parasympathetic ganglia


Summary: Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.

Top Publications

  1. Markos F, Snow H, Kidd C, Conlon K. Nitric oxide facilitates vagal control of heart rate via actions in the cardiac parasympathetic ganglia of the anaesthetised dog. Exp Physiol. 2002;87:49-52 pubmed
    ..indicate that this modulatory and facilitatory role of NO is likely to be exerted at vagal preganglionic-postganglionic synaptic mechanisms in the cardiac parasympathetic ganglia and not at the postganglionic-sinoatrial node synapse.
  2. Dail W, Hamill R. Parasympathetic nerves in penile erectile tissue of the rat contain choline acetyltransferase. Brain Res. 1989;487:165-70 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter in the regulation of penile erection. ..
  3. McKay K, Black J, Diment L, Armour C. Functional and autoradiographic studies of endothelin-1 and endothelin-2 in human bronchi, pulmonary arteries, and airway parasympathetic ganglia. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1991;17 Suppl 7:S206-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, binding sites for both forms of the peptide were localized to parasympathetic ganglia within the airways, where the presence of muscarinic receptors was also confirmed with [3H]QNB...
  4. Porter B, Weis J, Sanes J. A motoneuron-selective stop signal in the synaptic protein S-laminin. Neuron. 1995;14:549-59 pubmed
    ..Thus, LRE may serve as a cell type-selective and context-dependent target-derived signal that plays a role in synapse formation. ..
  5. Porter B, Sanes J. Gated migration: neurons migrate on but not onto substrates containing S-laminin. Dev Biol. 1995;167:609-16 pubmed
    ..Instead, s-laminin appears to block cell migration through a "gating" mechanism that acts primarily at borders. ..
  6. Rossi J, Tomac A, Saarma M, Airaksinen M. Distinct roles for GFRalpha1 and GFRalpha2 signalling in different cranial parasympathetic ganglia in vivo. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:3944-52 pubmed
    ..Gfra1 mRNA was expressed at E12 but not in newborn cranial parasympathetic ganglia, while Gfra2 mRNA and protein were strongly expressed in newborn and adult cranial parasympathetic ..
  7. Purves Tyson T, Arshi M, Handelsman D, Cheng Y, Keast J. Androgen and estrogen receptor-mediated mechanisms of testosterone action in male rat pelvic autonomic ganglia. Neuroscience. 2007;148:92-104 pubmed
    ..The effects of androgens on axonal growth are likely to be at least partly mediated by estrogenic mechanisms, which may be important for understanding disease-, aging- and injury-induced plasticity in this part of the nervous system. ..
  8. Yan H, Keast J. Neurturin regulates postnatal differentiation of parasympathetic pelvic ganglion neurons, initial axonal projections, and maintenance of terminal fields in male urogenital organs. J Comp Neurol. 2008;507:1169-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also indicate that in adults there will be distinct differences in neurturin dependence between organs, such that proregenerative therapies may have to be tailored specifically for the nerve pathway of interest. ..
  9. Canning B, Reynolds S, Anukwu L, Kajekar R, Myers A. Endogenous neurokinins facilitate synaptic transmission in guinea pig airway parasympathetic ganglia. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002;283:R320-30 pubmed
    Neurokinin-containing nerve fibers were localized to guinea pig airway parasympathetic ganglia in control tissues but not in tissues pretreated with capsaicin...

More Information


  1. Liu D, Adams D. Ionic selectivity of native ATP-activated (P2X) receptor channels in dissociated neurones from rat parasympathetic ganglia. J Physiol. 2001;534:423-35 pubmed
    ..The relative permeabilities of the monovalent inoganic and organic cations tested are similar to those reported previously for cloned rat P2X(2) receptors expressed in mammalian cells...
  2. Zamburlin P, Gilardino A, Dalmazzo S, Ariano P, Lovisolo D. Temporal dynamics of neurite outgrowth promoted by basic fibroblast growth factor in chick ciliary ganglia. J Neurosci Res. 2006;84:505-14 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the effect can be observed even in enriched neuronal cultures, pointing to a direct action of bFGF on neurons. ..
