perineuronal satellite cells


Summary: The non-neuronal cells that surround the neuronal cell bodies of the GANGLIA. They are distinguished from the perineuronal satellite oligodendrocytes (OLIGODENDROGLIA) found in the central nervous system.

Top Publications

  1. Heblich F, England S, Docherty R. Indirect actions of bradykinin on neonatal rat dorsal root ganglion neurones: a role for non-neuronal cells as nociceptors. J Physiol. 2001;536:111-21 pubmed
    ..However, Bk can also act directly on the neurones, since it evokes Ca(Bk) in isolated neurones. The relationship between Ca(Bk) and the Bk-induced inward current is unknown at present. ..
  2. Dublin P, Hanani M. Satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia: their possible contribution to inflammatory pain. Brain Behav Immun. 2007;21:592-8 pubmed
    ..The elevation in pain threshold after carbenoxolone administration provides indirect support for the idea that augmented intercellular coupling might contribute to chronic pain. ..
  3. Cherkas P, Huang T, Pannicke T, Tal M, Reichenbach A, Hanani M. The effects of axotomy on neurons and satellite glial cells in mouse trigeminal ganglion. Pain. 2004;110:290-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that axotomy affects both neurons and SGCs in the trigeminal ganglion. The increased neuronal excitability and ectopic firing may play a major role in neuropathic pain. ..
  4. Procacci P, Magnaghi V, Pannese E. Perineuronal satellite cells in mouse spinal ganglia express the gap junction protein connexin43 throughout life with decline in old age. Brain Res Bull. 2008;75:562-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These junctions may endow perineuronal satellite cells with the coordination necessary for the efficient performance of functions such as buffering of K(+) in ..
  5. Parise G, McKinnell I, Rudnicki M. Muscle satellite cell and atypical myogenic progenitor response following exercise. Muscle Nerve. 2008;37:611-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we conclude that muscle satellite cells are the primary responders to exercise-induced stress and that the CD45+:Sca-1+ myogenic progenitors do not contribute to muscle repair/adaptation following exercise. ..
  6. Hanani M. Satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia: from form to function. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2005;48:457-76 pubmed
    ..Damage to the axons of sensory ganglia is known to contribute to neuropathic pain. Such damage also affects SGCs, and it can be proposed that these cells have a role in pathological changes in the ganglia. ..
  7. Levy B, Cunha J, Chadi G. Cellular analysis of S100Beta and fibroblast growth factor-2 in the dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerve of rodents. focus on paracrine actions of activated satellite cells after axotomy. Int J Neurosci. 2007;117:1481-503 pubmed
    ..Results suggested a possible interaction between FGF-2 and S100Beta in activated satellite cells of the DRG, which might trigger paracrine actions in the axotomized sensory neurons. ..
  8. Wakisaka H, Kobayashi N, Mominoki K, Saito S, Honda N, Hato N, et al. Herpes simplex virus in the vestibular ganglion and the geniculate ganglion-role of loose myelin. J Neurocytol. 2001;30:685-93 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that loose myelin is an important barrier to HSV-1 infection, and it must play an important role in the prevention of viral spread from infected neurons to other cells. ..
  9. Uzdensky A, Kolosov M, Bragin D, Dergacheva O, Vanzha O, Oparina L. Involvement of adenylate cyclase and tyrosine kinase signaling pathways in response of crayfish stretch receptor neuron and satellite glia cell to photodynamic treatment. Glia. 2005;49:339-48 pubmed
    ..Adenylate cyclase but not phosphotyrosine signaling pathways modulated glial apoptosis and proliferation under photooxidative stress. ..

More Information


  1. Martinelli C, Sartori P, Ledda M, Pannese E. Mitochondria in perineuronal satellite cell sheaths of rabbit spinal ganglia: quantitative changes during life. Cells Tissues Organs. 2007;186:141-6 pubmed
    ..ability of SCSs to produce energy decreases with age and that the reduced ability of spinal ganglion neurons to respond to high energy demands in old age may be in part due to the diminished contribution of perineuronal satellite cells.
  2. Avivi C, Cui S, Goren S, Goldstein R. Differences in neuronal differentiation between the transient cranial (Frorieps') and normal dorsal root ganglia. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2002;135:19-28 pubmed
    ..In contrast to the neuronal markers examined, the satellite cell marker 7B3 is expressed at similar levels in DRG2 and DRG5. ..
