sympathetic ganglia


Summary: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.

Top Publications

  1. Niu N, Zhang J, Guo Y, Yang C, Gu J. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator expression in human spinal and sympathetic ganglia. Lab Invest. 2009;89:636-44 pubmed publisher
    ..transcription-PCR and relative quantification of real-time PCR analysis were performed on spinal and sympathetic ganglia from seven human autopsies with no known nervous system disease...
  2. Yan H, Newgreen D, Young H. Developmental changes in neurite outgrowth responses of dorsal root and sympathetic ganglia to GDNF, neurturin, and artemin. Dev Dyn. 2003;227:395-401 pubmed
    ..GDNF), neurturin, and artemin to induce neurite outgrowth from dorsal root, superior cervical, and lumbar sympathetic ganglia from mice at a variety of development stages between embryonic day (E) 11...
  3. Shi H, Cui H, Alam G, Gunning W, Nestor A, Giovannucci D, et al. Nestin expression defines both glial and neuronal progenitors in postnatal sympathetic ganglia. J Comp Neurol. 2008;508:867-78 pubmed publisher
    b>Sympathetic ganglia are primarily composed of noradrenergic neurons and satellite glial cells...
  4. Lau Y, Galligan J, Kreulen D, Fink G. Activation of ETB receptors increases superoxide levels in sympathetic ganglia in vivo. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;290:R90-5 pubmed
    ..of the present study was to determine whether activation of ET(B) receptors in vivo elevates O2- levels in sympathetic ganglia. Because ET(B) receptor activation increases blood pressure, we also sought to determine whether alteration ..
  5. Schmidt R, Green K, Snipes L, Feng D. Neuritic dystrophy and neuronopathy in Akita (Ins2(Akita)) diabetic mouse sympathetic ganglia. Exp Neurol. 2009;216:207-18 pubmed publisher
    ..diabetic (NOD) and related mouse models identified rapidly developing, dramatic pathology in prevertebral sympathetic ganglia; however, once diabetic, the mice did not survive for extended periods needed to examine the ability of ..
  6. Huber K, Ernsberger U. Cholinergic differentiation occurs early in mouse sympathetic neurons and requires Phox2b. Gene Expr. 2006;13:133-9 pubmed
    ..acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), both encoded by the cholinergic gene locus, is induced in mouse sympathetic ganglia at embryonic day 11 (E11)...
  7. Ernsberger U, Esposito L, Partimo S, Huber K, Franke A, Bixby J, et al. Expression of neuronal markers suggests heterogeneity of chick sympathoadrenal cells prior to invasion of the adrenal anlagen. Cell Tissue Res. 2005;319:1-13 pubmed
    ..hydroxylase (TH) mRNA indicates catecholaminergic differentiation of precursors not only in primary sympathetic ganglia, but also in presumptive adrenal regions...
  8. Anglin J, Brooks V. Tyrosine hydroxylase and norepinephrine transporter in sympathetic ganglia of female rats vary with reproductive state. Auton Neurosci. 2003;105:8-15 pubmed
    ..However, the mechanism for these changes does not depend solely on changes in estrogen or progesterone. ..
  9. Garraza M, Aguado L, De Bortoli M. In vitro effect of neuropeptides on ovary or celiac ganglion affects the release of progesterone from ovaries in the rat. Med Sci Monit. 2004;10:BR440-6 pubmed
    ..These effects are in agreement with others obtained by intracerebroventricular injection of epinephrine, suggesting that these neuropeptides might be released on CG after this injection and produce increased progesterone in blood. ..

More Information


  1. Callahan T, Young H, Anderson R, Enomoto H, Anderson C. Development of satellite glia in mouse sympathetic ganglia: GDNF and GFR alpha 1 are not essential. Glia. 2008;56:1428-37 pubmed publisher
    The phenotypic development of satellite cells in mouse sympathetic ganglia was examined by localizing the transcription factors, Sox10 and Phox2b, the neuronal marker, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and brain-derived fatty acid binding ..
  2. Huber K. The sympathoadrenal cell lineage: specification, diversification, and new perspectives. Dev Biol. 2006;298:335-43 pubmed
    ..dorsal aorta, especially bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), and (iii) the local environments of secondary sympathetic ganglia and adrenal gland, respectively, are crucial for inducing differentiation of SA cells into sympathetic ..
  3. Dees W, Hiney J, McArthur N, Johnson G, Dissen G, Ojeda S. Origin and ontogeny of mammalian ovarian neurons. Endocrinology. 2006;147:3789-96 pubmed
    ..Results demonstrate that p75NTR-expressing ovarian neurons originate from the neural crest and that a catecholaminergic subset is associated with pubertal maturation of the ovary and subsequent reproductive function. ..
