optic nerve diseases


Summary: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.

Top Publications

  1. De Moraes C, Liebmann J, Ritch R, Hood D. Understanding disparities among diagnostic technologies in glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;130:833-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate causes of disagreement among 3 glaucoma diagnostic techniques: standard automated achromatic perimetry (SAP), the multifocal visual evoked potential technique (mfVEP), and optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
  2. Sigal I, Grimm J, Jan N, Reid K, Minckler D, Brown D. Eye-specific IOP-induced displacements and deformations of human lamina cribrosa. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:1-15 pubmed publisher
    ..To measure high-resolution eye-specific displacements and deformations induced within the human LC microstructure by an acute increase in IOP...
  3. Reis A, O Leary N, Stanfield M, Shuba L, Nicolela M, Chauhan B. Laminar displacement and prelaminar tissue thickness change after glaucoma surgery imaged with optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:5819-26 pubmed publisher
    ..01) and deeper ALS (P = 0.04); however, PTT was not associated with any of the tested independent variables. Both anterior LD and thickening of prelaminar tissue occur after surgical IOP reduction in patients with glaucoma. ..
  4. Medeiros F, Lisboa R, Weinreb R, Girkin C, Liebmann J, Zangwill L. A combined index of structure and function for staging glaucomatous damage. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;130:1107-16 pubmed
    ..An index combining structure and function performed better than isolated structural and functional measures for detection of perimetric and preperimetric glaucoma as well as for discriminating different stages of the disease. ..
  5. Lee E, Kim T, Weinreb R, Kim H. Reversal of lamina cribrosa displacement after intraocular pressure reduction in open-angle glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:553-559 pubmed publisher
    ..02). Reversal of the LC displacement was observed after IOP-lowering treatment in OAG. The degree of LC displacement reversal was related to the amount of IOP lowering. ..
  6. Na J, Sung K, Lee J, Lee K, Baek S, Kim H, et al. Detection of glaucomatous progression by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:1388-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any of the materials discussed in this article. ..
  7. Hood D, Slobodnick A, Raza A, De Moraes C, Teng C, Ritch R. Early glaucoma involves both deep local, and shallow widespread, retinal nerve fiber damage of the macular region. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:632-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Optical coherence tomography scans of the circumpapillary RNFL and the macular RGC+ layer can aid in the identification of these defects and help in the interpretation of 24-2 and 10-2 VF tests. ..
  8. You J, Park S, Su D, Teng C, Liebmann J, Ritch R. Focal lamina cribrosa defects associated with glaucomatous rim thinning and acquired pits. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013;131:314-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Focal LC defects (laminar holes or disinsertions) are associated with neuroretinal rim loss and APON. The extent of LC defects can be visualized more effectively on EDI-OCT images than by clinical examination. ..
  9. Lisboa R, Paranhos A, Weinreb R, Zangwill L, Leite M, Medeiros F. Comparison of different spectral domain OCT scanning protocols for diagnosing preperimetric glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:3417-25 pubmed publisher
    ..89 vs. 0.79; P = 0.015). SDOCT RNFL measurements performed better than ONH and macular measurements for detecting preperimetric glaucomatous damage in a cohort of glaucoma suspects. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00221897.). ..

More Information


  1. Park S, Hsu A, Su D, Simonson J, Al Jumayli M, Liu Y, et al. Factors associated with focal lamina cribrosa defects in glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:8401-7 pubmed publisher
    ..2%). Disc hemorrhage, a diagnosis of NTG, and more advanced glaucoma status are associated with focal LC defects. Future studies are needed to elucidate the cause-and-effect relationships between focal LC defects and these factors. ..
  2. He L, Yang H, Gardiner S, Williams G, Hardin C, Strouthidis N, et al. Longitudinal detection of optic nerve head changes by spectral domain optical coherence tomography in early experimental glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:574-86 pubmed publisher
  3. Kim S, Sung K, Lee J, Lee K. Evaluation of lamina cribrosa in pseudoexfoliation syndrome using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography enhanced depth imaging. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:1798-803 pubmed publisher
    ..223 and P = 0.079, respectively). Eyes with PXG demonstrate a thinner LC compared with POAG eyes at similar levels of glaucoma severity. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. ..