  3. Enomoto H, Heuckeroth R, Golden J, Johnson E, Milbrandt J. Development of cranial parasympathetic ganglia requires sequential actions of GDNF and neurturin. Development. 2000;127:4877-89 pubmed
    ..we show that GDNF signaling via the RET/GFR(alpha)1 complex is crucial for the development of cranial parasympathetic ganglia including the submandibular, sphenopalatine and otic ganglia...
  4. Keast J. Plasticity of pelvic autonomic ganglia and urogenital innervation. Int Rev Cytol. 2006;248:141-208 pubmed
  5. Hashino E, Shero M, Junghans D, Rohrer H, Milbrandt J, Johnson E. GDNF and neurturin are target-derived factors essential for cranial parasympathetic neuron development. Development. 2001;128:3773-82 pubmed
  6. Laurikainen A, Hiltunen J, Vanhatalo S, Klinge E, Saarma M. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor is expressed in penis of adult rat and retrogradely transported in penile parasympathetic and sensory nerves. Cell Tissue Res. 2000;302:321-9 pubmed
    ..6%) of the penile S1 dorsal root ganglion neurons. In conclusion, the present data suggest that GDNF may act as a neurotrophic factor for subpopulations of adult rat penile parasympathetic and sensory neurons. ..
  7. Wanigasekara Y, Keast J. Neurturin has multiple neurotrophic effects on adult rat sacral parasympathetic ganglion neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:595-604 pubmed
    ..Our results also indicate that neurotrophic signalling in parasympathetic neurons is different from that in other types of peripheral neurons. ..
  8. Weaver C, Yoshida C, de Curtis I, Reichardt L. Expression and in vitro function of beta 1-integrin laminin receptors in the developing avian ciliary ganglion. J Neurosci. 1995;15:5275-85 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that interactions of cell surface alpha 3 beta 1 and alpha 6 beta 1 integrins with laminin-1 are likely to mediate growth of CG neurons during pathfinding in vivo. ..
  9. Gilardino A, Farcito S, Zamburlin P, Audisio C, Lovisolo D. Specificity of the second messenger pathways involved in basic fibroblast growth factor-induced survival and neurite growth in chick ciliary ganglion neurons. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:2951-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that only the PI3-K pathway is involved in the survival-promoting effect of bFGF; on the other hand, all three effectors converge on the enhancement of neurite outgrowth, both on isolated neurons and in whole ganglia. ..
  10. Lee V, Sechrist J, Luetolf S, Bronner Fraser M. Both neural crest and placode contribute to the ciliary ganglion and oculomotor nerve. Dev Biol. 2003;263:176-90 pubmed
    ..These results suggest for the first time a dual neural crest and placodal contribution to the ciliary ganglion and associated nerves. ..
  11. Endoh T, Kamaishi H, Suzuki T. Constitution of calcium channel current in hamster submandibular ganglion neurons. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll. 2002;43:251-6 pubmed
    ..2, 34.0, 14.0, 7.6 and 7.0%. Thus, these results showed that SMG possess multiple types of VDCCs and that N- and P-type VDCCs are facilitated by a prepulse in SMG neurons. ..
  12. Rafalzik S, Pehl U, Ott D, Strotmann J, Wolff M, Gerstberger R. Cholinergic signal transduction in the mouse sphenopalatine ganglion. Brain Res. 2008;1241:42-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Nicotinic signal transduction did not prove to be different in GFP-positive as compared to-negative murine SPG neurons. ..
  13. Zigman J, Jones J, Lee C, Saper C, Elmquist J. Expression of ghrelin receptor mRNA in the rat and the mouse brain. J Comp Neurol. 2006;494:528-48 pubmed
  14. Wang Z, Chen Y, Zheng M, Wu B, Zhang W, Lin C, et al. [Study on needling depth and direction from different acupoints to sphenopalatine ganglion]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2009;29:289-92 pubmed
    ..Understanding the surface location, inserting depths and the general puncturing directions of the 3 points can provide basis for puncturing the sphenopalatine ganglion in clinical practice. ..
  15. Fritzsch B. How does the urodele ear develop?. Int J Dev Biol. 1996;40:763-71 pubmed
  16. Ikonomov O, Petrov T, Soden K, Shisheva A, Manji H. Lithium treatment in ovo: effects on embryonic heart rate, natural death of ciliary ganglion neurons, and brain expression of a highly conserved chicken homolog of human MTG8/ETO. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2000;123:13-24 pubmed
    ..We propose that the induction of ETO expression, in concert with lithium-induced upregulation of other genes, such as PEBP2beta and bcl-2, is participating in the neuroprotective effect of chronic lithium treatment. ..
