neuromyelitis optica

Summary

Summary: A syndrome characterized by acute OPTIC NEURITIS; MYELITIS, TRANSVERSE; demyelinating and/or necrotizing lesions in the OPTIC NERVES and SPINAL CORD; and presence of specific autoantibodies to AQUAPORIN 4.

Top Publications

  1. Lindsey J, Meulmester K, Brod S, Nelson F, Wolinsky J. Variable results after rituximab in neuromyelitis optica. J Neurol Sci. 2012;317:103-5 pubmed publisher
    Our objective was to assess the efficacy of rituximab (RTX) in neuromyelitis optica (NMO). We conducted a retrospective review of cases personally treated by the authors...
  2. Sotirchos E, Saidha S, Byraiah G, Mealy M, Ibrahim M, Sepah Y, et al. In vivo identification of morphologic retinal abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica. Neurology. 2013;80:1406-14 pubmed publisher
    To assess eyes with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) for morphologic retinal abnormalities utilizing high-definition optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging.
  3. Pichiecchio A, Tavazzi E, Poloni G, Ponzio M, Palesi F, Pasin M, et al. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging of neuromyelitis optica: a multiparametric approach. Mult Scler. 2012;18:817-24 pubmed publisher
    ..authors have used advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to investigate whether patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) have occult damage in normal-appearing brain tissue, similarly to multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  4. Bichuetti D, de Camargo A, Falcão A, Gonçalves F, Tavares I, de Oliveira E. The retinal nerve fiber layer of patients with neuromyelitis optica and chronic relapsing optic neuritis is more severely damaged than patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neuroophthalmol. 2013;33:220-4 pubmed publisher
    To compare the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in eyes of patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuritis (CRION).
  5. Chan K, Tse C, Chung C, Lee R, Kwan J, Ho P, et al. Brain involvement in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Arch Neurol. 2011;68:1432-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) are severe inflammatory demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system. Brain involvement is increasingly recognized.
  6. Gelfand J, Cree B, Nolan R, Arnow S, Green A. Microcystic inner nuclear layer abnormalities and neuromyelitis optica. JAMA Neurol. 2013;70:629-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Acute optic neuritis is a cardinal manifestation of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). To our knowledge, microcystic inner nuclear layer abnormalities have not been investigated in NMO.
  7. Lu Z, Zhang B, Qiu W, Kang Z, Shen L, Long Y, et al. Comparative brain stem lesions on MRI of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica, and multiple sclerosis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22766 pubmed publisher
    Brain stem lesions are common in patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and multiple sclerosis (MS).
  8. Zhang H, Verkman A. Eosinophil pathogenicity mechanisms and therapeutics in neuromyelitis optica. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:2306-16 pubmed publisher
    Eosinophils are abundant in inflammatory demyelinating lesions in neuromyelitis optica (NMO)...
  9. Chanson J, Paolini I, Collongues N, Alcaro M, Blanc F, Barbetti F, et al. Evaluation of new immunological targets in neuromyelitis optica. J Pept Sci. 2013;19:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In neuromyelitis optica (NMO), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies are currently the ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Tradtrantip L, Asavapanumas N, Verkman A. Therapeutic cleavage of anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody in neuromyelitis optica by an IgG-selective proteinase. Mol Pharmacol. 2013;83:1268-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by binding of pathogenic IgG autoantibodies (NMO-IgG) to astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4)...
  2. Misu T, Hoftberger R, Fujihara K, Wimmer I, Takai Y, Nishiyama S, et al. Presence of six different lesion types suggests diverse mechanisms of tissue injury in neuromyelitis optica. Acta Neuropathol. 2013;125:815-27 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disease targeting aquaporin 4 (AQP4), localized mainly at the astrocytic foot processes...
  3. Varrin Doyer M, Spencer C, Schulze Topphoff U, Nelson P, Stroud R, Cree B, et al. Aquaporin 4-specific T cells in neuromyelitis optica exhibit a Th17 bias and recognize Clostridium ABC transporter. Ann Neurol. 2012;72:53-64 pubmed publisher
    Aquaporin 4 (AQP4)-specific autoantibodies in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are immunoglobulin (Ig)G1, a T cell-dependent Ig subclass, indicating that AQP4-specific T cells participate in NMO pathogenesis...