  4. Wang B, Nevins J, Nadler Z, Wollstein G, Ishikawa H, Bilonick R, et al. In vivo lamina cribrosa micro-architecture in healthy and glaucomatous eyes as assessed by optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:8270-4 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Glaucomatous micro-architecture changes in the LC, detected by OCT analysis, reflect beams remodeling and axonal loss leading to reduction in pore size and increased pore size variability. ..
  5. Gonçalves A, Silva L, Gebrim E, Matayoshi S, Monteiro M. Predicting dysthyroid optic neuropathy using computed tomography volumetric analyses of orbital structures. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2012;67:891-6 pubmed
    ..14. This study found that the orbital volumetric crowding index was a more effective predictor of dysthyroid optic neuropathy than previously described computed tomography indexes were. ..
  6. Wong J, Chen T, Shen L, Pasquale L. Macular imaging for glaucoma using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a review. Semin Ophthalmol. 2012;27:160-6 pubmed publisher
  7. Knight O, Chang R, Feuer W, Budenz D. Comparison of retinal nerve fiber layer measurements using time domain and spectral domain optical coherent tomography. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:1271-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This difference must be taken into account if comparing Stratus measurements with Cirrus measurements. ..
  8. Leung C, Yu M, Weinreb R, Ye C, Liu S, Lai G, et al. Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a prospective analysis of age-related loss. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:731-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate age-related changes of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) imaged by a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
  9. Lee E, Kim T, Weinreb R, Park K, Kim S, Kim D. Visualization of the lamina cribrosa using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;152:87-95.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..This technique should facilitate the investigation on the lamina cribrosa in glaucoma, and may provide additional insight into the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. ..
  10. Huang X, Kong W, Zhou Y, Gregori G. Distortion of axonal cytoskeleton: an early sign of glaucomatous damage. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:2879-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Glaucoma causes alteration of the cytoskeleton in the RNFL. F-actin is the most sensitive component in its response to stress on the retina. An increase in the number of nuclei in the RNFL may be an early sign of glaucomatous damage. ..
  11. Sung K, Kim D, Park S, Kook M. Comparison of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by Cirrus HD and Stratus optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:1264-70, 1270.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall sensitivity and specificity were higher with Cirrus OCT. These findings are particularly relevant when an individual undergoes longitudinal follow-up with different OCTs. ..
  12. Park S, Sung K, Kang S, Kim K, Kook M. Comparison of glaucoma diagnostic Capabilities of Cirrus HD and Stratus optical coherence tomography. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:1603-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that spectral-domain technology of OCT may offer an improved capability of early-stage glaucoma detection. ..
  13. Racette L, Chiou C, Hao J, Bowd C, Goldbaum M, Zangwill L, et al. Combining functional and structural tests improves the diagnostic accuracy of relevance vector machine classifiers. J Glaucoma. 2010;19:167-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research may identify other combinations of tests and classifiers that can also improve diagnostic accuracy. ..
  14. Teng C, De Moraes C, Prata T, Tello C, Ritch R, Liebmann J. Beta-Zone parapapillary atrophy and the velocity of glaucoma progression. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:909-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Thinner CCT (<525 microm) had a weak but significant correlation with presence of beta-zone PPA (kappa = 0.13). Eyes with beta-zone PPA are at increased risk for glaucoma progression and warrant close clinical surveillance. ..
  15. O Leary N, Crabb D, Mansberger S, Fortune B, Twa M, Lloyd M, et al. Glaucomatous progression in series of stereoscopic photographs and Heidelberg retina tomograph images. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:560-8 pubmed publisher
    ..62 for SIM, and 0.66 for RALR. Statistical methods for detecting structural changes in HRT images exhibit only moderate agreement with each other and have poor agreement with expert-assessed change in optic disc stereophotographs. ..
