autonomic ganglia


Summary: Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.

Top Publications

  1. Vernino S, Hopkins S, Wang Z. Autonomic ganglia, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, and autoimmune ganglionopathy. Auton Neurosci. 2009;146:3-7 pubmed publisher
    ..alpha3-type) neuronal AChR mediates fast synaptic transmission in sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric autonomic ganglia. Autonomic ganglia are an important site of neural integration and regulation of autonomic reflexes...
  2. Purves Tyson T, Arshi M, Handelsman D, Cheng Y, Keast J. Androgen and estrogen receptor-mediated mechanisms of testosterone action in male rat pelvic autonomic ganglia. Neuroscience. 2007;148:92-104 pubmed
    ..The effects of androgens on axonal growth are likely to be at least partly mediated by estrogenic mechanisms, which may be important for understanding disease-, aging- and injury-induced plasticity in this part of the nervous system. ..
  3. Morin X, Cremer H, Hirsch M, Kapur R, Goridis C, Brunet J. Defects in sensory and autonomic ganglia and absence of locus coeruleus in mice deficient for the homeobox gene Phox2a. Neuron. 1997;18:411-23 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Phox2a appears to regulate conventional differentiation traits and the ability of neurons to respond to essential survival factors. ..
  4. Papka R, Mowa C. Estrogen receptors in the spinal cord, sensory ganglia, and pelvic autonomic ganglia. Int Rev Cytol. 2003;231:91-127 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on estrogen receptors in sensory, autonomic, and spinal cord neurons in locales that are associated with innervation of female reproductive organs. ..
  5. Pauza D, Skripkiene G, Skripka V, Pauziene N, Stropus R. Morphological study of neurons in the nerve plexus on heart base of rats and guinea pigs. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1997;62:1-12 pubmed
    ..The obtained data have shown that the neurons in the NPCH of the rats and guinea pigs are morphologically different, and therefore it is proposed that the function of the neurons in the diverse groups may also be different...
  6. Yamada M, Hayashi S, Tsuji S, Takahashi H. Involvement of the cerebral cortex and autonomic ganglia in Machado-Joseph disease. Acta Neuropathol. 2001;101:140-4 pubmed
    ..a wide range of central and peripheral nervous system regions, including the cerebral cortex, thalamus and autonomic ganglia that have been categorized previously as spared regions by conventional pathological studies...
  7. Palmieri G, Cappai M, Costa G, Bo Minelli L, Botti M, Desantis S, et al. Sensitive innervation of the copulatory organ in Struthio camelus: comparison to the corresponding district in female proctodeum. Ital J Anat Embryol. 2006;111:31-44 pubmed
    ..The occurrence of genital corpuscles seemed to be exclusive in the ventral part of female ostrich proctodeum, corresponding to the male site in which lies the copulatory organ. ..
  8. Rochford J, Henry J. Cardioacceleration provoked by intrathecal administration of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP): mediation by a non-central nervous system mechanism. Neuropeptides. 1989;14:243-52 pubmed
    ..v. administration, is not reversed by blockade of nicotinic transmission of autonomic ganglia or by bilateral vagotomy, and is not blocked by lidocaine suggest that VIP's tachycardic effect does not ..
  9. Kondo T, Inoue H, Usui T, Mimori T, Tomimoto H, Vernino S, et al. Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy with Sjögren's syndrome: significance of ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibody and therapeutic approach. Auton Neurosci. 2009;146:33-5 pubmed publisher
    ..ganglionopathy (AAG) is a disorder defined by antibodies to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of the autonomic ganglia. We report two patients with chronically progressing dysautonomia with Sjögren's syndrome (SS)...

More Information


  1. Akazawa C, Nakamura Y, Sango K, Horie H, Kohsaka S. Distribution of the galectin-1 mRNA in the rat nervous system: its transient upregulation in rat facial motor neurons after facial nerve axotomy. Neuroscience. 2004;125:171-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that galectin-1 may play roles in the early event of the nerve injury and regeneration through the transient change of its expression level. ..
  2. Junquera C, Martinez Ciriano C, Castiella T, Aisa J, Blasco J, Peg M, et al. Intrinsic innervation of a reptilian esophagus (Podarcis hispanica). Neurochem Res. 1998;23:493-504 pubmed
    ..Electron microscopy shows the enteric neuronal ultrastructure and its relationship with the esophagus wall. ..