  17. Kumamoto E, Nohmi M, Shinnick Gallagher P. Fast hyperpolarization following an excitatory postsynaptic potential in cat bladder parasympathetic neurons. Neuroscience. 1989;30:671-81 pubmed
    ..The fast hyperpolarizing potential was not associated with appreciable changes in input resistance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)..
  18. Suzuki N, Shimizu T, Takao M, Koto A, Fukuuchi Y. Neurokinin-1 receptors in the cerebrovascular vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing nerves in the rat. Auton Neurosci. 2002;95:103-11 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the sensory nerves modulate the functions of parasympathetic nerves in peripheral nervous system, such as those on cerebral vessels. ..
  19. Konopka L, Parsons R. Characteristics of the galanin-induced depolarization of mudpuppy parasympathetic postganglionic neurons. Neurosci Lett. 1989;99:142-6 pubmed
  20. Nadelhaft I. Cholinergic axons in the rat prostate and neurons in the pelvic ganglion. Brain Res. 2003;989:52-7 pubmed
    ..These results provide new evidence for the presence of neural elements that have a cholinergic influence over the rat prostate gland. ..
  21. Cross S, Morgan J, Pattyn A, West K, McKie L, Hart A, et al. Haploinsufficiency for Phox2b in mice causes dilated pupils and atrophy of the ciliary ganglion: mechanistic insights into human congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:1433-9 pubmed
    ..for the development of the autonomic nervous system and when absent one of the consequences is that all parasympathetic ganglia fail to form...
  22. Boysen N, Dragon D, Talman W. Parasympathetic tonic dilatory influences on cerebral vessels. Auton Neurosci. 2009;147:101-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Ganglion removal led to reduced cerebral blood flow without changing blood pressure. Thus, parasympathetic nerves provide tonic vasodilatory input to cerebral blood vessels. ..
  23. Han D, Kobayashi M, Nakano M, Atobe Y, Kadota T, Funakoshi K. Differential Islet-1 expression among lumbosacral spinal motor neurons in prenatal mouse. Brain Res. 2009;1265:30-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This differential Islet-1 expression among the motoneuronal groups suggests that Islet-1 not only leads to a motoneuronal lineage, but also to the differentiation of motoneuronal subsets in the lumbosacral spinal cord. ..
  24. Toshida H, Nguyen D, Beuerman R, Murakami A. Evaluation of novel dry eye model: preganglionic parasympathetic denervation in rabbit. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:4468-75 pubmed
    ..To evaluate ocular surface status after interruption of preganglionic, parasympathetic neural control after surgical removal of the greater superficial petrosal nerve (GSPN)...
  25. Liu D, Cuevas J, Adams D. VIP and PACAP potentiation of nicotinic ACh-evoked currents in rat parasympathetic neurons is mediated by G-protein activation. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:2243-51 pubmed
    ..The potentiation of ACh-evoked currents by VIP and PACAP may be mediated by a membrane-delimited signal transduction cascade involving the PTX-sensitive Go protein. ..
  26. Tsen G, Williams B, Allaire P, Zhou Y, Ikonomov O, Kondova I, et al. Receptors with opposing functions are in postsynaptic microdomains under one presynaptic terminal. Nat Neurosci. 2000;3:126-32 pubmed
    ..Coexistence of separate clusters of receptors with opposing functions under one terminal contradicts Dale's principle and provides a new mechanism for modulating synaptic activity in vivo. ..
  27. Verberne A. Differential cardiac parasympathetic innervation--what is the functional significance?. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004;287:R485-6 pubmed
  28. Marson L, Platt K, McKenna K. Central nervous system innervation of the penis as revealed by the transneuronal transport of pseudorabies virus. Neuroscience. 1993;55:263-80 pubmed
    ..These results provide further evidence that the pseudorabies virus transneuronal tracing technique is a valuable method for identifying neural circuits mediating specific functions. ..