  3. Peters C, Jimenez Andrade J, Jonas B, Sevcik M, Koewler N, Ghilardi J, et al. Intravenous paclitaxel administration in the rat induces a peripheral sensory neuropathy characterized by macrophage infiltration and injury to sensory neurons and their supporting cells. Exp Neurol. 2007;203:42-54 pubmed
    ..An understanding of the factors involved in the development and maintenance of PN may lead to mechanism based therapies that prevent/treat PN and thus improve the survival and quality of life of patients receiving chemotherapy. ..
  4. Jejurikar S, Marcelo C, Kuzon W. Skeletal muscle denervation increases satellite cell susceptibility to apoptosis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;110:160-8 pubmed
    ..Apoptosis may play a causative role in the depletion of satellite cells in long-term denervated skeletal muscle. ..
  5. Jurgaitiene R, Pauziene N, Azelis V, Zurauskas E. Morphometric study of age-related changes in the human intracardiac ganglia. Medicina (Kaunas). 2004;40:574-81 pubmed
    ..Shape factor of neurons was stable between the groups. In conclusion, the present study confirms significant differences in the morphology of the intrinsic cardiac ganglia with age. ..
  6. Tsivitse S. Notch and Wnt signaling, physiological stimuli and postnatal myogenesis. Int J Biol Sci. 2010;6:268-81 pubmed
  7. Kumagai M, Saino T. Effects of ATP on intracellular calcium dynamics of neurons and satellite cells in rat superior cervical ganglia. Histochem Cell Biol. 2001;115:285-92 pubmed
    ..We concluded that neurons respond to extracellular ATP mainly via P2Y purinoceptors and that satellite cells respond via P2X purinoceptors. ..
  8. Martinelli C, Sartori P, Ledda M, Pannese E. Age-related quantitative changes in mitochondria of satellite cell sheaths enveloping spinal ganglion neurons in the rabbit. Brain Res Bull. 2003;61:147-51 pubmed
  9. Ohara P, Vit J, Bhargava A, Romero M, Sundberg C, Charles A, et al. Gliopathic pain: when satellite glial cells go bad. Neuroscientist. 2009;15:450-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose the term gliopathic pain to describe those conditions in which central or peripheral glia are thought to be the principal generators of principal pain generators. ..
  10. Hu J, Higuchi I, Yoshida Y, Shiraishi T, Osame M. Expression of midkine in regenerating skeletal muscle fibers and cultured myoblasts of human skeletal muscle. Eur Neurol. 2002;47:20-5 pubmed
    ..This is the first report demonstrating the presence of midkine in skeletal muscle cells. ..
  11. Raginov I, Chelyshev Y, Shagidullin T. Interaction of sensory neurons and satellite cells during stimulation of nerve regeneration. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2004;34:79-81 pubmed
  12. Martinelli C, Sartori P, Ledda M, Pannese E. Gap junctions between perineuronal satellite cells increase in number with age in rabbit spinal ganglia. J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol. 2004;36:17-22 pubmed
    The gap junctions between perineuronal satellite cells were studied in the spinal ganglia of 12, 42, and 79-month-old rabbits...
  13. Capuano A, De Corato A, Lisi L, Tringali G, Navarra P, Dello Russo C. Proinflammatory-activated trigeminal satellite cells promote neuronal sensitization: relevance for migraine pathology. Mol Pain. 2009;5:43 pubmed publisher
    ..The responsiveness of IL-1beta to CGRP creates the potential for a positive feedback loop and, thus, a plurality of targets for therapeutic intervention in migraine. ..
  14. Martinelli C, Sartori P, De Palo S, Ledda M, Pannese E. The perineuronal glial tissue of spinal ganglia. Quantitative changes in the rabbit from youth to extremely advanced age. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2006;211:455-63 pubmed
  15. Huang T, Hanani M. Morphological and electrophysiological changes in mouse dorsal root ganglia after partial colonic obstruction. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005;289:G670-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that obstruction increased neuronal excitability, which is likely to be a major factor in the pain behavior observed. The augmented dye coupling between glial cells may contribute to the neuronal hyperexcitability. ..
