Summary: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Top Publications

  1. Heaton D, Li D, Almond S, Dawson T, Wang L, Channon K, et al. Gene transfer of neuronal nitric oxide synthase into intracardiac Ganglia reverses vagal impairment in hypertensive rats. Hypertension. 2007;49:380-8 pubmed
    ..of impaired NO-cGMP signaling and that gene transfer of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) into cholinergic intracardiac ganglia can restore neural function...
  2. Mongardi Fantaguzzi C, Thacker M, Chiocchetti R, Furness J. Identification of neuron types in the submucosal ganglia of the mouse ileum. Cell Tissue Res. 2009;336:179-89 pubmed publisher
    ..that chemically and morphologically defined all the major neuron types with cell bodies in myenteric ganglia of the mouse small intestine was recently completed...
  3. Silkis I. A hypothetical role of cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical loops in visual processing. Biosystems. 2007;89:227-35 pubmed
    ..of the present work was to define the mechanisms underlying the contribution of sensory and limbic cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical loops to visual processing and its attentional modulation...
  4. Visser L. High-resolution sonography of the common peroneal nerve: detection of intraneural ganglia. Neurology. 2006;67:1473-5 pubmed
    ..High-resolution sonography should be considered in patients with nontraumatic peroneal palsy. ..
  5. Burns A, Delalande J. Neural crest cell origin for intrinsic ganglia of the developing chicken lung. Dev Biol. 2005;277:63-79 pubmed
    The development of intrinsic ganglia, comprised of neurons and glia cells that innervate airway smooth muscle, is a recognized component of the growing lung. However, the embryological origin of these neurons and glia is unclear...
  6. Molnar L, Pollak E, Boros A, Shioda S, Nakajo S, Tamas A, et al. PAC1 receptor localization in a model nervous system: light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry on the earthworm ventral nerve cord ganglia. Regul Pept. 2008;145:96-104 pubmed
    ..were identified by means of pre- and post-embedding immunocytochemical methods in the ventral nerve cord ganglia (VNC) of the earthworm Eisenia fetida...
  7. Spinner R, Hébert Blouin M, Maniker A, Amrami K. Clock face model applied to tibial intraneural ganglia in the popliteal fossa. Skeletal Radiol. 2009;38:691-6 pubmed publisher
    Tibial intraneural ganglia occurring in the popliteal fossa are often misdiagnosed because of their relative rarity. Their joint connection is typically not recognized and therefore not treated, leading to recurrence...
  8. D Este L, Casini A, Kimura S, Bellier J, Ito E, Kimura H, et al. Immunohistochemical demonstration of cholinergic structures in central ganglia of the slug (Limax maximus, Limax valentianus). Neurochem Int. 2011;58:605-11 pubmed publisher
    ..medium-sized, were found in various brain regions in the buccal, cerebral, pleural, parietal, visceral and pedal ganglia. cChAT immunoreactive nerve fibers were distributed extensively in the neuropil, connectives and commissures of ..
  9. Richter E, Dias J, Gilbert J, Atherton S. Distribution of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella zoster virus in ganglia of the human head and neck. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:1901-6 pubmed publisher
    ..virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) and varicella zoster virus (VZV)-was determined in autonomic and sensory ganglia of the head and neck obtained from formalin-fixed human cadavers...

More Information


  1. Blentic A, Chambers D, Skinner A, Begbie J, Graham A. The formation of the cranial ganglia by placodally-derived sensory neuronal precursors. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2011;46:452-9 pubmed publisher
    The generation of the sensory ganglia involves the migration of a precursor population to the site of ganglion formation and the differentiation of sensory neurons...
  2. Thompson H, Blentic A, Watson S, Begbie J, Graham A. The formation of the superior and jugular ganglia: insights into the generation of sensory neurons by the neural crest. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:439-45 pubmed publisher
    The superior and jugular ganglia (S/JG) are the proximal ganglia of the IXth and Xth cranial nerves and the sensory neurons of these ganglia are neural crest derived...
