invertebrate ganglia


Summary: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.

Top Publications

  1. Heinze S, Homberg U. Maplike representation of celestial E-vector orientations in the brain of an insect. Science. 2007;315:995-7 pubmed
    ..The maplike arrangement is highly suited to signal head orientation under the open sky. ..
  2. Rabbah P, Nadim F. Distinct synaptic dynamics of heterogeneous pacemaker neurons in an oscillatory network. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97:2239-53 pubmed
    ..These comparisons showed that the activity of the LP and PY neurons is influenced by the peak phase and amplitude of the synaptic inputs from the pacemaker neurons. ..
  3. Joesch M, Plett J, Borst A, Reiff D. Response properties of motion-sensitive visual interneurons in the lobula plate of Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2008;18:368-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The underlying neural mechanisms of population coding within the VS cell network and of elementary motion detection, respectively, can now be analyzed by the combination of electrophysiology and genetic intervention in Drosophila. ..
  4. Predel R, Eckert M, Pollak E, Molnar L, Scheibner O, Neupert S. Peptidomics of identified neurons demonstrates a highly differentiated expression pattern of FXPRLamides in the neuroendocrine system of an insect. J Comp Neurol. 2007;500:498-512 pubmed
  5. Marder E, Bucher D. Understanding circuit dynamics using the stomatogastric nervous system of lobsters and crabs. Annu Rev Physiol. 2007;69:291-316 pubmed
    ..Many of the observations first made using the stomatogastric nervous system can be generalized to other invertebrate and vertebrate circuits. ..
  6. Luan H, Lemon W, Peabody N, Pohl J, Zelensky P, Wang D, et al. Functional dissection of a neuronal network required for cuticle tanning and wing expansion in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2006;26:573-84 pubmed
  7. Schulz D, Goaillard J, Marder E. Variable channel expression in identified single and electrically coupled neurons in different animals. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:356-62 pubmed
  8. Imai J, Meinertzhagen I. Neurons of the ascidian larval nervous system in Ciona intestinalis: I. Central nervous system. J Comp Neurol. 2007;501:316-34 pubmed
    ..The caudal nerve cord contained the first reported neurons, the somata of planate neurons. These neurons are the first identified types, and will be used to construct a map of the nervous system for this model basal chordate. ..
  9. Bullerjahn A, Mentel T, Pflüger H, Stevenson P. Nitric oxide: a co-modulator of efferent peptidergic neurosecretory cells including a unique octopaminergic neurone innervating locust heart. Cell Tissue Res. 2006;325:345-60 pubmed
    ..Possible mechanisms for the actions of NO on the heart and interactions with other neuromodulators co-localized in the DUM-heart neurone (octopamine, taurine, RF-amide-like peptide) are discussed. ..

More Information


  1. Norris B, Weaver A, Wenning A, Garcia P, Calabrese R. A central pattern generator producing alternative outputs: phase relations of leech heart motor neurons with respect to premotor synaptic input. J Neurophysiol. 2007;98:2983-91 pubmed
    ..Bilateral recordings from motor neurons corroborate the main features of the asymmetric motor pattern...
  2. Skeath J, Thor S. Genetic control of Drosophila nerve cord development. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2003;13:8-15 pubmed
    ..These genes in turn specify the identity of any given postmitotic cell, which is evident by its cellular morphology and choice of neurotransmitter. ..
  3. Karcavich R. Generating neuronal diversity in the Drosophila central nervous system: a view from the ganglion mother cells. Dev Dyn. 2005;232:609-16 pubmed
    ..The other mechanism involves genes, such as even-skipped and klumpfuss that specify the fate of individual GMCs. All of these mechanisms converge within a GMC to bestow upon it a unique fate. ..
  4. Choi Y, Lee G, Hall J, Park J. Comparative analysis of Corazonin-encoding genes (Crz's) in Drosophila species and functional insights into Crz-expressing neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2005;482:372-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Two pairs of ectopic Crz cells were detected in the adult brains of behaviorally arrhythmic Clock(Jrk) or cycle(02) mutants, suggesting that CLOCK and CYCLE proteins negatively regulate Crz transcription in a cell-specific manner...