  3. Hellstrom P, Soder O, Theodorsson E. Occurrence, release, and effects of multiple tachykinins in cat colonic tissues and nerves. Gastroenterology. 1991;100:431-40 pubmed
    ..05) but unchanged after treatment with hexamethonium. Our findings indicate that tachykinins are released from the pelvic nerve to induce a nonadrenergic noncholinergic contraction and vasodilatation of the colon in the cat. ..
  4. McKeon A, Lennon V, LaChance D, Fealey R, Pittock S. Ganglionic acetylcholine receptor autoantibody: oncological, neurological, and serological accompaniments. Arch Neurol. 2009;66:735-41 pubmed publisher
    ..8% were seropositive. Only 1 of 212 control patients without cancer (0.5%) was seropositive (P < .001). The detection of alpha3-AChR autoantibody aids the diagnosis of neurological autoimmunity and cancer. ..
  5. Carod Artal F. Infectious diseases causing autonomic dysfunction. Clin Auton Res. 2018;28:67-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Varicella zoster reactivation from autonomic ganglia may be involved in visceral disease and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction...
  6. Amiot A, Joly F, Messing B, Sokol H, Lavergne Slove A, Delattre J, et al. [Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and anti-Hu syndrome: 13 years of follow-up without neoplasia]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2008;32:51-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, the association of CIPO and the anti-Hu antibody has been described without associated neoplasia. We report a case of an association of CIPO and anti-Hu antibody without cancer after 13 years of follow-up. ..
  7. Burnstock G. Physiology and pathophysiology of purinergic neurotransmission. Physiol Rev. 2007;87:659-797 pubmed
    ..Finally, the pathophysiology of purinergic neurotransmission in both peripheral and central nervous systems is reviewed, and speculations are made about future developments. ..
  8. Higashio T, Tsuji Y, Nakao K, Sakaguchi S, Tanaka M. Hemodynamic effects of cadralazine in hexamethonium treated and non-treated anesthetized dogs. Arzneimittelforschung. 1988;38:350-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore the tachycardiac response is assumed to be caused by baroreceptor reflex and compensates the decrease in vascular resistance which results in moderation of manifestation of the early stage hypotensive effect of cadralazine. ..
  9. Czaja K, Lakomy M, Kaleczyc J, Barb C, Rampacek G, Kraeling R. Leptin receptors, NPY, and tyrosine hydroxylase in autonomic neurons supplying fat depots in a pig. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;293:1138-44 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that, in addition to neuroendocrine functions, leptin may affect peripheral tissues by acting on receptors located in sympathetic ganglion neurons. ..
  10. Pattyn A, Morin X, Cremer H, Goridis C, Brunet J. The homeobox gene Phox2b is essential for the development of autonomic neural crest derivatives. Nature. 1999;399:366-70 pubmed
    ..Here we show that all autonomic ganglia fail to form properly and degenerate in mice lacking the homeodomain transcription factor Phox2b, as do the ..
  11. Antia C, Persad L, Alikhan A. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus with associated vasculopathy causing stroke. Dermatol Online J. 2017;23: pubmed
    ..causes varicella (chickenpox); later the virus becomes dormant in the dorsal root, cranial nerve, and autonomic ganglia along the entire span of the nervous system, retaining the capacity to reactivate and cause a variety of ..
  12. Meier Ruge W, Brunner L. Morphometric assessment of Hirschsprung's disease: associated hypoganglionosis of the colonic myenteric plexus. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2001;4:53-61 pubmed
    ..5%. The decrease in ganglion area and in the number of nerve cells per mm colon in the myenteric plexus proved to be the most characteristic parameters of a hypoganglionosis. ..
  13. Scornik F, Desai M, Brugada R, Guerchicoff A, Pollevick G, Antzelevitch C, et al. Functional expression of "cardiac-type" Nav1.5 sodium channel in canine intracardiac ganglia. Heart Rhythm. 2006;3:842-50 pubmed
    ..5 channels. These findings open an exciting new door to our understanding of autonomically modulated arrhythmogenic diseases linked to mutations in Na(v)1.5 channels, including Brugada syndrome and LQT3. ..
  14. Smirnov V, Sveshnikov D, Lychkova A, Maysnikov I, Kuchuk A, Ivanchenko L, et al. [SEROTONERGIC REGULATION OF THE DUODENUM CONTRACTIONS]. Eksp Klin Gastroenterol. 2015;:55-60 pubmed
    ..The trimeperedin inhibit the serotonin receptors of autonomic ganglia neurons stimulatory activity during the nerve stimulation...