  3. Crisp K, Mesce K. Beyond the central pattern generator: amine modulation of decision-making neural pathways descending from the brain of the medicinal leech. J Exp Biol. 2006;209:1746-56 pubmed
    ..Over time, 5-HT secretion may provide a homeostatic feedback mechanism to limit swimming activity at the level of the head brain. ..
  4. Cholewa J, Pflüger H. Descending unpaired median neurons with bilaterally symmetrical axons in the suboesophageal ganglion of Manduca sexta larvae. Zoology (Jena). 2009;112:251-62 pubmed publisher
    ..from these neurons show that in contrast to the ventral unpaired median neurons of thoracic and abdominal ganglia, they do not produce overshooting action potentials but exhibit passive soma spikes only...
  5. Barron D, Strand D, Ressler S, Dang T, Hayward S, Yang F, et al. TGF-?1 induces an age-dependent inflammation of nerve ganglia and fibroplasia in the prostate gland stroma of a novel transgenic mouse. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13751 pubmed publisher
    ..and frequency of collagenous micronodules in collapsed acini, along with an induced inflammation in nerve ganglia and small vessels...
  6. Porzionato A, Macchi V, Amagliani A, Castagliuolo I, Parenti A, De Caro R. Neurotensin receptor 1 immunoreactivity in the peripheral ganglia and carotid body. Eur J Histochem. 2009;53:135-42 pubmed
    ..through immunohistochemistry, the presence and location of neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) in the peripheral ganglia and carotid body of 16 humans and 5 rats...
  7. Hackett Jones E, Landman K, Newgreen D, Zhang D. On the role of differential adhesion in gangliogenesis in the enteric nervous system. J Theor Biol. 2011;287:148-59 pubmed publisher
    ..normal development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) is the existence of mesoscale patterned entities called ganglia. Ganglia are clusters of neurons with associated enteric neural crest (ENC) cells, which form in the ..
  8. Ou Y, Davis K, Traina Dorge V, Gray W. Simian varicella virus expresses a latency-associated transcript that is antisense to open reading frame 61 (ICP0) mRNA in neural ganglia of latently infected monkeys. J Virol. 2007;81:8149-56 pubmed
    ..After resolution of the primary disease, SVV and VZV establish latent infection of neural ganglia and may later reactivate to cause a secondary disease (herpes zoster)...
  9. Zilinski C, Shah R, Lane M, Jamrich M. Modulation of zebrafish pitx3 expression in the primordia of the pituitary, lens, olfactory epithelium and cranial ganglia by hedgehog and nodal signaling. Genesis. 2005;41:33-40 pubmed
    ..At later stages, the primordia of the anterior pituitary, the lens, the olfactory sensory epithelium, and cranial ganglia express this gene...
  10. Bar Shai A, Maayan C, Vromen A, Udassin R, Nissan A, Freund H, et al. Decreased density of ganglia and neurons in the myenteric plexus of familial dysautonomia patients. J Neurol Sci. 2004;220:89-94 pubmed
    ..Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a hereditary disease of the autonomic and sensory nervous system. A prominent manifestation of FD is gastrointestinal dyscoordination, which contributes to the morbidity and mortality in FD...
  11. Culbertson M, Lewis Z, Nechiporuk A. Chondrogenic and gliogenic subpopulations of neural crest play distinct roles during the assembly of epibranchial ganglia. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24443 pubmed publisher
    In vertebrates, the sensory neurons of the epibranchial (EB) ganglia transmit somatosensory signals from the periphery to the CNS...
  12. Morales A, Perez Alcala S, Barbas J. Dynamic Sox5 protein expression during cranial ganglia development. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2702-7 pubmed
    ..We have analysed the embryonic expression of Sox5 during chick cranial ganglia development, from the stages of ganglia condensation to those of differentiation...
