1994;165:183-6 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that molecular organization of the NMDA receptor channel in peripheral neurons are distinct from those in central neurons, which may result in different functional properties of the channel between them. ..
  15. Streit A. The preplacodal region: an ectodermal domain with multipotential progenitors that contribute to sense organs and cranial sensory ganglia. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51:447-61 pubmed the paired sense organs - ear, eye and olfactory epithelium - and to the distal parts of the cranial sensory ganglia. Recent evidence suggests that despite their diversity, all placodes share a common developmental origin and ..
  16. Logan C, Wingate R, McKay I, Lumsden A. Tlx-1 and Tlx-3 homeobox gene expression in cranial sensory ganglia and hindbrain of the chick embryo: markers of patterned connectivity. J Neurosci. 1998;18:5389-402 pubmed
    ..Tlx-3 are expressed in overlapping domains within the placodally derived components of a number of cranial sensory ganglia. Tlx-3, unlike Tlx-1, is also expressed in neural crest-derived dorsal root and sympathetic ganglia...
  17. Schmid A, Pyrski M, Biel M, Leinders Zufall T, Zufall F. Grueneberg ganglion neurons are finely tuned cold sensors. J Neurosci. 2010;30:7563-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish the Grueneberg ganglion as a sensory organ mediating cold-evoked neural responses, possibly in conjunction with the sensing of other stress- or fear-related chemical social cues. ..
  18. Scanlin H, Carroll E, Jenkins V, Balkowiec A. Endomorphin-2 is released from newborn rat primary sensory neurons in a frequency- and calcium-dependent manner. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:2629-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These results point to END-2 as a likely mediator of activity-dependent plasticity in sensory pathways. ..
  19. Giangrande A. Proneural genes influence gliogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 1995;121:429-38 pubmed
    ..These observations lead to the hypothesis that gliogenesis is induced by the presence of sensory organ cells, either the precursor or its progeny. ..
  20. Baccus S. Synaptic facilitation by reflected action potentials: enhancement of transmission when nerve impulses reverse direction at axon branch points. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:8345-50 pubmed
    ..Reflection thus allows a neuron to amplify synaptic transmission from a selected group of its branches in a way that can be regulated by electrical activity. ..
  21. Gibbs S, Truman J. Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP regulate retinal patterning in the optic lobe of Drosophila. Neuron. 1998;20:83-93 pubmed
    ..The disruptive effects of L-NAME were prevented with the addition of 8-bromo-cGMP. These results suggest NO and cGMP act to stabilize retinal growth cones at the start of synaptic assembly. ..
  22. Polcicova K, Biswas P, Banerjee K, Wisner T, Rouse B, Johnson D. Herpes keratitis in the absence of anterograde transport of virus from sensory ganglia to the cornea. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:11462-7 pubmed
    ..It has been proposed that herpes simplex virus (HSV) travels from the corneal epithelium to sensory ganglia then returns to the stroma to cause disease...
  23. Matsumoto I, Nakamura S, Emori Y, Arai S, Abe K. Gene expression profiling of cranial sensory ganglia that transmit food intake stimuli. Biofactors. 2004;21:15-8 pubmed
    ..They are derived from four cranial sensory ganglia, trigeminal, geniculate, petrosal, and nodose ganglia, each of which contains multiple kinds of sensory ..
  24. Retamal M, Riquelme M, Stehberg J, Alcayaga J. Connexin43 Hemichannels in Satellite Glial Cells, Can They Influence Sensory Neuron Activity?. Front Mol Neurosci. 2017;10:374 pubmed publisher
    ..The somas of sensory neurons are located in sensory ganglia (i.e., trigeminal and nodose ganglia)...
  25. Baeres F, Møller M, Martin F, Baeres M. Origin of PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibers innervating the subarachnoidal blood vessels of the rat brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2004;24:628-35 pubmed
    ..Summarizing, our retrograde tracings combined with immunohistochemistry indicate that the perikarya in the trigeminal ganglion are the main origin of PACAPergic nerve fibers projecting to the cerebral vasculature of the rat. ..
  26. Mitterreiter J, Ouwendijk W, van Velzen M, van Nierop G, Osterhaus A, Verjans G. Satellite glial cells in human trigeminal ganglia have a broad expression of functional Toll-like receptors. Eur J Immunol. 2017;47:1181-1187 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, human TG-resident SGCs express a broad panel of functional TLRs, suggesting their role in initiating and orchestrating inflammation to pathogens in human sensory ganglia.