  4. Barnett M, Sutton I. Neuromyelitis optica: not a multiple sclerosis variant. Curr Opin Neurol. 2012;25:215-20 pubmed publisher
    The discovery of neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-immunoglobulin (Ig)G and its target antigen aquaporin 4 (AQP4) redefined NMO, historically considered a multiple sclerosis (MS) variant, as a specific disease entity...
  5. Levin M, Bennett J, Verkman A. Optic neuritis in neuromyelitis optica. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2013;36:159-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease associated with recurrent episodes of optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, often resulting in permanent blindness and/or paralysis...
  6. Pittock S, Lennon V, McKeon A, Mandrekar J, Weinshenker B, Lucchinetti C, et al. Eculizumab in AQP4-IgG-positive relapsing neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: an open-label pilot study. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12:554-62 pubmed publisher
    ..to aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is thought to be a major determinant of CNS inflammation and astrocytic injury in neuromyelitis optica. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of eculizumab--a therapeutic monoclonal IgG that ..
  7. Matsushita T, Tateishi T, Isobe N, Yonekawa T, Yamasaki R, Matsuse D, et al. Characteristic cerebrospinal fluid cytokine/chemokine profiles in neuromyelitis optica, relapsing remitting or primary progressive multiple sclerosis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61835 pubmed publisher
    Differences in cytokine/chemokine profiles among patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and primary progressive MS (PPMS), and the relationships of these profiles with clinical and ..
  8. Ratelade J, Zhang H, Saadoun S, Bennett J, Papadopoulos M, Verkman A. Neuromyelitis optica IgG and natural killer cells produce NMO lesions in mice without myelin loss. Acta Neuropathol. 2012;123:861-72 pubmed publisher
    The pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) involves targeting of NMO-immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG) to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) on astrocytes in the central nervous system...
  9. Suzuki A, Yokoo H, Kakita A, Takahashi H, Harigaya Y, Ikota H, et al. Phagocytized corpora amylacea as a histological hallmark of astrocytic injury in neuromyelitis optica. Neuropathology. 2012;32:587-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating and necrotizing disorder of the CNS that mainly affects the optic nerve and spinal cord...
  10. Herges K, de Jong B, Kolkowitz I, Dunn C, Mandelbaum G, Ko R, et al. Protective effect of an elastase inhibitor in a neuromyelitis optica-like disease driven by a peptide of myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein. Mult Scler. 2012;18:398-408 pubmed publisher
    The pathology of neuromyelitis optica (NMO), in contrast to multiple sclerosis, comprises granulocyte infiltrates along extensive lengths of spinal cord, as well as optic nerve. Furthermore, IFN-? treatment worsens NMO...
  11. Levy M, Wildemann B, Jarius S, Orellano B, Sasidharan S, Weber M, et al. Immunopathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica. Adv Immunol. 2014;121:213-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica (NMO, Devic's syndrome) is a clinical syndrome characterized by optic neuritis and (mostly longitudinally extensive) myelitis...
  12. Hinson S, Romero M, Popescu B, Lucchinetti C, Fryer J, Wolburg H, et al. Molecular outcomes of neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-IgG binding to aquaporin-4 in astrocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1245-50 pubmed publisher
    ..central nervous system disorders of varying severity that is unified by detection of the serum biomarker neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-IgG. Neuromyelitis optica is the most severe of these disorders...
  13. Tradtrantip L, Zhang H, Anderson M, Saadoun S, Phuan P, Papadopoulos M, et al. Small-molecule inhibitors of NMO-IgG binding to aquaporin-4 reduce astrocyte cytotoxicity in neuromyelitis optica. FASEB J. 2012;26:2197-208 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of spinal cord and optic nerve caused by pathogenic autoantibodies (NMO-IgG) against astrocyte aquaporin-4 (AQP4)...
  14. Kieseier B, Stuve O, Dehmel T, Goebels N, Leussink V, Mausberg A, et al. Disease amelioration with tocilizumab in a treatment-resistant patient with neuromyelitis optica: implication for cellular immune responses. JAMA Neurol. 2013;70:390-3 pubmed
    b>Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in which aberrant antibody responses to the astrocytic water channel aquaporin 4 have been described...