  16. Bengtsson B, Andersson S, Heijl A. Performance of time-domain and spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography for glaucoma screening. Acta Ophthalmol. 2012;90:310-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Stratus, with high specificity and positive predictive values, seemed to be best of choice for screening purposes, while Cirrus, with high sensitivity, was the better choice for early detection. ..
  17. Sigal I, Ethier C. Biomechanics of the optic nerve head. Exp Eye Res. 2009;88:799-807 pubmed publisher
    ..Further modeling, suitably informed by experiments, is needed to better understand lamina cribrosa biomechanics and how they may be involved in glaucomatous optic neuropathy. ..
  18. Jonas J, Jonas S, Jonas R, Holbach L, Panda Jonas S. Histology of the parapapillary region in high myopia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;152:1021-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine histomorphometrically the parapapillary region in highly myopic eyes...
  19. Selhorst J, Chen Y. The optic nerve. Semin Neurol. 2009;29:29-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The chief means of confirming the diagnosis, often neuroimaging, are given, and common treatment modalities are provided. ..
  20. Vessani R, Moritz R, Batis L, Zagui R, Bernardoni S, Susanna R. Comparison of quantitative imaging devices and subjective optic nerve head assessment by general ophthalmologists to differentiate normal from glaucomatous eyes. J Glaucoma. 2009;18:253-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Objective RNFL measurements may provide improvement in glaucoma detection when combined with subjective assessment of the optic disc by general ophthalmologists or by a glaucoma expert. ..
  21. Strouthidis N, Fortune B, Yang H, Sigal I, Burgoyne C. Longitudinal change detected by spectral domain optical coherence tomography in the optic nerve head and peripapillary retina in experimental glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:1206-19 pubmed publisher
    ..These parameters represent realistic targets for SDOCT detection of glaucomatous progression in human subjects. ..
  22. Sehi M, Grewal D, Sheets C, Greenfield D. Diagnostic ability of Fourier-domain vs time-domain optical coherence tomography for glaucoma detection. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009;148:597-605 pubmed publisher
    ..79; inferior, 0.95). Cross-sectional peripapillary RNFL thickness measurements obtained using FD-OCT generated with the RTVue are greater than those obtained with TD-OCT and have similar diagnostic performance for glaucoma detection. ..
  23. Quigley H, Cone F, Gelman S, Yang Z, Son J, Oglesby E, et al. Lack of neuroprotection against experimental glaucoma in c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 knockout mice. Exp Eye Res. 2011;92:299-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Counts of RGC layer cells and optic nerve axons indicate that Jnk3(-/-) mice have an increased number of amacrine cells compared to WT controls. ..
  24. Mwanza J, Durbin M, Budenz D, Sayyad F, Chang R, Neelakantan A, et al. Glaucoma diagnostic accuracy of ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness: comparison with nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:1151-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. ..
  25. Huang P, Qi Y, Xu Y, Liu J, Liao D, Zhang S, et al. Serum cytokine alteration is associated with optic neuropathy in human primary open angle glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2010;19:324-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study is to compare human serum levels of TH1 and TH2 cytokines between 2 stages of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and nonglaucomatous controls...
  26. Xin D, Talamini C, Raza A, De Moraes C, Greenstein V, Liebmann J, et al. Hypodense regions (holes) in the retinal nerve fiber layer in frequency-domain OCT scans of glaucoma patients and suspects. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:7180-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To better understand hypodense regions (holes) that appear in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) of frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (fdOCT) scans of patients with glaucoma and glaucoma suspects...
  27. Demizu Y, Murakami M, Miyawaki D, Niwa Y, Akagi T, Sasaki R, et al. Analysis of Vision loss caused by radiation-induced optic neuropathy after particle therapy for head-and-neck and skull-base tumors adjacent to optic nerves. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;75:1487-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus correlated with the occurrence of VL. A larger study with longer follow-up is warranted. ..
  28. Ratchford J, Quigg M, Conger A, Frohman T, Frohman E, Balcer L, et al. Optical coherence tomography helps differentiate neuromyelitis optica and MS optic neuropathies. Neurology. 2009;73:302-8 pubmed publisher
    ..OCT may be a useful tool for the evaluation of patients with NMO. ..