  15. Lennon V, Ermilov L, Szurszewski J, Vernino S. Immunization with neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor induces neurological autoimmune disease. J Clin Invest. 2003;111:907-13 pubmed
  16. Kotecha N, Neild T. Vasodilatation and smooth muscle membrane potential changes in arterioles from the guinea-pig small intestine. J Physiol. 1995;482 ( Pt 3):661-7 pubmed
    ..When the non-cholinergic dilatation occurred without a hyperpolarization we conclude that it was due to vasoactive intestinal peptide; otherwise it may have been due to either galanin or dynorphin. ..
  17. Kapur R. Neuropathology of paediatric chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and related animal models. J Pathol. 2001;194:277-88 pubmed
    ..Information gleaned from studies of these animals is likely to change diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to paediatric CIP and related conditions. ..
  18. Macedo P, Kapa S, Mears J, Fratianni A, Asirvatham S. Correlative anatomy for the electrophysiologist: ablation for atrial fibrillation. Part II: regional anatomy of the atria and relevance to damage of adjacent structures during AF ablation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2010;21:829-36 pubmed publisher
    ..procedures are varied and include the pulmonary veins, other thoracic veins, the left atrial myocardium, and autonomic ganglia. Exact regional anatomic knowledge of these structures is essential to allow correlation with fluoroscopy ..
  19. Zhang H, Cuevas J. Sigma receptors inhibit high-voltage-activated calcium channels in rat sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2002;87:2867-79 pubmed
    ..Activation of sigma receptors on sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons is likely to modulate cell-to-cell signaling in autonomic ganglia and thus the regulation of cardiac function by the peripheral nervous system.
  20. Baker S, Morillo C, Vernino S. Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy with late-onset encephalopathy. Auton Neurosci. 2009;146:29-32 pubmed publisher
    ..It is tempting to speculate that CNS alpha4 or alpha7 antibodies may have precipitated the treatment-responsive encephalopathy...
  21. Sone J, Hishikawa N, Koike H, Hattori N, Hirayama M, Nagamatsu M, et al. Neuronal intranuclear hyaline inclusion disease showing motor-sensory and autonomic neuropathy. Neurology. 2005;65:1538-43 pubmed
    ..Intranuclear hyaline inclusions in Schwann cells and in the myenteric plexus may permit antemortem diagnosis of NIHID. ..
  22. Her W, Fu Y, Liu T, Liu K. Morphological study of cultured cardiac ganglionic neurons from different postnatal stages of rats. Auton Neurosci. 2000;84:89-97 pubmed
    ..Our results show that the intracardiac neurons were still developing in their somata and the processes and that various responses to different antibodies of NF for CG neurons occurred in different postnatal stages in rats. ..
  23. Gagliardo K, de Carvalho Balieiro J, de Souza R, Ribeiro A. Postnatal-related changes in the size and total number of neurons in the caudal mesenteric ganglion of dogs: total number of neurons can be predicted from body weight and ganglion volume. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2005;286:917-29 pubmed
    ..e., if either the animal's body weight and ganglion volume or aging influence these parameters. The prediction of the total number of neurons was very close to the initially estimated values. ..
  24. Kaleczyc J, Pidsudko Z, Franke Radowiecka A, Sienkiewicz W, Majewski M, Lakomy M, et al. The distribution and chemical coding of neurons in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex supplying the normal and inflamed ileum in the pig. Pol J Vet Sci. 2004;7:199-201 pubmed
    ..However, in the inflamed group, the density of peptidergic, IPN-associated nerve fibres was higher than that found in the control group. ..
  25. Gagliardo K, Guidi W, Da Silva R, Ribeiro A. Macro and microstructural organization of the dog's caudal mesenteric ganglion complex (Canis familiaris-Linnaeus, 1758). Anat Histol Embryol. 2003;32:236-43 pubmed
    ..Further, each ganglionic unit is constituted by a cellular triad (SIF cells, PGN and glial cells), which is the cytological basis for each ganglionic unit. ..
  26. Brand P, Metting P, Britton S. Support of arterial blood pressure by major pressor systems in conscious dogs. Am J Physiol. 1988;255:H483-91 pubmed
    ..Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was monitored, and the dogs were given hexamethonium to block autonomic ganglia. Thirty minutes later, they were given captopril, and after another 30 min, a vasopressin V1 antagonist, d(..