  13. Shao Q, Hiragaki S, Takeda M. Co-localization and unique distributions of two clock proteins CYCLE and CLOCK in the cephalic ganglia of the ground cricket, Allonemobius allardi. Cell Tissue Res. 2008;331:435-46 pubmed
    ..The co-localization pattern suggests that the midline cells of the SOG share most of the circadian-related immunoreactivities, thus constituting the heart of the circadian clock in A. allardi. ..
  14. Dyavanapalli J, Rimmer K, Harper A. The action of high K+ and aglycaemia on the electrical properties and synaptic transmission in rat intracardiac ganglion neurones in vitro. Exp Physiol. 2009;94:201-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that the presynaptic terminal is the primary target of high extracellular potassium and that aglycaemia may have protective actions against this challenge. ..
  15. Kestler C, Neuhuber W, Raab M. Distribution of P2X(3) receptor immunoreactivity in myenteric ganglia of the mouse esophagus. Histochem Cell Biol. 2009;131:13-27 pubmed publisher the rat, where only a few P2X(3)-ir perikarya were described, P2X(3) stained perikarya in ~80% of myenteric ganglia in the mouse...
  16. Ouwendijk W, Abendroth A, Traina Dorge V, Getu S, Steain M, Wellish M, et al. T-cell infiltration correlates with CXCL10 expression in ganglia of cynomolgus macaques with reactivated simian varicella virus. J Virol. 2013;87:2979-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Ganglia of monkeys with reactivated simian varicella virus (SVV) contained more CD8 than CD4 T cells around neurons...
  17. Holzschuh J, Wada N, Wada C, Schaffer A, Javidan Y, Tallafuss A, et al. Requirements for endoderm and BMP signaling in sensory neurogenesis in zebrafish. Development. 2005;132:3731-42 pubmed
    ..from neurogenic placodes (epibranchial and dorsolateral), which are ectodermal thickenings that form the sensory ganglia associated with cranial nerves, but the molecular mechanisms of placodal development are unclear...
  18. Wilson A, Shen Y, Babb Clendenon S, Rostedt J, Liu B, Barald K, et al. Cadherin-4 plays a role in the development of zebrafish cranial ganglia and lateral line system. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:893-902 pubmed
    ..also called R-cadherin) was expressed by the majority of the developing zebrafish cranial and lateral line ganglia. Cadherin-4 (Cdh4) function in the formation of these structures in zebrafish was studied using morpholino ..
  19. Katayama K, Zine A, Ota M, Matsumoto Y, Inoue T, Fritzsch B, et al. Disorganized innervation and neuronal loss in the inner ear of Slitrk6-deficient mice. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7786 pubmed publisher
    ..These defects were accompanied by the loss of neurons in the spiral and vestibular ganglia. Cochlear sensory epithelia from Slitrk6-knockout mice have reduced ability in promoting neurite outgrowth of ..
  20. Kennedy P, Grinfeld E, Traina Dorge V, Gilden D, Mahalingam R. Neuronal localization of simian varicella virus DNA in ganglia of naturally infected African green monkeys. Virus Genes. 2004;28:273-6 pubmed
    In situ hybridization analysis of monkey ganglia 2 months after natural infection with simian varicella virus (SVV) revealed SVV DNA only in neurons...
  21. Walters L, Cantrell V, Weller K, Mosher J, Southard Smith E. Genetic background impacts developmental potential of enteric neural crest-derived progenitors in the Sox10Dom model of Hirschsprung disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:4353-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo imaging of fetal ENPs and postnatal ganglia demonstrates that altered lineage divergence impacts ganglia in the proximal intestine...
  22. Gowrishankar K, Steain M, Cunningham A, Rodriguez M, Blumbergs P, Slobedman B, et al. Characterization of the host immune response in human Ganglia after herpes zoster. J Virol. 2010;84:8861-70 pubmed publisher
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chicken pox) and establishes latency in ganglia, from where it reactivates to cause herpes zoster (shingles), which is often followed by postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), causing severe ..