  16. Yi Z, Hathaway M, Dayton W, White M. Effects of growth factors on insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) secretion by primary porcine satellite cell cultures. J Anim Sci. 2001;79:2820-6 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the effects of IGF-I, TGF- beta1 and bFGF on porcine satellite cells may in part be through the autocrine/ paracrine production of IGFBP-3 and -5 by porcine satellite cells. ..
  17. Mangin J, Kunze A, Chittajallu R, Gallo V. Satellite NG2 progenitor cells share common glutamatergic inputs with associated interneurons in the mouse dentate gyrus. J Neurosci. 2008;28:7610-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that NG2(+) cells are sensing patterns of activity arising in closely associated neurons suggests that NG2(+) cell function is finely regulated by the local network. ..
  18. Dityatev A, Brückner G, Dityateva G, Grosche J, Kleene R, Schachner M. Activity-dependent formation and functions of chondroitin sulfate-rich extracellular matrix of perineuronal nets. Dev Neurobiol. 2007;67:570-88 pubmed
    ..Removal of PNs did not affect the number and distribution of perisomatic GABAergic contacts but increased the excitability of interneurons in cultures, implicating the extracellular matrix of PNs in regulation of interneuronal activity. ..
  19. Vause C, Durham P. Calcitonin gene-related peptide differentially regulates gene and protein expression in trigeminal glia cells: findings from array analysis. Neurosci Lett. 2010;473:163-7 pubmed publisher
  20. Hanani M, Huang T, Cherkas P, Ledda M, Pannese E. Glial cell plasticity in sensory ganglia induced by nerve damage. Neuroscience. 2002;114:279-83 pubmed
    ..These changes may be an important mode of glial plasticity and can contribute to neuropathic pain. ..
  21. Siemionow K, Weinstein J, McLain R. Support and satellite cells within the rabbit dorsal root ganglion: ultrastructure of a perineuronal support cell. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31:1882-7 pubmed
    ..A new type of support cell representing a different cell line or a highly adapted cell with specific functional capacities was identified. ..
  22. Spangenburg E, Booth F. Multiple signaling pathways mediate LIF-induced skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002;283:C204-11 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that LIF induces satellite cell proliferation by activation of the JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway, suggesting that this may be an important pathway in muscle growth and/or hypertrophy. ..
  23. Nandasena B, Suzuki A, Aita M, Kawano Y, Nozawa Inoue K, Maeda T. Immunolocalization of aquaporin-1 in the mechanoreceptive Ruffini endings in the periodontal ligament. Brain Res. 2007;1157:32-40 pubmed
    ..4+/-172.4 microm2), indicating that they could be categorized as medium-sized neurons which mediate mechanotransduction. These findings suggest that AQP1 controls water transport in the periodontal Ruffini endings. ..
  24. Dergacheva O, Kolosov M, Uzdenskii A. [Photosensibilization of isolated mechanoreceptor neuron of Astacus leptodactilus and satellite glial cells with endogenous riboflavin]. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2005;41:259-65 pubmed
  25. Furlani V, Habacuque T, Souza R, Liberti E. Morphological and quantitative study of ganglionated plexus of Calomys callosus trachea. Auton Neurosci. 2008;144:30-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A ganglion capsule of collagen and elastic fibers surrounding the neurons was observed. Under polarized light, the capsule appeared to be formed by Type I collagen fibers. ..
  26. Chen Y, Zhang X, Wang C, Li G, Gu Y, Huang L. Activation of P2X7 receptors in glial satellite cells reduces pain through downregulation of P2X3 receptors in nociceptive neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:16773-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, direct blocking P2X7Rs, as proposed before, may not be the best strategy for reducing pain or lessening neuronal degeneration because it also disrupts the protective function of P2X7Rs. ..
  27. Faber Zuschratter H, Hüttmann K, Steinhäuser C, Becker A, Schramm J, Okafo U, et al. Ultrastructural and functional characterization of satellitosis in the human lateral amygdala associated with Ammon's horn sclerosis. Acta Neuropathol. 2009;117:545-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, perineuronal satellitosis as studied in the LA seems to be a hallmark of AHS-associated TLE pathology in patients suffering from intractable epilepsy. ..
  28. Lennerz J, Rühle V, Ceppa E, Neuhuber W, Bunnett N, Grady E, et al. Calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactivity in the rat trigeminovascular system: differences between peripheral and central CGRP receptor distribu. J Comp Neurol. 2008;507:1277-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in the trigeminovascular system CGRP receptor localization suggests multiple targets for CGRP in the pathogenesis of primary headaches. ..