  29. Strouthidis N, Fortune B, Yang H, Sigal I, Burgoyne C. Effect of acute intraocular pressure elevation on the monkey optic nerve head as detected by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:9431-7 pubmed publisher
    ..SD-OCT compliance testing will further our understanding of the effects of IOP on the ONH and help improve and validate numerical models of ONH biomechanics. ..
  30. Jeoung J, Park K. Comparison of Cirrus OCT and Stratus OCT on the ability to detect localized retinal nerve fiber layer defects in preperimetric glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:938-45 pubmed publisher
    ..After comparison with their normative databases, Cirrus OCT had generally higher sensitivities; however, this was largely at the cost of lower specificities than Stratus OCT. ..
  31. Chong G, Lee R. Glaucoma versus red disease: imaging and glaucoma diagnosis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2012;23:79-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Ophthalmic imaging is an important adjunct to clinical diagnosis but the results from imaging devices need to be assessed critically relative to artifacts of imaging and the limitations of the technology and its normative databases. ..
  32. Phillips Y, Eggenberger E. Neuro-ophthalmic sarcoidosis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2010;21:423-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In recent years, progress has been made in identifying new biomarkers and developing imaging techniques. Although corticosteroids remain the mainstay of therapy, many new pharmacological agents have been added to the treatment arsenal. ..
  33. Lee E, Kim T, Weinreb R. Reversal of lamina cribrosa displacement and thickness after trabeculectomy in glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:1359-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The amount of reduction in the LC displacement was associated with younger age, larger baseline LC displacement, and greater IOP reduction. ..
  34. Lagreze W. [Treatment of optic neuropathies--state of the art]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2009;226:875-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Optic nerve diseases have various causes and are together with macular degeneration the most common causes of severe irreversible visual dysfunction...
  35. Ghazi N, Tilton E, Patel B, Knape R, Newman S. Comparison of macular optical coherence tomography findings between postacute retinal artery occlusion and nonacute optic neuropathy. Retina. 2010;30:578-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to report differentiating optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings between postacute retinal arterial occlusion (PARAO) and nonacute optic neuropathy (NAON)...
  36. Bull N, Johnson T, Welsapar G, Dekorver N, Tomarev S, Martin K. Use of an adult rat retinal explant model for screening of potential retinal ganglion cell neuroprotective therapies. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:3309-20 pubmed publisher
  37. Ryu S, Jeong H, Choi M, Karbowski M, Choi C. Optic atrophy 3 as a protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane induces mitochondrial fragmentation. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:2839-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results indicate that OPA3, as an integral MOM protein, has a crucial role in mitochondrial fission, and provides a direct link between mitochondrial morphology and optic atrophy. ..
  38. Sung K, Sun J, Na J, Lee J, Lee Y. Progression detection capability of macular thickness in advanced glaucomatous eyes. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:308-13 pubmed publisher
    ..22±4.33 and -5.12±2.40 ?m/year, respectively; P = 0.039). Exploration of changes over time in macular thickness may improve detection of progression in patients with advanced glaucoma. ..
  39. Mwanza J, Oakley J, Budenz D, Anderson D. Ability of cirrus HD-OCT optic nerve head parameters to discriminate normal from glaucomatous eyes. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:241-8.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..There is no difference in the ability of ONH parameters and RNFL thickness measurement, as measured with Cirrus OCT, to distinguish between normal and glaucomatous eyes. ..
  40. Sung K, Na J, Lee Y. Glaucoma diagnostic capabilities of optic nerve head parameters as determined by Cirrus HD optical coherence tomography. J Glaucoma. 2012;21:498-504 pubmed publisher
    ..RNFLT was better than any tested ONH parameter when used for glaucoma discrimination, especially in patients with early-stage glaucoma and in glaucomatous patients with small optic discs. ..