  23. Fragkouli A, van Wijk N, Lopes R, Kessaris N, Pachnis V. LIM homeodomain transcription factor-dependent specification of bipotential MGE progenitors into cholinergic and GABAergic striatal interneurons. Development. 2009;136:3841-51 pubmed publisher
    ..of voluntary motor activity depends on the generation of the appropriate neuronal subtypes in the basal ganglia and their integration into functional neuronal circuits...
  24. Mahalingam R, Traina Dorge V, Wellish M, deHaro E, Golive A, Messaoudi I, et al. Effect of time delay after necropsy on analysis of simian varicella-zoster virus expression in latently infected ganglia of rhesus macaques. J Virol. 2010;84:12454-7 pubmed publisher
    Studies of varicella-zoster virus gene expression during latency require the acquisition of human ganglia at autopsy. Concerns have been raised that the virus might reactivate immediately after death...
  25. Mayer G, Martin C, Rüdiger J, Kauschke S, Stevenson P, Poprawa I, et al. Selective neuronal staining in tardigrades and onychophorans provides insights into the evolution of segmental ganglia in panarthropods. BMC Evol Biol. 2013;13:230 pubmed publisher
    ..Depending on the hypothesis favoured, segmental ganglia in tardigrades and arthropods might either have evolved independently, or they might well be homologous, ..
  26. Coppola E, Rallu M, Richard J, Dufour S, Riethmacher D, Guillemot F, et al. Epibranchial ganglia orchestrate the development of the cranial neurogenic crest. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2066-71 pubmed publisher epibranchial placode--that we show to develop largely independently from the neural crest--guide the directional outgrowth of hindbrain visceral motoneurons and control the formation of neural crest-derived parasympathetic ganglia.
  27. Bianchi L, Daruwalla Z, Roth T, Attia N, Lukacs N, Richards A, et al. Immortalized mouse inner ear cell lines demonstrate a role for chemokines in promoting the growth of developing statoacoustic ganglion neurons. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2005;6:355-67 pubmed
    ..The use of the Immortomouse cell lines proved valuable in identifying this candidate cofactor that promotes outgrowth of early-stage SAG nerve fibers and is expressed in embryonic hair cells. ..
  28. Gowrishankar K, Slobedman B, Cunningham A, Miranda Saksena M, Boadle R, Abendroth A. Productive varicella-zoster virus infection of cultured intact human ganglia. J Virol. 2007;81:6752-6 pubmed
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a species-specific herpesvirus which infects sensory ganglia. We have developed a model of infection of human intact explant dorsal root ganglia (DRG)...
  29. Takahashi M, Osumi N. Identification of a novel type II classical cadherin: rat cadherin19 is expressed in the cranial ganglia and Schwann cell precursors during development. Dev Dyn. 2005;232:200-8 pubmed
    ..revealed that rat cad19 mRNA was initially expressed in cephalic neural crest cells, and then in the cranial ganglia, migrating trunk neural crest cells, the nascent dorsal root ganglia, and the sympathetic ganglia...
  30. Ippolito C, Segnani C, De Giorgio R, Blandizzi C, Mattii L, Castagna M, et al. Quantitative evaluation of myenteric ganglion cells in normal human left colon: implications for histopathological analysis. Cell Tissue Res. 2009;336:191-201 pubmed publisher
  31. Simonetti M, Fabbro A, D Arco M, Zweyer M, Nistri A, Giniatullin R, et al. Comparison of P2X and TRPV1 receptors in ganglia or primary culture of trigeminal neurons and their modulation by NGF or serotonin. Mol Pain. 2006;2:11 pubmed
    ..The characteristics of such receptors after short-term culture were compared with those of ganglia. Furthermore, their modulation by chronically-applied serotonin or NGF was investigated...
  32. Mahalingam R, Traina Dorge V, Wellish M, Lorino R, Sanford R, Ribka E, et al. Simian varicella virus reactivation in cynomolgus monkeys. Virology. 2007;368:50-9 pubmed
    ..Virus reactivation was confirmed not only by the occurrence of zoster in one monkey, but also by the presence of late SVV RNA in ganglia, and the detection of SVV DNA in non-ganglionic tissue, and SVV antigens in skin, ganglia and lung.