  15. Mitsdoerffer M, Kuchroo V, Korn T. Immunology of neuromyelitis optica: a T cell-B cell collaboration. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013;1283:57-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a debilitating autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that is distinct from multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  16. Wingerchuk D, Weinshenker B. The emerging relationship between neuromyelitis optica and systemic rheumatologic autoimmune disease. Mult Scler. 2012;18:5-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are associated with autoantibodies that target aquaporin-4 and, in many cases, multiple other autoantibodies, including antinuclear antibody and antibodies to extractable ..
  17. Scott T, Frohman E, de Seze J, Gronseth G, Weinshenker B. Evidence-based guideline: clinical evaluation and treatment of transverse myelitis: report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2011;77:2128-34 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the evidence for diagnostic tests and therapies for transverse myelitis (TM) and make evidence-based recommendations...
  18. Matsushita T, Masaki K, Suzuki S, Matsuoka T, Yonekawa T, Wu X, et al. [Astrocytopathy in neuromyelitis optica, multiple sclerosis and Baló's disease]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2011;51:898-900 pubmed
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) while neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory disease of the CNS that selectively affects the optic nerves and spinal cord...
  19. Melamud L, Fernandez J, Rivarola V, Di Giusto G, Ford P, Villa A, et al. Neuromyelitis Optica Immunoglobulin G present in sera from neuromyelitis optica patients affects aquaporin-4 expression and water permeability of the astrocyte plasma membrane. J Neurosci Res. 2012;90:1240-8 pubmed publisher
    ..most abundant water channel in the central nervous system and is now considered a useful serum biomarker of neuromyelitis optica (NMO)...
  20. Yamasaki M, Matsumoto K, Takahashi Y, Nakanishi H, Kawai Y, Miyamura M. [Case of NMO (neuromyelitis optica) spectum disorder triggered by interferon alpha, which involved extensive pyramidal tract lesion of the brain]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2012;52:19-24 pubmed
    ..Brain T(2)W-MRI disclosed hyperintense lesions in the corpus callosum and white matter. We diagnosed neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) on the basis of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody seropositivity...
  21. Niino M, Uesugi H, Takahashi T, Fukazawa T, Minami N, Tashiro J, et al. Recurrent brainstem lesions mimicking infarctions in an elderly patient with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Intern Med. 2012;51:809-12 pubmed
    Anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody is highly specific for neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and NMO spectrum disorder...
  22. Yaguchi H, Sakushima K, Takahashi I, Nishimura H, Yashima Yamada M, Nakamura M, et al. Efficacy of intravenous cyclophosphamide therapy for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Intern Med. 2013;52:969-72 pubmed
    b>Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory disease that affects the optic nerve and spinal cord...
  23. Long Y, Qiu W, Lu Z, Bao J, Wu A, Wang Y, et al. Aquaporin 4 antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid are helpful in diagnosing Chinese patients with neuromyelitis optica. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2012;19:96-102 pubmed publisher
    ..It was the aim of this study to compare the diagnostic efficiency of anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibody detection between serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples in Chinese patients with central nervous system demyelinating diseases...
  24. Papadopoulos M, Verkman A. Aquaporin 4 and neuromyelitis optica. Lancet Neurol. 2012;11:535-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the CNS...
  25. Magraner M, Coret F, Casanova B. The effect of intravenous immunoglobulin on neuromyelitis optica. Neurologia. 2013;28:65-72 pubmed publisher
    Evaluate safety and tolerance levels for intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) as treatment for neuromyelitis optica (NMO).
  26. Jarius S, Wildemann B. The history of neuromyelitis optica. J Neuroinflammation. 2013;10:8 pubmed publisher
    ..serum autoantibody (termed NMO-IgG or AQP4-Ab) in a subset of patients in 2004 has revived interest in neuromyelitis optica (NMO)...
  27. Tomizawa Y, Yokoyama K, Saiki S, Takahashi T, Matsuoka J, Hattori N. Blood-brain barrier disruption is more severe in neuromyelitis optica than in multiple sclerosis and correlates with clinical disability. J Int Med Res. 2012;40:1483-91 pubmed
    ..evaluated blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, using blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers, and assessed the practicality of these markers in the differential diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS).