  27. Sbarbati A, Osculati F. Extending the enteric nervous system. Biomed Pharmacother. 2007;61:377-82 pubmed
    ..For its characteristics, the LENS appears to be an ideal model to study the elementary connectivity of the ENS. ..
  28. Okun M, Bhatti M. SANDO: another presentation of mitochondrial disease. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137:951-3 pubmed
    ..Mitochondrial disease should be considered in cases of external ophthalmoplegia, especially if a sensory ganglionopathy and dysarthria are present. ..
  29. Shiraki K, Andoh T, Imakita M, Kurokawa M, Kuraishi Y, Niimura M, et al. Caffeine inhibits paresthesia induced by herpes simplex virus through action on primary sensory neurons in rats. Neurosci Res. 1998;31:235-40 pubmed
  30. Wahee P, Aggarwal A, Harjeet K, Sahni D. Surgical anatomy of sensory portion of superficial fibular nerve for harvesting nerve grafts from fetuses. Clin Anat. 2010;23:726-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Such data may be of help in defining nerve segments suitable for harvesting in nerve grafts from fetuses. ..
  31. Zhong Y, Dunn P, Burnstock G. Pharmacological comparison of P2X receptors on rat coeliac, mouse coeliac and mouse pelvic ganglion neurons. Neuropharmacology. 2000;39:172-80 pubmed
    ..e. they are homomeric P2X2 receptors, or heteromultimers with P2X2 being the dominant subunit. ..
  32. Taylor M, Yeager K, Morrison S. Physiological Notch signaling promotes gliogenesis in the developing peripheral and central nervous systems. Development. 2007;134:2435-47 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that physiological Notch signaling is required for gliogenesis in vivo, independent of the role of Notch in the maintenance of undifferentiated neural progenitors. ..
  33. Russell T, Velusamy T, Tseng Y, Tscharke D. Increasing antigen presentation on HSV-1-infected cells increases lesion size but does not alter neural infection or latency. J Gen Virol. 2018;99:682-692 pubmed publisher
    ..not significantly alter the extent or stability of latency in our mouse model, and virus loads in skin and sensory ganglia of infected mice were not affected...
  34. Rozengart E, Basova N. Differences in substrate and inhibitor specificity of cholinesterase activity of optical ganglia of the squid Ommastrephes bartrami (Les) as a characteristic of isolation of populations from different areas of a disjunctive home range. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2005;400:56-60 pubmed
  35. Caton A, Hacker A, Naeem A, Livet J, Maina F, Bladt F, et al. The branchial arches and HGF are growth-promoting and chemoattractant for cranial motor axons. Development. 2000;127:1751-66 pubmed
    ..They then grow in association with sensory ganglia, to their targets, the muscles of the branchial arches...
  36. Naeve G, Vana A, Eggold J, Verge G, Ling N, Foster A. Expression of rat insulin-like growth factor binding protein-6 in the brain, spinal cord, and sensory ganglia. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2000;75:185-97 pubmed
  37. Kaelberer M, Jordt S. A Method to Target and Isolate Airway-innervating Sensory Neurons in Mice. J Vis Exp. 2016;: pubmed publisher
    ..The cell bodies of these afferent neurons are located within the sensory ganglia. Sensory ganglia innervate a specific organ or portion of the body...
  38. Grey F, Sowa M, Collins P, Fenton R, Harris W, Snowden W, et al. Characterization of a neurovirulent aciclovir-resistant variant of herpes simplex virus. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1403-10 pubmed
    ..Thus, this variant is the major component in virus reactivated from latently infected ganglia. Mutation frequency appears to be influenced by the genetic background of the virus. ..
  39. Mokashi A, Li J, Roy A, Baby S, Lahiri S. ATP causes glomus cell [Ca2+]c increase without corresponding increases in CSN activity. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2003;138:1-18 pubmed
    ..Thus, ATP dependent linear increases in [Ca(2+)](c) did not give rise to a corresponding increase in CSN activities, contravening the normally expected increase in CSN activities following [Ca(2+)](c) rise. ..