  33. Martin Zanca D, Barbacid M, Parada L. Expression of the trk proto-oncogene is restricted to the sensory cranial and spinal ganglia of neural crest origin in mouse development. Genes Dev. 1990;4:683-94 pubmed
    ..transcription, with expression confined to the sensory cranial (trigeminal, superior, jugular) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of neural crest origin...
  34. Webster W. Embryogenesis of the enteric ganglia in normal mice and in mice that develop congenital aganglionic megacolon. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1973;30:573-85 pubmed
  35. Tollet J, Everett A, Sparrow M. Spatial and temporal distribution of nerves, ganglia, and smooth muscle during the early pseudoglandular stage of fetal mouse lung development. Dev Dyn. 2001;221:48-60 pubmed
    ..To investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of nerves, ganglia, and airway smooth muscle during the early pseudoglandular stage, fetal mouse lungs at embryonic days (E) 11 to ..
  36. Konrad K, Marsh J. Developmental expression and spatial distribution of dopa decarboxylase in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1987;122:172-85 pubmed
    ..Paired and unpaired midline neurons in the ventral ganglia are arranged in a segmental pattern...
  37. Waizenegger M. Intraosseous ganglia of carpal bones. J Hand Surg Br. 1993;18:350-5 pubmed
    25 patients with 26 intraosseous ganglia in carpal bones are described, 14 in the scaphoid and 12 in the lunate. In most cases, attention was drawn to the lesion when X-rays were performed after a recent injury to the wrist...
  38. Cymbalyuk G, Gaudry Q, Masino M, Calabrese R. Bursting in leech heart interneurons: cell-autonomous and network-based mechanisms. J Neurosci. 2002;22:10580-92 pubmed
    ..Endogenous bursting, in turn, ensures appropriate bursting if the strength of mutual inhibition is weakened and limits the minimum period of the half-center oscillator to a period near that of the single neuron. ..
  39. Thoby Brisson M, Simmers J. Long-term neuromodulatory regulation of a motor pattern-generating network: maintenance of synaptic efficacy and oscillatory properties. J Neurophysiol. 2002;88:2942-53 pubmed
    ..stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the spiny lobster requires permissive neuromodulatory inputs from other central ganglia. When these inputs to the STG are suppressed by cutting the single, mainly afferent stomatogastric nerve (stn), ..
  40. Wendling O, Dennefeld C, Chambon P, Mark M. Retinoid signaling is essential for patterning the endoderm of the third and fourth pharyngeal arches. Development. 2000;127:1553-62 pubmed
    ..Our study also indicates that the formation of the 2nd pharyngeal arch and that of the 3rd and 4th pharyngeal arches probably involve distinct RA-dependent developmental processes. ..
  41. Andermann P, Ungos J, Raible D. Neurogenin1 defines zebrafish cranial sensory ganglia precursors. Dev Biol. 2002;251:45-58 pubmed
    Cells delaminate from epithelial placodes to form sensory ganglia in the vertebrate head. We describe the formation of cranial neurogenic placodes in the zebrafish, Danio rerio, using bHLH transcription factors as molecular markers...
  42. Mahalingam R, Wellish M, Soike K, White T, Kleinschmidt DeMasters B, Gilden D. Simian varicella virus infects ganglia before rash in experimentally infected monkeys. Virology. 2001;279:339-42 pubmed
    ..SVV DNA was detected in ganglia from four of five monkeys sacrificed 6 to 7 days after intratracheal inoculation...
  43. Wichterle H, Turnbull D, Nery S, Fishell G, Alvarez Buylla A. In utero fate mapping reveals distinct migratory pathways and fates of neurons born in the mammalian basal forebrain. Development. 2001;128:3759-71 pubmed
  44. Haspel G, Libersat F. Wasp venom blocks central cholinergic synapses to induce transient paralysis in cockroach prey. J Neurobiol. 2003;54:628-37 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the transient paralytic effect of the thoracic sting can be mainly accounted for by the presence of a venom active component that induces a postsynaptic block of central cholinergic synaptic transmission. ..