  4. Fenwick N, Martin C, Llewellyn Smith I. Immunoreactivity for cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in rat sympathetic preganglionic neurons projecting to sympathetic ganglia and the adrenal medulla. J Comp Neurol. 2006;495:422-33 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that CART occurs in barosensitive SPN, nonbarosensitive SPN, and interneurons. Thus, CART is not an exclusive marker for cardiovascular SPN but is likely to influence many autonomic activities...
  5. Yamaguchi Shima N, Okada S, Shimizu T, Usui D, Nakamura K, Lu L, et al. Adrenal adrenaline- and noradrenaline-containing cells and celiac sympathetic ganglia are differentially controlled by centrally administered corticotropin-releasing factor and arginine-vasopressin in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;564:94-102 pubmed
    ..designed to characterize the centrally activating mechanisms of the adrenal A-cells, NA-cells and celiac sympathetic ganglia with expression of cFos (a marker for neural excitation), in regard to the brain prostanoids, in ..
  6. Glebova N, Ginty D. Heterogeneous requirement of NGF for sympathetic target innervation in vivo. J Neurosci. 2004;24:743-51 pubmed
    ..thus show that NGF is required for complete peripheral innervation of both paravertebral and prevertebral sympathetic ganglia targets in vivo independently of its requirement for cell survival...
  7. Casais M, Delgado S, Sosa Z, Rastrilla A. Pregnancy in rats is modulated by ganglionic cholinergic action. Reproduction. 2006;131:1151-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, we conclude that the cholinergic sympathetic system from the celiac ganglion might be a fine modulator of the pregnancy physiology...
  8. Keast J. Plasticity of pelvic autonomic ganglia and urogenital innervation. Int Rev Cytol. 2006;248:141-208 pubmed
  9. Rassadi S, Krishnaswamy A, Pié B, McConnell R, Jacob M, Cooper E. A null mutation for the alpha3 nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor gene abolishes fast synaptic activity in sympathetic ganglia and reveals that ACh output from developing preganglionic terminals is regulated in an activity-dependent retrograde ma. J Neurosci. 2005;25:8555-66 pubmed
    ..To address this issue, we investigated cholinergic nicotinic synapses in sympathetic ganglia of mice with a null mutation for the alpha3 nicotinic ACh receptor gene...
  10. Potts P, Singh S, Knezek M, Thompson C, Deshmukh M. Critical function of endogenous XIAP in regulating caspase activation during sympathetic neuronal apoptosis. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:789-99 pubmed
    ..These data identify a critical function of endogenous XIAP in regulating apoptosis in mammalian cells. ..
  11. Zhang X, Zhao Q, Zeng N, Cai C, Xie X, Li C, et al. The celiac ganglia: anatomic study using MRI in cadavers. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186:1520-3 pubmed
    ..MRI can show the celiac ganglia accurately in cadavers when the ganglia are large and labeled with gadolinium. The findings in cadavers can be a reference for identifying the celiac ganglia in vivo. ..
  12. Levy M, Rajan E, Keeney G, Fletcher J, Topazian M. Neural ganglia visualized by endoscopic ultrasound. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:1787-91 pubmed
    ..Celiac ganglia (but not the perirectal ganglion) were retrospectively identified on computed tomography scans. Gastrointestinal neural ganglia can be imaged by EUS and their identity confirmed by EUS FNA. ..
  13. Sun M, Lee C, Shin H. Reduced nicotinic receptor function in sympathetic ganglia is responsible for the hypothermia in the acetylcholinesterase knockout mouse. J Physiol. 2007;578:751-64 pubmed
    Cholinergic signalling in the sympathetic ganglia (SG) contributes to non-shivering thermogenesis by relaying the activation signal from the brain to SG neurons which activate many peripheral tissues to produce heat...
  14. Gerke H, Silva R, Shamoun D, Johnson C, Jensen C. EUS characteristics of celiac ganglia with cytologic and histologic confirmation. Gastrointest Endosc. 2006;64:35-9 pubmed
    ..Celiac ganglia can be identified with curved linear-array EUS in the majority of patients. Their typical EUS appearance allows distinction from celiac lymph nodes. ..
  15. Boeshore K, Schreiber R, Vaccariello S, Sachs H, Salazar R, Lee J, et al. Novel changes in gene expression following axotomy of a sympathetic ganglion: a microarray analysis. J Neurobiol. 2004;59:216-35 pubmed
    ..In addition, the data suggest a potential role for putrescine and spermidine, acting downstream of arg I, in the regenerative process. ..