  5. Bucher D, Prinz A, Marder E. Animal-to-animal variability in motor pattern production in adults and during growth. J Neurosci. 2005;25:1611-9 pubmed
    ..We interpret this as evidence for homeostatic regulation of network activity...
  6. Harzsch S. Evolution of identified arthropod neurons: the serotonergic system in relation to engrailed-expressing cells in the embryonic ventral nerve cord of the american lobster homarus americanus milne edwards, 1873 (malacostraca, pleocyemata, homarida). Dev Biol. 2003;258:44-56 pubmed
    ..Starting from this ground pattern, the evolutionary diversification of this class of neurons within the Mandibulata is discussed. ..
  7. Allan D, St Pierre S, Miguel Aliaga I, Thor S. Specification of neuropeptide cell identity by the integration of retrograde BMP signaling and a combinatorial transcription factor code. Cell. 2003;113:73-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, an intrinsic transcription factor code integrates with an extrinsic retrograde signal to select a specific neuropeptide identity within peptidergic cells. ..
  8. Ott S, Elphick M. New techniques for whole-mount NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry demonstrated in insect ganglia. J Histochem Cytochem. 2003;51:523-32 pubmed
    ..methanol/formalin fixation, this permitted staining to develop evenly throughout these comparatively large invertebrate ganglia. These improvements were complemented by a new clearing technique that preserves the NADPHd staining, gives ..
  9. Vaschenko M, Kotsyuba E. NADPH-diaphorase activity in the central nervous system of the Gray mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Dunker) under stress conditions: a histochemical study. Mar Environ Res. 2008;66:249-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results suggest that NO is involved in mollusk nerve cell adaptation to environmental changes. ..
  10. Reyes M, Huerta R, Rabinovich M, Selverston A. Artificial synaptic modification reveals a dynamical invariant in the pyloric CPG. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008;102:667-75 pubmed
    ..This dynamical invariant was preserved despite the individual variability in the period and phase lag measurements, suggesting a tightly regulated constraint between the parameters of the network. ..
  11. Strausfeld N, Sinakevitch I, Okamura J. Organization of local interneurons in optic glomeruli of the dipterous visual system and comparisons with the antennal lobes. Dev Neurobiol. 2007;67:1267-88 pubmed
    ..The present results demonstrate that future studies must consider the roles of other senses in visual processing. ..
  12. Fu Q, Tang L, Marder E, Li L. Mass spectrometric characterization and physiological actions of VPNDWAHFRGSWamide, a novel B type allatostatin in the crab, Cancer borealis. J Neurochem. 2007;101:1099-107 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, despite marked amino-acid sequence dissimilarity between the novel CbAST-B1 and the A type allatostatin family of peptides (AST-A), the physiological effects of CbAST-B1 are similar to those of AST-A. ..
  13. Solntseva E, Bukanova J, Marchenko E, Rossokhin A, Skrebitsky V. The binding of donepezil with external mouth of K+-channels of molluscan neurons. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2009;29:219-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that TEA interferes with donepezil and precludes the occupation by donepezil of its own site. We suppose that the site for donepezil is situated near the TEA site with possible overlap. ..
  14. Kononenko N, Wolfenberg H, Pflüger H. Tyramine as an independent transmitter and a precursor of octopamine in the locust central nervous system: an immunocytochemical study. J Comp Neurol. 2009;512:433-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that tyramine is an independent transmitter in locusts, and that in octopaminergic neurons the ratio between octopamine and its precursor tyramine is highly dynamic...
  15. Cardona A, Larsen C, Hartenstein V. Neuronal fiber tracts connecting the brain and ventral nerve cord of the early Drosophila larva. J Comp Neurol. 2009;515:427-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This work provides a structural framework for functional and genetic studies addressing the control of Drosophila larval behavior by brain circuits. ..