  45. Suto F, Murakami Y, Nakamura F, Goshima Y, Fujisawa H. Identification and characterization of a novel mouse plexin, plexin-A4. Mech Dev. 2003;120:385-96 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that plexin-A4 plays a role in the propagation of Sema3A activities. ..
  46. Spinner R, Atkinson J, Scheithauer B, Rock M, Birch R, Kim T, et al. Peroneal intraneural ganglia: the importance of the articular branch. Clinical series. J Neurosurg. 2003;99:319-29 pubmed
    The peroneal nerve is the most common site of intraneural ganglia. The neurological deficit associated with these cysts is often severe and the operation to eradicate them is difficult The aims of this multicenter study were to collate ..
  47. Murakami Y, Suto F, Shimizu M, Shinoda T, Kameyama T, Fujisawa H. Differential expression of plexin-A subfamily members in the mouse nervous system. Dev Dyn. 2001;220:246-58 pubmed
  48. Balemba O, Hay Schmidt A, Assey R, Kahwa C, Semuguruka W, Dantzer V. An immunohistochemical study of the organization of ganglia and nerve fibres in the mucosa of the porcine intestine. Anat Histol Embryol. 2002;31:237-46 pubmed
    ..The mucous plexus of both large and small intestine contained ganglia and isolated neurons...
  49. Tempesta M, Pratelli A, Greco G, Martella V, Buonavoglia C. Detection of caprine herpesvirus 1 in sacral ganglia of latently infected goats by PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:1598-9 pubmed
    ..PCR and virus isolation allowed us to detect CpHV.1 only in the third and fourth sacral ganglia of the two animals euthanized 6 days after the start of treatment.
  50. White F, Keller Peck C, Knudson C, Korsmeyer S, Snider W. Widespread elimination of naturally occurring neuronal death in Bax-deficient mice. J Neurosci. 1998;18:1428-39 pubmed
    ..5 (E11.5) and postnatal day 1 (PN1) in most peripheral ganglia, in motor pools in the spinal cord, and in the trigeminal brainstem nuclear complex...
  51. Ross W, Graubard K. Spatially and temporally resolved calcium concentration changes in oscillating neurons of crab stomatogastric ganglion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:1679-83 pubmed
  52. Salama N, Tamura M, Tsuruo Y, Ishimura K, Kagawa S. Brain nitric oxides synthase in major pelvic ganglia of aged (LETO) and diabetic (OLETF) rats. Arch Androl. 2002;48:379-87 pubmed
    ..the effects of aging and diabetes mellitus (DM) on brain nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) expression in major pelvic ganglia (MPG) of rats...
  53. Chen J, Li Z, Pan H, Murphy D, Tamir H, Koepsell H, et al. Maintenance of serotonin in the intestinal mucosa and ganglia of mice that lack the high-affinity serotonin transporter: Abnormal intestinal motility and the expression of cation transporters. J Neurosci. 2001;21:6348-61 pubmed
    ..The watery diarrhea is probably attributable to the potentiation of serotonergic signaling in SERT -/- mice, whereas the transient constipation may be caused by episodes of enhanced 5-HT release leading to 5-HT receptor desensitization. ..
  54. Guillemot F, Lo L, Johnson J, Auerbach A, Anderson D, Joyner A. Mammalian achaete-scute homolog 1 is required for the early development of olfactory and autonomic neurons. Cell. 1993;75:463-76 pubmed
    ..cord of the mutants appear normal, but their olfactory epithelium and sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric ganglia are severely affected...