  16. Kasemeier Kulesa J, Bradley R, Pasquale E, Lefcort F, Kulesa P. Eph/ephrins and N-cadherin coordinate to control the pattern of sympathetic ganglia. Development. 2006;133:4839-47 pubmed
    Previous studies have suggested that the segmental pattern of neural-crest-derived sympathetic ganglia arises as a direct result of signals that restrict neural crest cell migratory streams through rostral somite halves...
  17. Casais M, Delgado S, Sosa Z, Rastrilla A. Involvement of the coeliac ganglion in the luteotrophic effect of androstenedione in late pregnant rats. Reproduction. 2006;131:361-8 pubmed
  18. Morán C, Franco A, Morán J, Handal A, Morales L, Dominguez R. Neural activity between ovaries and the prevertebral celiac-superior mesenteric ganglia varies during the estrous cycle of the rat. Endocrine. 2005;26:147-52 pubmed
  19. Durbec P, Larsson Blomberg L, Schuchardt A, Costantini F, Pachnis V. Common origin and developmental dependence on c-ret of subsets of enteric and sympathetic neuroblasts. Development. 1996;122:349-58 pubmed
    ..are only partially affected; furthermore, the superior cervical ganglion is absent, while more posterior sympathetic ganglia and the adrenal medulla are unaffected...
  20. Crowley C, Spencer S, Nishimura M, Chen K, Pitts Meek S, Armanini M, et al. Mice lacking nerve growth factor display perinatal loss of sensory and sympathetic neurons yet develop basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Cell. 1994;76:1001-11 pubmed noxious mechanical stimuli, and histological analysis revealed profound cell loss in both sensory and sympathetic ganglia. Within dorsal root ganglia, effects of the mutation appeared to be restricted to small and medium ..
  21. Pinto J, Flugge G, Viglione P, Torda T, Nazarali A, Saavedra J. Increased beta 2-adrenoceptors in the superior cervical ganglia of genetically hypertensive rats. Brain Res. 1991;542:35-42 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation may be selectively enhanced in some peripheral sympathetic ganglia in SHR and this could play a role in the development and maintenance of the increased sympathetic activity ..
  22. Klein C, Burden H. Anatomical localization of afferent and postganglionic sympathetic neurons innervating the rat ovary. Neurosci Lett. 1988;85:217-22 pubmed
    ..The significance of the dual origin of postganglionic sympathetic neurons innervating the rat ovary is not known. ..
  23. Shi W, Wang H, Pan Z, Wymore R, Cohen I, McKinnon D, et al. Cloning of a mammalian elk potassium channel gene and EAG mRNA distribution in rat sympathetic ganglia. J Physiol. 1998;511 ( Pt 3):675-82 pubmed
    ..3. The elk1 gene is expressed in sympathetic ganglia and is also expressed in sciatic nerve. 4...
  24. Ernfors P, Lee K, Kucera J, Jaenisch R. Lack of neurotrophin-3 leads to deficiencies in the peripheral nervous system and loss of limb proprioceptive afferents. Cell. 1994;77:503-12 pubmed
    ..Importantly, the number of muscle spindles in heterozygous mutant mice was half of that in control mice, indicating that NT-3 is present at limiting concentrations in the embryo. ..
  25. Brodski C, Schaubmar A, Dechant G. Opposing functions of GDNF and NGF in the development of cholinergic and noradrenergic sympathetic neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2002;19:528-38 pubmed
    ..We conclude that cholinergic properties can be regulated by neurotrophic factors from three different protein families, whereas noradrenergic properties are promoted by NGF. ..
  26. Honma Y, Araki T, Gianino S, Bruce A, Heuckeroth R, Johnson E, et al. Artemin is a vascular-derived neurotropic factor for developing sympathetic neurons. Neuron. 2002;35:267-82 pubmed
    ..The chemoattractive properties of ARTN were confirmed by the demonstration that sympathetic neuroblasts migrate and project axons toward ARTN-soaked beads implanted into mouse embryos. ..
  27. Chung I, Oh C, Koh K, Kim H, Paik H, Lee D. Anatomic variations of the T2 nerve root (including the nerve of Kuntz) and their implications for sympathectomy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2002;123:498-501 pubmed
    ..8%) sides, and 6 (9.1%) sides showed a single large ganglion formed by the stellate and the second thoracic sympathetic ganglia. The second thoracic sympathetic ganglion was most commonly located (50%) in the second intercostal space...