  28. Jiao Y, Fryer J, Lennon V, Jenkins S, Quek A, Smith C, et al. Updated estimate of AQP4-IgG serostatus and disability outcome in neuromyelitis optica. Neurology. 2013;81:1197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..G (IgG) detection rate in sequential sera of patients assigned a clinical diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) but initially scored negative by tissue-based indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay; and 2) ..
  29. Barnett M, Prineas J, Buckland M, Parratt J, Pollard J. Massive astrocyte destruction in neuromyelitis optica despite natalizumab therapy. Mult Scler. 2012;18:108-12 pubmed publisher
    Auto-antibody mediated astrocyte injury is implicated as a primary event in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) by biomarker, post-mortem and experimental studies that differentiate the condition from multiple sclerosis...
  30. Matiello M, Schaefer Klein J, Hebrink D, Kingsbury D, Atkinson E, Weinshenker B. Genetic analysis of aquaporin-4 in neuromyelitis optica. Neurology. 2011;77:1149-55 pubmed publisher
    Autoantibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are specific and pathogenic for neuromyelitis optica (NMO)...
  31. Jarius S, Wildemann B. 'Noteomielite' accompanied by acute amaurosis (1844). An early case of neuromyelitis optica. J Neurol Sci. 2012;313:182-4 pubmed publisher
    So far, only very little is known about the early history of neuromyelitis optica (Devic's syndrome)...
  32. Kanamori Y, Nakashima I, Takai Y, Nishiyama S, Kuroda H, Takahashi T, et al. Pain in neuromyelitis optica and its effect on quality of life: a cross-sectional study. Neurology. 2011;77:652-8 pubmed publisher
    To assess the features of pain and its impact on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in neuromyelitis optica (NMO).
  33. Linhares U, Schiavoni P, Barros P, Kasahara T, Teixeira B, Ferreira T, et al. The ex vivo production of IL-6 and IL-21 by CD4+ T cells is directly associated with neurological disability in neuromyelitis optica patients. J Clin Immunol. 2013;33:179-89 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), also known as Devic's disease, is an autoimmune, inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) in which the immune system attacks myelin of the neurons located at the optic nerves and spinal cord, ..
  34. Kitley J, Woodhall M, Waters P, Leite M, Devenney E, Craig J, et al. Myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in adults with a neuromyelitis optica phenotype. Neurology. 2012;79:1273-7 pubmed publisher
    To report an association of myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies with aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-seronegative neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in adults.
  35. Zatjirua V, Butler J, Carr J, Henning F. Neuromyelitis optica and pulmonary tuberculosis: a case-control study. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011;15:1675-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), or Devic's disease, is a rare acute inflammatory disease characterised by demyelination affecting the spinal cord and optic nerves...
  36. Monteiro M, Fernandes D, Apóstolos Pereira S, Callegaro D. Quantification of retinal neural loss in patients with neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis with or without optic neuritis using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:3959-66 pubmed publisher
    ..nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular thickness measurements in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) with or without a history of optic neuritis, and in controls using Fourier-domain (FD) optical ..
  37. Ratelade J, Smith A, Verkman A. Human immunoglobulin G reduces the pathogenicity of aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in neuromyelitis optica. Exp Neurol. 2014;255:145-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) pathogenesis involves binding of anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibodies (NMO-IgG) present in serum to AQP4 on astrocytes, which causes complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cellular ..
  38. Kim S, Kim J, Heo Y, Yang H, Park K. Cortical oscillopsia without nystagmus, an isolated symptom of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with anti-aquaporin 4 antibody. Mult Scler. 2012;18:244-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), mainly affecting optic nerve and spinal cord, can also manifest diverse ocular symptoms due to brain abnormalities...
  39. Rostasy K, Mader S, Hennes E, Schanda K, Gredler V, Guenther A, et al. Persisting myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in aquaporin-4 antibody negative pediatric neuromyelitis optica. Mult Scler. 2013;19:1052-9 pubmed publisher
    Recently we showed that antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) can be found in aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-immunoglobulin (IgG) seronegative pediatric and adult patients with definite and high-risk neuromyelitis optica (NMO).
  40. Wang H, Wang K, Wang C, Zhong X, Qiu W, Hu X. Increased plasma levels of pentraxin 3 in patients with multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. Mult Scler. 2013;19:926-31 pubmed publisher
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are immune-mediated inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system...