  55. Edwards J, Swales L, Bate M. The differentiation between neuroglia and connective tissue sheath in insect ganglia revisited: the neural lamella and perineurial sheath cells are absent in a mesodermless mutant of Drosophila. J Comp Neurol. 1993;333:301-8 pubmed
    ..We propose that the cell mass is permeable to lanthanum ions and fails to form a blood-brain barrier because volume growth prevents the formation of continuous surface cell layers. ..
  56. Chou Y, Mori N, Canning B. Opposing effects of bronchopulmonary C-fiber subtypes on cough in guinea pigs. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2018;314:R489-R498 pubmed publisher
    ..Selective activation of the pulmonary C fibers arising from the nodose ganglia with either aerosols or continuous intravenous infusion of adenosine or the 5-HT3 receptor-selective ..
  57. Yalcin A, Ceylan M, Bayraktutan O, Sonkaya A, Yuce I. Age and gender related prevalence of intracranial calcifications in CT imaging; data from 12,000 healthy subjects. J Chem Neuroanat. 2016;78:20-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined the prevalence of choroid plexus, pineal gland, habenula, dura mater, basal ganglia and vascular calcifications. Of 11,941 subjects, 70.2% had choroid plexus calcifications...
  58. Arena J, Stoessl A. Optimizing diagnosis in Parkinson's disease: Radionuclide imaging. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2016;22 Suppl 1:S47-51 pubmed publisher
    Parkinson's disease (PD) and other disorders characterized by basal ganglia dysfunction are often associated with limited structural imaging changes that might assist in the clinical or research setting...
  59. Rossi M, Li H, Lu D, Kim I, Bartholomew R, Gaidis E, et al. A GABAergic nigrotectal pathway for coordination of drinking behavior. Nat Neurosci. 2016;19:742-748 pubmed publisher
    The contribution of basal ganglia outputs to consummatory behavior remains poorly understood. We recorded from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR), the major basal ganglia output nucleus, during self-initiated drinking in mice...
  60. Rajendiran S, Vasudevan S. Localization and identification of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone producing neurosecretory cells in the eyestalk of blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus. Microsc Res Tech. 2016;79:1024-1030 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemical studies showed the presence of distinct CHH-like immunoreactivity in the optic ganglia. Divergent group of neurosecretory cells with varying degree of immunoreactivity with Anti-Carcinus maenas-CHH (..
  61. Li L, Tao Y, Tang J, Chen Q, Yang Y, Feng Z, et al. A Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Agonist Prevents Thrombin-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Damage via the Inhibition of Microglial Activation and Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Rats. Transl Stroke Res. 2015;6:467-77 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 144 Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats received a thrombin (20 U) injection in the right basal ganglia. JWH-133 (1.5 mg/kg) or SR-144528 (3.0 mg/kg) and vehicle were intraperitoneally (i.p...
  62. Miyamoto S, Nakamura J, Ohtori S, Orita S, Nakajima T, Omae T, et al. Pain-related behavior and the characteristics of dorsal-root ganglia in a rat model of hip osteoarthritis induced by mono-iodoacetate. J Orthop Res. 2017;35:1424-1430 pubmed publisher
    ..2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1424-1430, 2017...
  63. Vink M, de Leeuw M, Luykx J, van Eijk K, van den Munkhof H, van Buuren M, et al. DRD2 Schizophrenia-Risk Allele Is Associated With Impaired Striatal Functioning in Unaffected Siblings of Schizophrenia Patients. Schizophr Bull. 2016;42:843-50 pubmed publisher in silico experiment showed that rs2514218 has a cis expression quantitative trait locus effect in the basal ganglia. To date, however, the functional consequence of this SNP is unknown...
  64. Poliani P, Mitola S, Ravanini M, Ferrari Toninelli G, D Ippolito C, Notarangelo L, et al. CEACAM1/VEGF cross-talk during neuroblastic tumour differentiation. J Pathol. 2007;211:541-9 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, in poorly differentiated/undifferentiated lesions, VEGF-sustained angiogenesis does not reproduce physiological steps, but rather is associated with tumour aggressiveness and may involve other molecular pathways. ..