  29. Wu J, Sun X, Zhong S. [Changes in muscle satellite cells in denervated and innervated muscles]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2006;20:1047-51 pubmed
    ..However, when the innervation is performed 2-3 months after the denervation, the actively-growing satellite cells can promote a better functional recovery of the atrophic muscle. ..
  30. Tang X, Schmidt T, Perez Leighton C, Kofuji P. Inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir4.1 is responsible for the native inward potassium conductance of satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia. Neuroscience. 2010;166:397-407 pubmed publisher
    ..1 is the principal Kir channel type in SGCs. Therefore Kir4.1 emerges as a key regulator of SGC function and possibly neuronal excitability in sensory ganglia. ..
  31. Zigmond R, Vaccariello S. Activating transcription factor 3 immunoreactivity identifies small populations of axotomized neurons in rat cervical sympathetic ganglia after transection of the preganglionic cervical sympathetic trunk. Brain Res. 2007;1159:119-23 pubmed
  32. Van Steenwinckel J, Noghero A, Thibault K, Brisorgueil M, Fischer J, Conrath M. The 5-HT2A receptor is mainly expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons in rat lumbar dorsal root ganglia. Neuroscience. 2009;161:838-46 pubmed publisher
  33. Siemionow K, Klimczak A, Brzezicki G, Siemionow M, McLain R. The effects of inflammation on glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in satellite cells of the dorsal root ganglion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34:1631-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that SCs are the primary source of GFAP in the DRG. We hypothesize that SC play an important role in the response to early inflammatory injury. ..
  34. Jin Z, Kikuchi T, Tanaka K, Kobayashi T. Expression of glutamate transporter GLAST in the developing mouse cochlea. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2003;200:137-44 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the expression of GLAST may be needed for the efficient removal and metabolism of the released glutamate in the cochlea and may play important roles in the onset and maturation of the auditory system...
  35. Dayer A, Cleaver K, Abouantoun T, Cameron H. New GABAergic interneurons in the adult neocortex and striatum are generated from different precursors. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:415-27 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, no DCX+ cells were found within the neocortex. NG2 immunoreactivity in some new neocortical neurons suggested that they may instead be generated from the NG2+ precursors that reside within the cortex itself. ..
  36. Zhang X, Chen Y, Wang C, Huang L. Neuronal somatic ATP release triggers neuron-satellite glial cell communication in dorsal root ganglia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:9864-9 pubmed
    ..These results also suggest that, contrary to the conventional view, neuronal somata have a significant role in cell-cell signaling. ..
  37. Shoji Y, Yamaguchi Yamada M, Yamamoto Y. Glutamate- and GABA-mediated neuron-satellite cell interaction in nodose ganglia as revealed by intracellular calcium imaging. Histochem Cell Biol. 2010;134:13-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Such neuron-glia interaction in the nodose ganglion may regulate sensory information from visceral organs. ..
  38. Li L, Xian C, Zhong J, Zhou X. Lumbar 5 ventral root transection-induced upregulation of nerve growth factor in sensory neurons and their target tissues: a mechanism in neuropathic pain. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2003;23:232-50 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that NGF is an important pain mediator in the generation of mechanical sensitivity induced by L5 VRT. ..
  39. Woodhoo A, Dean C, Droggiti A, Mirsky R, Jessen K. The trunk neural crest and its early glial derivatives: a study of survival responses, developmental schedules and autocrine mechanisms. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2004;25:30-41 pubmed
    ..They show that survival mechanisms among PNS glia differ early in development and that satellite cell development runs ahead of schedule compared to Schwann cells in several significant features. ..
  40. Fedorenko G, Uzdensky A. Cellular structures involved in the transport processes and neuroglial interactions in the crayfish stretch receptor. J Integr Neurosci. 2009;8:433-40 pubmed
    ..The neuroglial transport could also be performed by diffusion across the intercellular space. These data indicate the significant neuroglial exchange with cellular components. ..
  41. Vit J, Ohara P, Bhargava A, Kelley K, Jasmin L. Silencing the Kir4.1 potassium channel subunit in satellite glial cells of the rat trigeminal ganglion results in pain-like behavior in the absence of nerve injury. J Neurosci. 2008;28:4161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..1 to treat pain in general and particularly neuropathic pain that occurs in the absence of nerve injury. ..