  41. Li G, Fansi A, Boivin J, Joseph L, Harasymowycz P. Screening for glaucoma in high-risk populations using optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:453-61 pubmed publisher
    ..08). When adequate quality scans may be obtained, the Stratus has moderate sensitivity and high specificity for definitive glaucoma. Specificity is increased when parameters from both the optic nerve head and RNFL scans are combined. ..
  42. Kiumehr S, Park S, Syril D, Teng C, Tello C, Liebmann J, et al. In vivo evaluation of focal lamina cribrosa defects in glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;130:552-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanisms of LC deformation in glaucoma include focal loss of laminar beams, which may cause an acquired pit of the optic nerve in extreme cases.Focal LC defects occur in tandem with neuroretinal rim and visual field loss. ..
  43. Cook C, Cockburn N, van der Merwe J, Ehrlich R. Cataract and glaucoma case detection for Vision 2020 programs in Africa: an evaluation of 6 possible screening tests. J Glaucoma. 2009;18:557-62 pubmed publisher
    ..7 for the vertical cup:disk ratio combined with testing for an afferent pupil defect has similar values for case detection of glaucoma. These tests may be suitable for use in Vision 2020 programs in Africa. ..
  44. Menon V, Jain D, Saxena R, Sood R. Prospective evaluation of visual function for early detection of ethambutol toxicity. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:1251-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to evaluate various visual parameters for early detection of ethambutol toxicity...
  45. Leung C, Cheung C, Weinreb R, Qiu Q, Liu S, Li H, et al. Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a variability and diagnostic performance study. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:1257-63, 1263.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The poor agreement was likely related to the different inherent characteristics of the 2 OCT systems. ..
  46. De Moraes C, Juthani V, Liebmann J, Teng C, Tello C, Susanna R, et al. Risk factors for visual field progression in treated glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129:562-8 pubmed publisher
    ..38; P < .01) were associated with VF progression. IOP-dependent and IOP-independent risk factors affect disease progression in treated glaucoma. Peak IOP is a better predictor of progression than is IOP mean or fluctuation. ..
  47. Leung C, Chiu V, Weinreb R, Liu S, Ye C, Yu M, et al. Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer progression in glaucoma: a comparison between spectral-domain and time-domain optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:1558-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of reduced measurement variability, the Cirrus HD-OCT could detect changes in RNFL thickness sooner than the Stratus OCT. Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. ..
  48. Kong G, Van Bergen N, Trounce I, Crowston J. Mitochondrial dysfunction and glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2009;18:93-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Eliciting the role of mitochondria in glaucoma pathogenesis may uncover novel therapeutic targets for protecting the optic nerve and preventing vision loss in glaucoma...
  49. Erb C. [Functional disorders in the chronological progression of glaucoma]. Ophthalmologe. 2015;112:402-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, increasing awareness of these visual difficulties is necessary in the special care of patients with glaucoma and the domestic environment should be transformed accordingly. ..
  50. Alsuhaibani A, Al Thubaiti G, Al Badr F. Optic nerve thickening and infarction as the first evidence of orbital involvement with mucormycosis. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2012;19:340-2 pubmed publisher
    ..A few days later, the patient developed necrosis in the region of the right medial canthus and nasal mucosa. Tissue biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of mucormycosis. ..
  51. Yan J, Li Y, Chen Q, Ye X, Li J. Rare orbital cystic lesions in children. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2015;43:238-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides common dermoid/epidermoid cyst, rare orbital cystic lesions such as cystic teratoma, congenital cystic eye, optic nerve sheath cyst, parasitic cyst, and meningoencephalocele should be considered in children. ..
  52. Nakano N, Hangai M, Noma H, Nukada M, Mori S, Morooka S, et al. Macular imaging in highly myopic eyes with and without glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013;156:511-523.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Glaucoma diagnostic performance of the macular ganglion cell complex may be less affected by axial length compared with that of circumpapillary RNFL. ..
  53. Leung C. Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging for Glaucoma - Today and Tomorrow. Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila). 2016;5:11-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It is expected that new imaging technologies will improve the detection and risk assessment of angle-closure and open-angle glaucomas. ..