  27. Kato R, Kiryu Seo S, Sato Y, Hisasue S, Tsukamoto T, Kiyama H. Cavernous nerve injury elicits GAP-43 mRNA expression but not regeneration of injured pelvic ganglion neurons. Brain Res. 2003;986:166-73 pubmed
  28. Whyte K, Hogg R, Dyavanapalli J, Harper A, Adams D. Reactive oxygen species modulate neuronal excitability in rat intrinsic cardiac ganglia. Auton Neurosci. 2009;150:45-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This affects action potential duration and therefore probably modifies autonomic control of the heart during ischemia/reperfusion. ..
  29. Sann H, Hammer K, Hildesheim I, Pierau F. Neurons in the chicken ureter are innervated by substance P- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing nerve fibres: immunohistochemical and electrophysiological evidence. J Comp Neurol. 1997;380:105-18 pubmed
    ..The data support the hypothesis that SP-containing primary afferents are involved in the modulation of the activity of ureteric neurons in the chicken. ..
  30. Goehler L, Gaykema R, Opitz N, Reddaway R, Badr N, Lyte M. Activation in vagal afferents and central autonomic pathways: early responses to intestinal infection with Campylobacter jejuni. Brain Behav Immun. 2005;19:334-44 pubmed
    ..These findings provide evidence that peripheral sensory neurons contribute an early signal to the brain regarding potential pathogens. ..
  31. Hadary A, Dinai Y, Shoshany G, Cozacov J. Acute intermittent porphyria associated with hypoganglionosis in a young adult. Gut. 2006;55:581-2 pubmed
  32. Young H, Anderson R, Anderson C. Guidance cues involved in the development of the peripheral autonomic nervous system. Auton Neurosci. 2004;112:1-14 pubmed
  34. Hoover D, Tompkins J, Parsons R. Differential activation of guinea pig intrinsic cardiac neurons by the PAC1 agonists maxadilan and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 27 (PACAP27). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;331:197-203 pubmed publisher
    ..They also suggest that maxadilan and PACAP27 differ in activating PAC1 receptors on cardiac neurons and/or stimulating downstream signaling mechanisms. ..
  35. Dail W, Galindo R, Harji F, Gonzales J. Cytochrome oxidase staining in the major pelvic ganglion of the male rat. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1997;65:57-64 pubmed
    ..Cytochrome oxidase histochemistry should prove valuable in assessing the demands placed on autonomic ganglia in differing functional and dysfunctional states.
  36. Schmidt R, Beaudet L, Plurad S, Dorsey D. Axonal cytoskeletal pathology in aged and diabetic human sympathetic autonomic ganglia. Brain Res. 1997;769:375-83 pubmed
  37. Hull N, O Toole D, Miller M, Shoults H, Deck R, Jones W, et al. Canine dysautonomia in a litter of Havanese puppies. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2015;27:627-31 pubmed publisher
    ..All 5 dogs had morphological changes consistent with dysautonomia (widespread neuronal degeneration in autonomic ganglia, select brainstem nuclei, and ventral horn motor neurons)...
  38. Briani C, Doria A, Ruggero S, Toffanin E, Luca M, Albergoni M, et al. Antibodies to muscle and ganglionic acetylcholine receptors (AchR) in celiac disease. Autoimmunity. 2008;41:100-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of antibodies in CD and in SLE patients may reflect a non-specific autoimmune response in these patients or may indicate subclinical autoimmune autonomic and neuromuscular involvement. ..
  39. Hoover D. Intrinsic cardiac neurons express cardiac-type sodium channels implicated in arrhythmias. Heart Rhythm. 2006;3:851-2 pubmed
  40. Hotta Y, Benzer S. Genetic dissection of the Drosophila nervous system by means of mosaics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1970;67:1156-63 pubmed
    ..e., a mutant eye always functions abnormally, regardless of the amount of normal tissue present elsewhere, indicating that the primary causes of the behavioral deficits in these mutants are within the eye. ..
  41. Gauda E, Bamford O, Northington F. Lack of induction of substance P gene expression by hypoxia and absence of neurokinin 1-receptor mRNAs in the rat carotid body. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1998;74:100-8 pubmed
  42. Raab M, Neuhuber W. Number and distribution of intraganglionic laminar endings in the mouse esophagus as demonstrated with two different immunohistochemical markers. J Histochem Cytochem. 2005;53:1023-31 pubmed
    ..Thus, VGLUT2 and P2 x 2 represent two specific markers for qualitative demonstration of esophageal IGLEs. However, VGLUT2 may be superior to P2 x 2 as a quantitative marker for IGLEs in the esophagus of C57Bl/6 mice. ..