  16. Baltzley M, Lohmann K. Comparative study of TPep-like immunoreactive neurons in the central nervous system of nudibranch molluscs. Brain Behav Evol. 2008;72:192-206 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the motor circuit underlying crawling might adapt to changes in foot size by changing the size of motor neurons in the circuit, but that changes in cell number are not directly related to foot size. ..
  17. Pérez Linares J, Ochoa J, Gago Martinez A. Retention and tissue damage of PSP and NSP toxins in shrimp: Is cultured shrimp a potential vector of toxins to human population?. Toxicon. 2009;53:185-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Histology damages were observed in the heart, gastric gland and brain. This study strongly supports that shrimp represent a potential risk for humans as unconventional vectors of phycotoxins. ..
  18. Hui K, Feng Z. NCS-1 differentially regulates growth cone and somata calcium channels in Lymnaea neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:631-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we conclude that NCS-1 differentially modulates Ca2+ currents in the somata and growth cones of regenerating neurons, and may serve as a key regulator to facilitate the growth cone calcium channel activity...
  19. Money T, Rodgers C, McGregor S, Robertson R. Loss of potassium homeostasis underlies hyperthermic conduction failure in control and preconditioned locusts. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:285-93 pubmed publisher
  20. Lin P, Tsai M, Lu G, Lu D, Chuang C, Yang H, et al. Ecstasy and methamphetamine elicit action potential bursts via different mechanisms in a central snail neuron. Neurotoxicology. 2010;31:26-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather, action potential bursts may be elicited through (1) combined activation of the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway and inhibition of the I(KD) and (2) combined activation of PKC and inhibition of the I(KD)...
  21. Bell H, Inoue T, Syed N. A peripheral oxygen sensor provides direct activation of an identified respiratory CPG neuron in Lymnaea. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;605:25-9 pubmed
  22. Korshunova T, Malyshev A, Zakharov I, Ierusalimskii V, Balaban P. Functions of peptide CNP4, encoded by the HCS2 gene, in the nervous system of Helix lucorum. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2006;36:253-60 pubmed
    ..Thus, neuropeptide CNP4 appears to be a secreted neuropeptide controlling respiratory system activity, which may also be involved in rearrangements of the network controlling defensive behavior in Helix snails. ..
  23. Rand D, Ayali A. Neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the locust hypocerebral ganglion. J Insect Physiol. 2010;56:884-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This work will serve as a basis for future investigation into the physiology of the HG and its role in insect behavior. ..
  24. Maimon G, Straw A, Dickinson M. Active flight increases the gain of visual motion processing in Drosophila. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:393-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability to perform patch-clamp recordings in behaving Drosophila promises to help unify the understanding of behavior at the gene, cell and circuit levels. ..
  25. Dahanukar A, Lei Y, Kwon J, Carlson J. Two Gr genes underlie sugar reception in Drosophila. Neuron. 2007;56:503-16 pubmed
    ..The simplest interpretation of our results is that Gr5a and Gr64a are each capable of functioning independently of each other within individual sugar neurons and that they are the primary receptors used in the labellum to detect sugars. ..
  26. Vavoulis D, Straub V, Kemenes I, Kemenes G, Feng J, Benjamin P. Dynamic control of a central pattern generator circuit: a computational model of the snail feeding network. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:2805-18 pubmed
    ..The model also predicted novel effects of electrical stimulation of two CPG interneurons (N1M and N2v). When tested experimentally, similar effects were found in the biological system providing further validation of our model...
  27. Azanza M, Pes N, Pérez Bruzón R, Aisa J, Raso M, Junquera C, et al. Localization of connexins in neurons and glia cells of the Helix aspersa suboesophageal brain ganglia by immunocytochemistry. Histol Histopathol. 2007;22:497-504 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed results can be considered of interest in the interpretation of Helix aspersa elemental two neuron networks synchronizing activity, observed under applied extremely low frequency magnetic fields. ..