  29. McKay K, Johnson P, Black J, Armour C. Parasympathetic neurotransmission in rabbit isolated bronchus is modulated at prejunctional sites via endothelinB receptor stimulation. Respirology. 2000;5:343-53 pubmed
    ..Autoradiography revealed dense binding sites for radiolabelled endothelin-3 over bronchial parasympathetic ganglia. The contractile response of the bronchus to electrical field stimulation was significantly potentiated ..
  30. Zhu B, Gibbins I, Blessing W. Preganglionic parasympathetic neurons projecting to the sphenopalatine ganglion contain nitric oxide synthase in the rabbit. Brain Res. 1997;769:168-72 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that nitric oxide could influence cholinergic transmission from preganglionic endings in the sphenopalatine ganglion. ..
  31. Olszewska Ziaber A, Ziaber J, Rysz J. [Atypical facial pains--sluder's neuralgia--local treatment of the sphenopalatine ganglion with phenol--case report]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2007;61:319-21 pubmed
    ..The relief period was different but the patients were satisfied with the effectiveness and simplicity of the treatment. They did not need to take the additional medications for months and were able to continue work. ..
  32. Bernstein B. Dissection and culturing of chick ciliary ganglion neurons: a system well suited to synaptic study. Methods Cell Biol. 2003;71:37-50 pubmed
    ..However, they are ideally suited for studies based on single-cell observation, particularly investigation of presynaptic mechanisms using fluorescence microscopy. ..
  33. Subramony P, Raucher S, Dryer L, Dryer S. Posttranslational regulation of Ca(2+)-activated K+ currents by a target-derived factor in developing parasympathetic neurons. Neuron. 1996;17:115-24 pubmed
    ..These effects did not require protein synthesis, and the activity was detectable throughout the stages of synapse formation in the iris. The active component has an apparent molecular weight of 40-60 kDa. ..
  34. Park J, Song D, Lee J, Kong I, Jeong S, Lee B, et al. Expression of GABAA receptor beta2/3 subunits in the rat major pelvic ganglion. Neurosci Lett. 2006;403:35-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that GABA(A) Rs are involved in the modulation of most sympathetic, noradrenergic neurons and also a subset of VIP and NOS neurons of the rat MPG. ..
  35. Su M, Guo Y, Zhao Y, Korteweg C, Gu J. Expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in paracervical ganglia. Biochem Cell Biol. 2010;88:747-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings could provide new insights into the symptoms related to the reproductive system frequently observed in female cystic fibrosis patients. ..
  36. Tsuboi M, Furukawa Y, Kurogouchi F, Nakajima K, Hirose M, Chiba S. Botulinum neurotoxin A blocks cholinergic ganglionic neurotransmission in the dog heart. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2002;89:249-54 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that selective injection of botulinum toxin into the SA fat pad blocks bradycardia mediated by parasympathetic ganglionic activation in the dog heart. ..
  37. Zamburlin P, Lovisolo D, Ariano P, Panero R, Ferraro M. A quantitative approach to the dynamics of neurite sprouting induced by a neurotrophic factor. J Neurosci Methods. 2009;185:178-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the factor rapidly stabilizes the neuronal morphology to a bipolar phenotype, by shifting the sprouting process from a disordered phase to a more ordered and organized one. ..
  38. Olsson C, Chen B, Jones S, Chataway T, Costa M, Brookes S. Comparison of extrinsic efferent innervation of guinea pig distal colon and rectum. J Comp Neurol. 2006;496:787-801 pubmed
    ..Although the rectum and colon in this species are continuous and macroscopically indistinguishable, they have significantly different patterns of extrinsic efferent innervation, presumably reflecting their different functions. ..
  39. Blanchfield J, Dutton J, Hogg R, Gallagher O, Craik D, Jones A, et al. Synthesis, structure elucidation, in vitro biological activity, toxicity, and Caco-2 cell permeability of lipophilic analogues of alpha-conotoxin MII. J Med Chem. 2003;46:1266-72 pubmed
    ..The active LaaMII analogue was found to exhibit significantly improved permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayers compared to the native MII, and both peptides showed negligible toxicity. ..
  40. Erichsen J, May P. The pupillary and ciliary components of the cat Edinger-Westphal nucleus: a transsynaptic transport investigation. Vis Neurosci. 2002;19:15-29 pubmed
    ..Thus, the cat intraocular muscle preganglionic innervation is spatially organized with respect to function, despite the dispersed nature of its distribution. ..