  41. Kang E, Min J, Lee K, Kim B. Clinical usefulness of cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assay for the detection of aquaporin-4 antibodies in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Ann Lab Med. 2012;32:331-8 pubmed publisher
    The presence of antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has been identified as a key characteristic of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system (CNS) disorder...
  42. Zhang H, Bennett J, Verkman A. Ex vivo spinal cord slice model of neuromyelitis optica reveals novel immunopathogenic mechanisms. Ann Neurol. 2011;70:943-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a neuroinflammatory disease of spinal cord and optic nerve associated with serum autoantibodies (NMO-immunoglobulin G [IgG]) against astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4)...
  43. Matthews L, Marasco R, Jenkinson M, Küker W, Luppe S, Leite M, et al. Distinction of seropositive NMO spectrum disorder and MS brain lesion distribution. Neurology. 2013;80:1330-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorder (NMOSD) can present similarly to relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS)...
  44. Saji E, Arakawa M, Yanagawa K, Toyoshima Y, Yokoseki A, Okamoto K, et al. Cognitive impairment and cortical degeneration in neuromyelitis optica. Ann Neurol. 2013;73:65-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOsd) is an inflammatory and demyelinating syndrome characterized by optic neuritis and myelitis...
  45. Ayzenberg I, Kleiter I, Schröder A, Hellwig K, Chan A, Yamamura T, et al. Interleukin 6 receptor blockade in patients with neuromyelitis optica nonresponsive to anti-CD20 therapy. JAMA Neurol. 2013;70:394-7 pubmed publisher
    To report first experiences with interleukin 6 receptor inhibition in therapy-resistant neuromyelitis optica (NMO).
  46. Kitada M, Suzuki H, Ichihashi J, Inada R, Miyamoto K, Takahashi T, et al. Acute combined central and peripheral demyelination showing anti-aquaporin 4 antibody positivity. Intern Med. 2012;51:2443-7 pubmed
    b>Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is characterized by optic neuritis or transverse myelitis with anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibodies (1)...
  47. Jarius S, Franciotta D, Paul F, Bergamaschi R, Rommer P, Ruprecht K, et al. Testing for antibodies to human aquaporin-4 by ELISA: sensitivity, specificity, and direct comparison with immunohistochemistry. J Neurol Sci. 2012;320:32-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, many of these assays require sophisticated techniques and are thus only available at specialized laboratories. This is problematic since NMO-IgG/AQP4-Ab testing has important prognostic and therapeutic implications...
  48. Morrow M, Wingerchuk D. Neuromyelitis optica. J Neuroophthalmol. 2012;32:154-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a disabling inflammatory condition that targets astrocytes in the optic nerves and spinal cord...
  49. Min J, Kim B, Lee K. Development of extensive brain lesions following fingolimod (FTY720) treatment in a patient with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Mult Scler. 2012;18:113-5 pubmed publisher
    ..sclerosis, but after encephalopathy anti-aquaporin4 antibody (anti-AQP4 Ab) was detected, it was changed to neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. After treatment with fingolimod, he developed bilateral extensive brain lesions...
  50. Jarius S, Wandinger K, Borowski K, Stoecker W, Wildemann B. Antibodies to CV2/CRMP5 in neuromyelitis optica-like disease: case report and review of the literature. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2012;114:331-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4 (termed NMO-IgG or AQP4-Ab) in 60-90% of cases. Little is known about the aetiology of NMO in NMO-IgG/AQP4-Ab negative patients...
  51. Kira J. Autoimmunity in neuromyelitis optica and opticospinal multiple sclerosis: astrocytopathy as a common denominator in demyelinating disorders. J Neurol Sci. 2011;311:69-77 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) selectively affects the optic nerves and spinal cord...
  52. Kitley J, Leite M, Nakashima I, Waters P, McNeillis B, Brown R, et al. Prognostic factors and disease course in aquaporin-4 antibody-positive patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder from the United Kingdom and Japan. Brain. 2012;135:1834-49 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders have been recently associated with the disease-specific autoantibody aquaporin-4, thought to be pathogenic...
  53. Feng X, Reder N, Yanamandala M, Hill A, Franek B, Niewold T, et al. Type I interferon signature is high in lupus and neuromyelitis optica but low in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 2012;313:48-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is characterized by selective inflammation of the spinal cord and optic nerves but is distinct from multiple sclerosis (MS)...