  28. Clark M, Khan R, Baro D. Crustacean dopamine receptors: localization and G protein coupling in the stomatogastric ganglion. J Neurochem. 2008;104:1006-19 pubmed
    ..All three receptors are localized exclusively to the synaptic neuropil and most likely generate global biochemical signals that alter ion channels in distant compartments, as well as local signals...
  29. Fishilevich E, Domingos A, Asahina K, Naef F, Vosshall L, Louis M. Chemotaxis behavior mediated by single larval olfactory neurons in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2005;15:2086-96 pubmed
    ..This study is the first behavioral demonstration that formation of olfactory percepts involves the combinatorial integration of information transmitted by multiple ORs. ..
  30. Oginsky M, Rodgers E, Clark M, Simmons R, Krenz W, Baro D. D(2) receptors receive paracrine neurotransmission and are consistently targeted to a subset of synaptic structures in an identified neuron of the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:255-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The data showed that D(2alphaPan) receptors were selectively targeted to approximately 40% of synaptic structures in any given PD neuron, and were nonuniformly distributed among neurites...
  31. Zimmerman T, Rubakhin S, Romanova E, Tucker K, Sweedler J. MALDI mass spectrometric imaging using the stretched sample method to reveal neuropeptide distributions in aplysia nervous tissue. Anal Chem. 2009;81:9402-9 pubmed publisher
  32. Newcomb J, Katz P. Homologues of serotonergic central pattern generator neurons in related nudibranch molluscs with divergent behaviors. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2007;193:425-43 pubmed
    ..Thus, the CeSP-A neurons and the DSIs may be part of a conserved network related to crawling that may have been co-opted into a rhythmic swim CPG in Tritonia. ..
  33. Sakurai A, Katz P. Functional recovery after lesion of a central pattern generator. J Neurosci. 2009;29:13115-25 pubmed publisher
  34. Imai J, Meinertzhagen I. Neurons of the ascidian larval nervous system in Ciona intestinalis: II. Peripheral nervous system. J Comp Neurol. 2007;501:335-52 pubmed
    ..These identified neuron types are the substrate for the ascidian larva's entire peripheral sensory input, important during larval swimming and settlement...
  35. Richardson C, Leitch B. Identification of the neurotransmitters involved in modulation of transmitter release from the central terminals of the locust wing hinge stretch receptor. J Comp Neurol. 2007;502:794-809 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that most inputs to the fSR are from either glutamatergic or GABAergic neurons. ..
  36. Nishino A, Okamura Y, Piscopo S, Brown E. A glycine receptor is involved in the organization of swimming movements in an invertebrate chordate. BMC Neurosci. 2010;11:6 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that the basic network for 'spinal-like' locomotion is likely to have existed in the common ancestor of extant chordates some 650 M years ago. ..
  37. Baumgardt M, Karlsson D, Terriente J, Diaz Benjumea F, Thor S. Neuronal subtype specification within a lineage by opposing temporal feed-forward loops. Cell. 2009;139:969-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism of temporal and "subtemporal" genes acting in opposing feed-forward loops may be used by many stem cell lineages to generate diversity. ..
  38. Ai H, Rybak J, Menzel R, Itoh T. Response characteristics of vibration-sensitive interneurons related to Johnston's organ in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. J Comp Neurol. 2009;515:145-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that DL-Int-1 and DL-Int-2 are related to coding of the duration of the vibration as sensed by the JO. ..
  39. Golowasch J, Thomas G, Taylor A, Patel A, Pineda A, Khalil C, et al. Membrane capacitance measurements revisited: dependence of capacitance value on measurement method in nonisopotential neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:2161-75 pubmed publisher
  40. DeLong N, Beenhakker M, Nusbaum M. Presynaptic inhibition selectively weakens peptidergic cotransmission in a small motor system. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:3492-504 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding reveals additional flexibility afforded by the ability of neurons to corelease multiple neurotransmitters. ..