  41. Cheng Z, Powley T. Nucleus ambiguus projections to cardiac ganglia of rat atria: an anterograde tracing study. J Comp Neurol. 2000;424:588-606 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data strongly suggest that vagal control of the heart involves the convergence and integration of distinct NA and DmnX projections within the cardiac plexuses. ..
  42. Yarnitsky D, Gross Y, Lorian A, Shalev A, Shorer S, Tanaka T, et al. Increased BBB permeability by parasympathetic sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation in dogs. Brain Res. 2004;1018:236-40 pubmed
    ..This could be a therapeutic method for a wide variety of brain disorders, including tumors and neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  43. Tang H, Brimijoin S. Complement regulatory proteins and selective vulnerability of neurons to lysis on exposure to acetylcholinesterase antibody. J Neuroimmunol. 2001;115:53-63 pubmed
    ..but spares other AChE-rich structures, such as nerve terminals in prevertebral sympathetic ganglia, parasympathetic ganglia, and the neuromuscular junction...
  44. Souccar C, Salamanca A, Tanae M, Lima Landman M, Lapa A. Natural compounds endowed with cholinergic or anticholinergic activity. Enhancement of acetylcholine release by a quaternary derivative of L-hyoscyamine. J Mol Neurosci. 2010;40:138-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that the facilitatory action of Phen appears to be mediated by an increase of the inwardly rectifying potassium channels conductance probably related to the compound antimuscarinic activity. ..
  45. Scott T, Bennett M. The effect of nitric oxide on the efficacy of synaptic transmission through the chick ciliary ganglion. Br J Pharmacol. 1993;110:627-32 pubmed
    ..6. These results suggest that nitric oxide modulates synaptic transmission through the ganglion by acting on an endogenous guanylate cyclase that produces cyclic GMP. ..
  46. Bluemel K, Wurster R, Randall W, Duff M, O Toole M. Parasympathetic postganglionic pathways to the sinoatrial node. Am J Physiol. 1990;259:H1504-10 pubmed
    ..Attention is directed to existence of a very few synapses closer to SAN, probably in isolated ganglia immersed in fatty connective tissues along the sulcus terminalis. ..
  47. Chyi T, Wang S, Gong C, Lin S, Cheng V, Kuo J. Preganglionic neurons of the sphenopalatine ganglia reside in the dorsal facial area of the medulla in cats. Chin J Physiol. 2005;48:31-40 pubmed
    ..They may be also important in regulation of the cerebral blood flow. ..
  48. Ranson R, Dodds A, Smith M, Santer R, Watson A. Age-associated changes in the monoaminergic innervation of rat lumbosacral spinal cord. Brain Res. 2003;972:149-58 pubmed
  49. Edvinsson L, Elsås T, Suzuki N, Shimizu T, Lee T. Origin and Co-localization of nitric oxide synthase, CGRP, PACAP, and VIP in the cerebral circulation of the rat. Microsc Res Tech. 2001;53:221-8 pubmed
    ..This indicates that the parasympathetic VIP-, PACAP-, and NOS-immunoreactive nerve fibres in the rat MCA originate from several sources. ..
  50. Ikonomov O, Kulesa M, Shisheva A, Jacob M. Innervation and target tissue interactions induce Rab-GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) expression during peripheral synapse formation in developing chick ciliary ganglion neurons in situ. J Neurosci. 1998;18:6331-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that distinct extrinsic regulatory signals influence the expression of synapse-related components at the presynaptic axon terminal versus postsynaptic membrane in an individual neuron. ..
  51. Taira E, Nagino T, Tsukamoto Y, Ding Y, Sakuma S, Miki N. Neurite promotion from ciliary ganglion neurons by gicerin. Neurochem Int. 1998;32:23-9 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that neurites induced by homophilic or heterophilic cell adhesion activities of gicerin differ in the length and branching. ..
  52. Vallejo R, Benyamin R, Yousuf N, Kramer J. Computed tomography-enhanced sphenopalatine ganglion blockade. Pain Pract. 2007;7:44-6 pubmed
  53. Kaleczyc J, Wasowicz K, Klimczuk M, Czaja K, Lakomy M. Immunohistochemical characterisation of cholinergic neurons in the anterior pelvic ganglion of the male pig. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2003;41:65-72 pubmed