  42. Burton B, Economo M, Lee G, White J. Development of theta rhythmicity in entorhinal stellate cells of the juvenile rat. J Neurophysiol. 2008;100:3144-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data predict that functions that rely on theta rhythmicity in the hippocampal network are limited until at least P18...
  43. Yamane A, Akutsu S, Diekwisch T, Matsuda R. Satellite cells and utrophin are not directly correlated with the degree of skeletal muscle damage in mdx mice. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;289:C42-8 pubmed
    ..231) in the mdx mice, although upregulated utrophin was incorporated into the sarcolemma. These results suggest that satellite cells and utrophin are not directly correlated with the degree of skeletal muscle damage in mdx mice. ..
  44. Zec N, Kinney H. Anatomic relationships of the human nucleus of the solitary tract in the medulla oblongata: a DiI labeling study. Auton Neurosci. 2003;105:131-44 pubmed
  45. Zhao Y, Xiao J, Ueda M, Wang Y, Hines M, Nowak T, et al. Glial elements contribute to stress-induced torsinA expression in the CNS and peripheral nervous system. Neuroscience. 2008;155:439-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The striking induction of torsinA in astrocytes and satellite cells points to the potential involvement of glial elements in the pathobiology of DYT1 dystonia. ..
  46. Nédellec P, Edling Y, Perret E, Fardeau M, Vicart P. Glucocorticoid treatment induces expression of small heat shock proteins in human satellite cell populations: consequences for a desmin-related myopathy involving the R120G alpha B-crystallin mutation. Neuromuscul Disord. 2002;12:457-65 pubmed
    ..We also observed that the protective effect against stress of alpha B-crystallin is altered upon glucocorticoid-induced small heat shock protein expression for the desmin-related myopathy-derived cells. ..
  47. Martinelli C, Sartori P, De Palo S, Ledda M, Pannese E. Increase in number of the gap junctions between satellite neuroglial cells during lifetime: an ultrastructural study in rabbit spinal ganglia from youth to extremely advanced age. Brain Res Bull. 2005;67:19-23 pubmed
    ..Both the total number of gap junctions present in 30,000 microm2 of surface area occupied by perineuronal satellite cells, and the density of these junctions increased throughout life, including the extremely advanced age...
  48. Gacek R, Gacek M. The three faces of vestibular ganglionitis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2002;111:103-14 pubmed
    ..The reactivation of the latent virus may manifest as one of the above vertigo syndromes, depending on the part of the vestibular ganglion that is inflamed, the type and strain of the virus, and host resistance. ..
  49. Xie W, Strong J, Zhang J. Early blockade of injured primary sensory afferents reduces glial cell activation in two rat neuropathic pain models. Neuroscience. 2009;160:847-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that early spontaneous activity in injured sensory neurons may play important roles in glia activation and pathological pain. ..
  50. Zou J, Zhang Y, Yin S, Wu H, Pyykko I. Mitochondrial dysfunction disrupts trafficking of Kir4.1 in spiral ganglion satellite cells. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Kir4.1 failed to reach the perineural cytoplasm of the satellite cells after 3-NP treatment. The results of this study suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction disrupts trafficking of Kir4.1 in spiral ganglion satellite cells. ..
  51. Russell J, Gill J, Sorenson E, Schultz D, Windebank A. Suramin-induced neuropathy in an animal model. J Neurol Sci. 2001;192:71-80 pubmed
    ..Suramin induced a length, dose and time-dependent axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy associated with axonal degeneration, atrophy, and accumulation of glycolipid lysosomal inclusions. ..
  52. Balarezo F, Muller R, Weiss R, Brown T, Knibbs D, Joshi V. Soft tissue perineuriomas in children: report of three cases and review of the literature [corrected]. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2003;6:137-41 pubmed
    ..A review of the English language literature on perineuriomas in children is also included. ..
  53. Parry D. Myosin heavy chain expression and plasticity: role of myoblast diversity. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2001;29:175-9 pubmed
    ..Recent results pertinent to this observation are discussed, and a hypothetical scheme is presented whereby the contribution of myonuclei from distinct populations of myogenic precursors may account for this limited adaptive range. ..