  28. Roosen A, Schober A, Strelau J, Bottner M, Faulhaber J, Bendner G, et al. Lack of neurotrophin-4 causes selective structural and chemical deficits in sympathetic ganglia and their preganglionic innervation. J Neurosci. 2001;21:3073-84 pubmed
    ..We show here that NT-4 is expressed in neurons of paravertebral and prevertebral sympathetic ganglia, i.e., the superior cervical (SCG), stellate (SG), and celiac (CG) ganglion...
  29. Ham J, Babij C, Whitfield J, Pfarr C, Lallemand D, Yaniv M, et al. A c-Jun dominant negative mutant protects sympathetic neurons against programmed cell death. Neuron. 1995;14:927-39 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, overexpression of the full-length c-Jun protein is, in itself, sufficient to induce apoptosis in sympathetic neurons. ..
  30. Casais M, Sosa Z, Rastrilla A, Aguado L. Coeliac ganglion adrenergic activity modifies ovarian progesterone during pregnancy: its inter-relationship with LH. J Endocrinol. 2001;170:575-84 pubmed
    ..The results may confirm that the coeliac ganglion-SON-ovary system provides a direct link between the autonomic nervous system and physiological events during pregnancy. ..
  31. Lipscomb E, Sarmiere P, Freeman R. SM-20 is a novel mitochondrial protein that causes caspase-dependent cell death in nerve growth factor-dependent neurons. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:5085-92 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that SM-20 is a novel mitochondrial protein that may be an important mediator of neurotrophin-withdrawal-mediated cell death. ..
  32. Khogali S, Miller M, Rajesh P, Murray R, Beattie J. Video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy for severe intractable angina. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1999;16 Suppl 1:S95-8 pubmed
    ..028) and maintained 1 year post-operative. VATS was associated with both reduction in angina symptoms and an increase in exercise time to onset of angina. An improved quality of life was evident. ..
  33. Prud Homme M, Houdeau E, Serghini R, Tillet Y, Schemann M, Rousseau J. Small intensely fluorescent cells of the rat paracervical ganglion synthesize adrenaline, receive afferent innervation from postganglionic cholinergic neurones, and contain muscarinic receptors. Brain Res. 1999;821:141-9 pubmed
  34. Ernsberger U, Rohrer H. Development of the cholinergic neurotransmitter phenotype in postganglionic sympathetic neurons. Cell Tissue Res. 1999;297:339-61 pubmed
    b>Sympathetic ganglia are composed of noradrenergic neurons and cholinergic neurons that differ in the expression of neurotransmitter-synthesizing enzymes, neurotransmitter transporters and neuropeptides...
  35. Andres R, Forgie A, Wyatt S, Chen Q, de Sauvage F, Davies A. Multiple effects of artemin on sympathetic neurone generation, survival and growth. Development. 2001;128:3685-95 pubmed
    ..of sympathetic neurones in low-density dissociated cultures of mouse cervical and thoracic paravertebral sympathetic ganglia at stages throughout embryonic and postnatal development...
  36. Levanti M, Montalbano G, Laura R, Ciriaco E, Cobo T, Garcia Suarez O, et al. Calretinin in the peripheral nervous system of the adult zebrafish. J Anat. 2008;212:67-71 pubmed publisher
    ..the occurrence and distribution of calretinin in the cranial nerve ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, sympathetic ganglia, and enteric nervous system of the adult zebrafish...
  37. Park J, Song D, Lee J, Kong I, Jeong S, Lee B, et al. Expression of GABAA receptor beta2/3 subunits in the rat major pelvic ganglion. Neurosci Lett. 2006;403:35-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that GABA(A) Rs are involved in the modulation of most sympathetic, noradrenergic neurons and also a subset of VIP and NOS neurons of the rat MPG. ..
  38. Bakshi J, Mohammed A, Lele S, Nada R. Ganglioneuromas involving the hypoglossal nerve and the vagus nerve in a child: Surgical difficulties. Ear Nose Throat J. 2016;95:E22-4 pubmed
    ..In the head and neck, they are usually related to the cervical sympathetic ganglia or to the ganglion nodosum of the vagus nerve or the hypoglossal nerve...
  39. Pirzgalska R, Seixas E, Seidman J, Link V, Sánchez N, Mahú I, et al. Sympathetic neuron-associated macrophages contribute to obesity by importing and metabolizing norepinephrine. Nat Med. 2017;23:1309-1318 pubmed publisher
    ..We further show that this pathway is conserved, as human sympathetic ganglia also contain SAMs expressing the analogous molecular machinery for NE clearance, which thus constitutes a ..
  40. Singh B, Ramsaroop L, Partab P, Moodley J, Satyapal K. Anatomical variations of the second thoracic ganglion. Surg Radiol Anat. 2005;27:119-22 pubmed
    ..These findings should assist the operating surgeon with a clear knowledge of the anatomy of the second thoracic ganglion during thoracoscopic sympathectomy with a view to improving the success rate for upper limb sympathectomy. ..