  41. Jing J, Vilim F, Cropper E, Weiss K. Neural analog of arousal: persistent conditional activation of a feeding modulator by serotonergic initiators of locomotion. J Neurosci. 2008;28:12349-61 pubmed publisher
  42. Jimenez C, Spijker S, de Schipper S, Lodder J, Janse C, Geraerts W, et al. Peptidomics of a single identified neuron reveals diversity of multiple neuropeptides with convergent actions on cellular excitability. J Neurosci. 2006;26:518-29 pubmed
    ..This study thus underscores the importance of a detailed mass spectrometric analysis of neuronal peptide content and peptide modifications related to neuromodulatory function. ..
  43. Herbert Z, Pollak E, Zougman A, Boros A, Kapan N, Molnar L. Identification of novel neuropeptides in the ventral nerve cord ganglia and their targets in an annelid worm, Eisenia fetida. J Comp Neurol. 2009;514:415-32 pubmed publisher
  44. Kurusu M, Maruyama Y, Adachi Y, Okabe M, Suzuki E, Furukubo Tokunaga K. A conserved nuclear receptor, Tailless, is required for efficient proliferation and prolonged maintenance of mushroom body progenitors in the Drosophila brain. Dev Biol. 2009;326:224-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results as a whole uncover a distinct regulatory mechanism of self-renewal and differentiation of the MB progenitors that is different from the mechanisms found in other progenitors. ..
  45. Lorenzetti F, Baxter D, Byrne J. Molecular mechanisms underlying a cellular analog of operant reward learning. Neuron. 2008;59:815-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate how these molecules can interact to mediate operant conditioning in an individual neuron important for the expression of the conditioned behavior. ..
  46. Ukena K, Iwakoshi Ukena E, Hikosaka A. Unique form and osmoregulatory function of a neurohypophysial hormone in a urochordate. Endocrinology. 2008;149:5254-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that SOP acts to prevent the influx of a low concentration of seawater into the body and thus play an important role in osmoregulation. ..
  47. Armstrong G, Shoemaker K, Money T, Robertson R. Octopamine mediates thermal preconditioning of the locust ventilatory central pattern generator via a cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway. J Neurosci. 2006;26:12118-26 pubmed
    ..We conclude that OA has a crucial role in triggering protein synthesis-dependent physiological adaptations to protect CNS function during heat stress by activating a cAMP/PKA pathway...
  48. Baca S, Marin Burgin A, Wagenaar D, Kristan W. Widespread inhibition proportional to excitation controls the gain of a leech behavioral circuit. Neuron. 2008;57:276-289 pubmed publisher
    ..This relatively simple mechanism for controlling behavioral gain could be prevalent in vertebrate as well as invertebrate nervous systems...
  49. Scuri R, Lombardo P, Cataldo E, Ristori C, Brunelli M. Inhibition of Na+/K+ ATPase potentiates synaptic transmission in tactile sensory neurons of the leech. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:159-67 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results show that inhibition of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase is critical for short-term plasticity. ..
  50. Gruhn M, von Uckermann G, Westmark S, Wosnitza A, Buschges A, Borgmann A. Control of stepping velocity in the stick insect Carausius morosus. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:1180-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that there is no permanent coordination of stepping velocities between legs, but that such coordination can be activated under certain circumstances. ..
  51. Hong W, Zhu H, Potter C, Barsh G, Kurusu M, Zinn K, et al. Leucine-rich repeat transmembrane proteins instruct discrete dendrite targeting in an olfactory map. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1542-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The closely related protein Tartan was partially redundant with Caps. These LRR proteins are probably part of a combinatorial cell-surface code that instructs discrete olfactory map formation. ..
  52. Rocha F, Saito C, Silveira L, de Souza J, Ventura D. Twelve chromatically opponent ganglion cell types in turtle retina. Vis Neurosci. 2008;25:307-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This study confirms the participation of a UV channel in the processing of color opponency in the turtle inner retina and shows that the turtle visual system has the retinal mechanisms to allow many possible chromatic combinations. ..
  53. Grashow R, Brookings T, Marder E. Reliable neuromodulation from circuits with variable underlying structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11742-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide insight into why pharmacological treatments that work in most individuals can generate anomalous actions in a few individuals, and they have implications for understanding the evolution of nervous systems. ..