  40. Andermann P, Weinberg E. Expression of zTlxA, a Hox11-like gene, in early differentiating embryonic neurons and cranial sensory ganglia of the zebrafish embryo. Dev Dyn. 2001;222:595-610 pubmed
    ..and in the trigeminal, statoacoustic, anterior lateral line, glossopharyngeal, and vagal cranial sensory ganglia. Timing of expression of the gene in these neurons correlates with the phase of axonal outgrowth and target ..
  41. Jones J, Warchol M. Expression of the Gata3 transcription factor in the acoustic ganglion of the developing avian inner ear. J Comp Neurol. 2009;516:507-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The increase of Gata3 in auditory ganglion neurons is accompanied by decreased expression of NeuroD. Our results suggest that Gata3 may be specifically involved in the differentiation of auditory ganglion neurons. ..
  42. Escot S, Blavet C, Faure E, Zaffran S, Duband J, Fournier Thibault C. Disruption of CXCR4 signaling in pharyngeal neural crest cells causes DiGeorge syndrome-like malformations. Development. 2016;143:582-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of pharyngeal NCs in chick and dramatic morphological alterations in the mandibular skeleton, thymus and cranial sensory ganglia. Our results therefore support the possibility of a pivotal role for the SDF1/CXCR4 axis in DGS etiology.
  43. Moorman S. Development of sensory systems in zebrafish (Danio rerio). ILAR J. 2001;42:292-8 pubmed
    ..The development of the sensory systems is only a small sampling of the work being done using zebrafish and provides a mere glimpse of the potential of this model for the study of vertebrate development, physiology, and human disease. ..
  44. Pannese E. Perikaryal surface specializations of neurons in sensory ganglia. Int Rev Cytol. 2002;220:1-34 pubmed
    ..Further study of the nerve cell body surface and of the influence that satellite cells exert on it will improve our understanding of the interactions between sensory ganglion neurons and satellite neuroglial cells. ..
  45. Takeda M, Takahashi M, Matsumoto S. Contribution of the activation of satellite glia in sensory ganglia to pathological pain. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2009;33:784-92 pubmed publisher the maintenance of pathological pain, recent evidence suggests that activation of satellite glia in sensory ganglia may also play an important role in the development of hyperalgesia and allodynia...
  46. Harrison B, Venkat G, Hutson T, Rau K, Bunge M, Mendell L, et al. Transcriptional changes in sensory ganglia associated with primary afferent axon collateral sprouting in spared dermatome model. Genom Data. 2015;6:249-52 pubmed publisher
    ..raw gene expression data files from microarray experiments in order to study the gene regulation in spared sensory ganglia in the initiation (7 days) and maintenance (14 days) phases of the spared dermatome model relative to ..
  47. Emanuilov A, Shilkin V, Nozdrachev A, Masliukov P. Afferent innervation of the trachea during postnatal development. Auton Neurosci. 2005;120:68-72 pubmed
    ..We suggest that afferent innervation of the trachea is not morphologically complete at the moment of birth and does not become mature until the second month of life. ..
  48. Gacek R. The biology of neurotropic viruses. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2002;60:1-11 pubmed
  49. Brinkworth R, Mah E, Gray J, O Carroll D. Photoreceptor processing improves salience facilitating small target detection in cluttered scenes. J Vis. 2008;8:8.1-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The application of the functional principals outlined in this work could be utilized in areas such as robotics and surveillance, medical imaging, or astronomy, anywhere it is necessary to detect a small item from a cluttered surround. ..
  50. Kawagishi K, Fukushima N, Yokouchi K, Sumitomo N, Kakegawa A, Moriizumi T. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers in the human vagus nerve. J Clin Neurosci. 2008;15:1023-6 pubmed publisher
    ..From these findings, we conclude that sympathetic fibers are consistently included in the human vagus nerve, a main source of parasympathetic preganglionic fibers to the cervical, thoracic and abdominal visceral organs. ..
  51. May O, Hill D. Gustatory terminal field organization and developmental plasticity in the nucleus of the solitary tract revealed through triple-fluorescence labeling. J Comp Neurol. 2006;497:658-69 pubmed
  52. Warwick R, Hanani M. Involvement of aberrant calcium signalling in herpetic neuralgia. Exp Neurol. 2016;277:10-18 pubmed publisher
    ..After primary infection, these viruses establish latency within sensory ganglia, while retaining the ability to reactivate...
  53. Premkumar L, Raisinghani M. Nociceptors in cardiovascular functions: complex interplay as a result of cyclooxygenase inhibition. Mol Pain. 2006;2:26 pubmed