  41. Montedonico S, Piotrowska A, Rolle U, Puri P. Histochemical staining of rectal suction biopsies as the first investigation in patients with chronic constipation. Pediatr Surg Int. 2008;24:785-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of two histochemical stainings techniques provides a high level of accuracy in the diagnosis of intestinal dysganglionosis. ..
  42. Liu Y, Mimuro M, Yoshida M, Hashizume Y, Niwa H, Miyao S, et al. Inclusion-positive cell types in adult-onset intranuclear inclusion body disease: implications for clinical diagnosis. Acta Neuropathol. 2008;116:615-23 pubmed publisher
    ..g., in the sympathetic ganglia and myenteric plexus...
  43. Saito D, Takahashi Y. Sympatho-adrenal morphogenesis regulated by the dorsal aorta. Mech Dev. 2015;138 Pt 1:2-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Neural crest cells, originally multipotent, are progressively specified to sympathetic ganglia neurons and adrenomedullary cells during their migration through the body...
  44. Sunagawa K. [Bionic cardiology: a new therapeutic modality for cardiology in the 21st century]. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi. 2005;96:63-6 pubmed
  45. Barreto Estrada J, Medina Vera L, De Jesús Escobar J, Garcia Arrarás J. Development of galanin- and enkephalin-like immunoreactivities in the sympathoadrenal lineage of the avian embryo. In vivo and in vitro studies. Dev Neurosci. 1997;19:328-36 pubmed
    ..Both peptides are expressed early in the formation of the sympathetic ganglia and adrenal gland...
  46. Zoubina E, Smith P. Expression of estrogen receptors alpha and beta by sympathetic ganglion neurons projecting to the proximal urethra of female rats. J Urol. 2003;169:382-5 pubmed
    ..Therefore, estrogen may influence continence by acting not only on the urethral target, but also on its excitatory sympathetic innervation. ..
  47. Lee V, Bronner Fraser M, Baker C. Restricted response of mesencephalic neural crest to sympathetic differentiation signals in the trunk. Dev Biol. 2005;278:175-92 pubmed
    ..ganglion, while trunk neural crest cells normally form both catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurons in sympathetic ganglia. In contrast to trunk neural crest cells, mesencephalic neural crest cells apparently fail to express the ..
  48. Hao M, Bergner A, Hirst C, Stamp L, Casagranda F, Bornstein J, et al. Spontaneous calcium waves in the developing enteric nervous system. Dev Biol. 2017;428:74-87 pubmed publisher
    ..One previous study has shown that calcium signalling plays a role in sympathetic ganglia formation; our results suggest that calcium waves are likely to be important for enteric ganglia ..
  49. Foye P. Ganglion impar injection techniques for coccydynia (coccyx pain) and pelvic pain. Anesthesiology. 2007;106:1062-3; author reply 1063 pubmed
  50. Brumovsky P, Hygge Blakeman K, Villar M, Watanabe M, Wiesenfeld Hallin Z, Hokfelt T. Phenotyping of sensory and sympathetic ganglion neurons of a galanin-overexpressing mouse--possible implications for pain processing. J Chem Neuroanat. 2006;31:243-62 pubmed
    ..Hao, J.X., Xu, X.J., Hökfelt, T., Crawley, J.N., Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z., 2004. Galanin over-expression decreases the development of neuropathic pain-like behaviour in mice after partial sciatic nerve injury. Brain Res. 1025, 152-158]. ..
  51. Inoue M, Matsuoka H, Harada K, Kao L. Muscarinic receptors in adrenal chromaffin cells: physiological role and regulation of ion channels. Pflugers Arch. 2018;470:29-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we discuss prospectively the future of muscarinic receptor research in adrenal chromaffin cells. ..
  52. Lin M, Huang T, Kao M, Chiu H, Lin S, Chang F. Pulsed radiofrequency stimulation suppresses palmar hyperhidrosis in an animal study. Brain Behav. 2017;7:e00833 pubmed publisher
    ..The most effective treatment for permanent cure is the ablation of thoracic sympathetic ganglia innervating hands...
  53. Lin C, Wang C, Liu S, Wang C, Chen W. Cervical sympathetic chain schwannoma. J Formos Med Assoc. 2007;106:956-60 pubmed
    ..Operative excision and sacrifice of a portion of the sympathetic chain remains the treatment of choice. Postoperative Horner's syndrome is predictable and vagus nerve dysfunction or first bite syndrome is also possible...