  43. Jobling P, Gibbins I, Morris J. Functional organization of vasodilator neurons in pelvic ganglia of female guinea pigs: comparison with uterine motor neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2003;459:223-41 pubmed
    ..Neurons producing vasodilation during reproductive activity constitute a large population of neurons in pelvic autonomic ganglia. We used intracellular recording, dye-filling and multiple-labeling immunohistochemistry to determine the ..
  44. Pokushalov E, Romanov A, Artyomenko S, Turov A, Shugayev P, Shirokova N, et al. Ganglionated plexi ablation for longstanding persistent atrial fibrillation. Europace. 2010;12:342-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Ganglionated plexi ablation in chronic AF results in long-term maintenance of sinus rhythm in 38.2% of cases. Repeat procedures with circumferential isolation of all PV offer a success rate of 59.6% over a follow-up of 16 +/- 7 months. ..
  45. Taguchi T, Masumoto K, Ieiri S, Nakatsuji T, Akiyoshi J. New classification of hypoganglionosis: congenital and acquired hypoganglionosis. J Pediatr Surg. 2006;41:2046-51 pubmed
    ..Congenital and acquired hypoganglionosis are 2 distinct entities. The histological findings as well as the clinical characteristics of these 2 types of hypoganglionosis are different. ..
  46. Xi Moy S, Randall W, Wurster R. Nicotinic and muscarinic synaptic transmission in canine intracardiac ganglion cells innervating the sinoatrial node. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1993;42:201-13 pubmed
    ..These responses were decreased in amplitude by membrane hyperpolarization and either reversed polarity or declined to zero amplitude at about -80 mV, suggesting the inhibition of a potassium conductance. ..
  47. Lipp A, Sandroni P, Ahlskog J, Fealey R, Kimpinski K, Iodice V, et al. Prospective differentiation of multiple system atrophy from Parkinson disease, with and without autonomic failure. Arch Neurol. 2009;66:742-50 pubmed publisher
  48. Salmi S, Santti R, Gustafsson J, Makela S. Co-localization of androgen receptor with estrogen receptor beta in the lower urinary tract of the male rat. J Urol. 2001;166:674-7 pubmed
    ..Cryosections of the bladder body, bladder neck, prostatic urethra, mid proximal urethra and prostatic autonomic ganglia of adult male rats were immunostained with specific estrogen receptor alpha, estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) ..
  49. Kobayashi H, Yamataka A, Lane G, Miyano T. Disseminated mixed intestinal dysmotility (DMID): a new intestinal ganglion cell disorder?. Pediatr Surg Int. 2005;21:883-8 pubmed
    ..The present findings demonstrate that patients with DMID have a complicated abnormality of NMJ that may directly influence bowel motility and prognosis according to the severity of the abnormality. ..
  50. Shoba T, Dheen S, Tay S. Retinoic acid influences the expression of the neuronal regulatory genes Mash-1 and c-ret in the developing rat heart. Neurosci Lett. 2002;318:129-32 pubmed
    ..5. The present results show that differentiation of cardiac ganglionic cells is affected after RA treatment, by the down-regulation of Mash-1 and c-Ret. ..
  51. Di Lascio S, Saba E, Belperio D, Raimondi A, Lucchetti H, Fornasari D, et al. PHOX2A and PHOX2B are differentially regulated during retinoic acid-driven differentiation of SK-N-BE(2)C neuroblastoma cell line. Exp Cell Res. 2016;342:62-71 pubmed publisher
    ..PHOX2B and its paralogue gene PHOX2A are two homeodomain proteins in the network regulating the development of autonomic ganglia that have been associated with the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma (NB), because of their over-expression in ..
  52. Papka R, Collins J, Copelin T, Wilson K. Calretinin-immunoreactive nerves in the uterus, pelvic autonomic ganglia, lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia and lumbosacral spinal cord. Cell Tissue Res. 1999;298:63-74 pubmed
    ..Though the exact function of calretinin in these nerves is not currently known, calretinin is likely to play a role in calcium regulation and their function. ..
  53. Yoshida K, Toda N. Colocalization of acetylcholinesterase and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) positive neurons in the intralingual ganglia and perivascular nerve fibers around lingual arteries in t. Neurosci Lett. 1997;222:147-50 pubmed
    ..The present study suggests the view that the three markers coexist in the axons and nerve terminals of these intralingual neurons. ..